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C.  E.   BUCK.LAND,  CLE. 

(Indian   Civil  Ser'vice^  retired). 







There  are  Biographical  Dictionaries  which  contain  lives  of  Indian  celebri- 
ties, and  there  are  many  biographies  of  individuals  who  have  distinguished 
themselves  in  India.  But  the  Dictionaries  are  large,  expensive  works, 
and  the  separate  "  Lives  "  or  "  Memoirs  "  are  often  lengthy  or  inaccessible. 
There  is  no  single  volume  of  moderate  size,  containing  such  information 
as  is  sufficient  for  the  ordinary  reader,  regarding  the  careers  and  doings 
of  the  large  number  of  persons  connected  with  India,  in  history,  by  their 
exploits,  services,  and  writings.  The  object  of  this  "  Dictionary  of  Indian 
Biography  "  is  to  supply  this  want.  It  purports  to  be  a  handy  Work 
of  Reference,  giving  the  main  facts  of  the  lives  of  about  2,600  persons — 
English,  Indian,  Foreign,  men  or  women,  living  or  dead — who  have  been 
conspicuous  in  the  history  of  India,  or  distinguished  in  the  administra- 
tion of  the  country,  in  one  or  other  of  its  branches,  or  have  contributed 
to  its  welfare,  service,  and  advancement  by  their  studies  and  literary 
productions,  or  have  gained  some  special  notoriety.  Such  a  work 
must  be  limited  by  considerations  of  time,  space,  and  cost.  It  has 
been  thought  desirable  to  commence  the  present  volume  from  about 
1750  A.D.,  a  date  which  admits  of  the  inclusion  of  Lord  Clive  and  his 
contemporaries  in  Southern  India,  when  the  English  power  in  India 
was  being  established.  It  has  been  found  necessary  to  treat  the  lives  in 
an  indicative  rather  than  in  an  exhaustive  manner.  It  is  impossible  to 
include  everybody  who  has  been  in  India,  and  nothing  has  been  harder 
than  the  attempt  to  fix  a  standard  of  merit  to  entitle  its  possessor  to 
inclusion.  No  one  consulted  has  been  able  to  suggest  a  criterion  of  "  dis- 
tinction." The  titles  and  decorations  of  the  various  Orders  of  Knight- 
hood afford  no  certain  ground.  A  complete  and  full  Biographical  Dic- 
tionary for  India  could  only  be  undertaken,  and  might  well  be  undertaken, 
by  Government  Agency,  or  under  a  financial  guarantee  of  the  cost  of 
production.  In  all  the  difficulties  of  the  problem,  it  is  only  possible  to 
decide,  for  inclusion  or  exclusion,  upon  general  principles,  general  reputa- 
tion, or  notoriety  :  and  the  many  persons  omitted  for  want  of  space  are 
likely  to  challenge  the  conclusions  of  the  Editor.  Again,  in  such  a  work, 
unintentional  omissions  are  sure  to  occur,  in  spite  of  all  precautions,  but 
they  can  be  supplied  in  future  editions.  In  many  cases,  even  of  prominent 
names,  sufficient  biographical  information  is  not  available,  or,  at  any 
rate,  has  not  come  to  hand.  It  is  equally  impossible  to  avoid,  entirely, 
mistakes  of  dates  or  facts  :  the  sources  of  information  consulted  often 
disclose  discrepancies,  which  personal  knowledge  has  been 
able  to  determine.  Accuracy  has  been  a  main  object  in  the  compilation, 
but  the  short  lives  cannot  be  made  more  accurate  than  the  sources  of 

V  A* 


information  permit.  In  the  Addenda  will  be  found  a  few  notices  which 
were  accidentally  omitted  from  the  body  of  the  work,  or  were  obtained 
too  late  to  be  included  in  their  proper  places. 

A  copious  Bibliography  has  been  appended.  It  contains  the  names 
of  a  number  of  works  which  may  advantageously  be  consulted  by  those 
who  are  desirous  of  acquiring  a  greater  knowledge  of  the  individuals 
treated  in  the  Dictionary  of  Indian  Biography,  or  of  the  history  of  India, 
than  can  be  conveyed  in  the  brief  notices  in  the  Dictionary  itself.  It  will 
also  be  useful  to  the  general  reader  of  Indian  literature.  A  separate  list 
of  the  chief  Works  of  Reference  consulted  is  subjoined  to  this  Preface. 

The  Indian  names  of  places  have  been  spelt,  for  the  most  part,  accord- 
ing to  the  Jonesian  (or  Hunterian)  system  of  transliteration  adopted  by 
the  Government  of  India.  But  that  system  allows,  by  way  of  compromise, 
a  number  of  names,  which  have  in  times  past  been  spelt  phonetically,  to 
retain  their  popular,  though  irregular,  forms.  Opinions  differ  as  to  the 
extent  to  which  such  disregard  of  strict  transliteration  may  be  permitted. 
In  this  work,  some  of  the  familiar  words  have  been  retained,  and,  in  all 
cases,  the  attempt  has  been  made  to  adapt  the  spelling  to  the  plain  and 
simple  sound  of  a  word  :  no  dots  or  accents  have  been  used.  The  Indian 
names  of  persons  have  been  arranged  on  a  system  by  which  they  can  be 
most  easily  found.  In  many  cases,  the  territory  with  which  the  person  is 
connected  supplies  the  keyword.  In  the  case  of  Hindus,  not  designated 
territorially,  the  family  name  should  be  first  sought.  In  some  cases  (e.g. 
among  the  Parsis),  where  the  family  name  has  been  dropped,  the  name 
which  is  used  as  a  surname  is  put  first.  In  the  case  of  some  Hindus,  and 
of  Muhammadans,  who  have  no  name  common  to  all  the  members  of  a 
family,  the  arrangement  is  according  to  the  first  names  in  their  alphabetical 
order.  Some  common  names  have  been  spelt  in  the  different  ways  which 
their  owners  have  adopted  for  themselves. 

The  greater  portion  of  the  compilation,  as  well  as  the  editing,  has 
fallen  on  the  Editor.  At  the  same  time,  his  acknowledgments  are  due 
to  all  who  have  afforded  him  assistance  and  information.  He  has  specially 
to  thank  Mr.  H.  Wigram,  of  the  Madras  Civil  Service  (retired),  now  of 
Messrs.  Swan,  Sonnenschein  &  Co.,  for  his  co-operation  and  ready  counsel ; 
the  Editor  of  the  AthencBum  for  kindly  permitting  the  publication  of 
lists  of  names  in  his  Journal  :  the  officers  in  charge  of  the  India  Office 
Library,  for  their  unfailing  courtesy  and  stores  of  knowledge  put  at  his 
disposal ;  and  certain  officers  in  India  for  their  welcome  help  :  their  names 
are  not  mentioned,  lest  it  should  be  supposed  that  any  portion  of  the 
Dictionary  has  any  official  authority. 

Corrections  and  suggestions  will  be  thankfully  received. 

6i,   Cornwall   Gardens,  London,   S.W., 
November  ist,   1905. 


Account  of  the  Mutinies  in  Oudh,  An,  M.  R.  Gubbins :  1858. 

Addiscombe  :  its  Heroes  and  Men  of  Note,  Col.  H.  M.  Vibart :  1894. 

Allgemeine  Deutsche  Biographic  :  1875. 

American,  European  and  Oriental  Literary  Record,  Trlibner's :  1865-89. 

Annual  Register,  The. 

Asiatic  Annual  Register  for  the  years  1800-1811,  The  :  1801-12. 

Asiatic  Quarterly  Review,  The  :  1886-1905. 

Asiatic  Society,  Journals  of  the  Royal. 

Assam,  A  StatisticaljAccount  of,  W.j.W.  Hunter :  1879. 

Bengal  Army,  History  of  the  Rise  and  Progress  of  the,  Capt.  A.  Broome :  1850. 
Bengal  Artillery,  List  of  Oflicers  who  have  served  in  the  Regiment  of  the,  by  Maj.- 

General  F.  W.  Stubbs  :  1892. 
Memoir  of  the  Services  of  the,  Capt.  E.  Buckle  :  edited  by  J.  W.  Kaye  : 

Bengal,  A  Statistical  Account  of,  W.  W.  Hunter :  1875-7- 
Bengal  Civil  Servants,  1780-1838,  Dodwell  and  Miles  :  1839. 
Bengal  Establishment,  A  General  Register  of  the  Honourable  E.  L  Company's 

Civil    Servants  of  the,  from  1790  to  1842,  by  Ram  Chandra  Das  and  H.  T. 

Prinsep  :  1844. 
Bengal  Obituary,  The,  Holmes  &  Co. :  1848. 

Bengal  under  the  Lieutenant-Governors,  1854-98,  C.  E.  Buckland :  1901. 
Biographical  Treasury,  A,  Maunder. 
Biographic  Universelle,  Ancienne  et  Moderne  :  1811-53. 
Bombay  and  Western  India,  J.  Douglas:  1893. 
Bombay  Civil  Servants,  1798-1839,  Dodwell  and  Miles :  1839. 
Book  of  Dignities,  The,  H.  Ockerby :  1890. 
British  India  and  its  Rulers,  H.  S.  Cunningham :  1881. 
British  Indian  Military  Depositary,  The,  S.  Parlby :  1822-7. 

Calcutta  Review,  The  :  1844-1905. 

Celebrities  of  the  Century,  L.  C.  Saunders :  1887. 

Centenary  Review  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  1784-1883  :  1885. 

Chambers's  Biographical  Dictionary,  G.  D.  Patrick  and  F.  H.  Groome  -.  1897. 

Collection  of  Treaties,  Engagements,  and  Sunnuds  relating  to  India,  etc.,  A,  C.  U. 

Aitchison,  continued  by  others  :  1892. 
Comprehensive  History  of  India,  A,  H.  Beveridge  :  1858-62. 
Conversations  Lexikon,  Brockhaus :  1882. 

Meyer  :  1893. 

Cyclopaedia  of  India,  E.  Balfour .  1885. 

Decisive  Battles  of  India,  The,  G.  B.  Malleson  :  1883. 

Dictionary  of  Biography,  Lippincott :  1881. 

Dictionary  of  General  Biography,  A,  W.  L.  R.  Gates :  1881. 

Dictionary  of  National  Biography  :  1 885-1903. 

Dictionary  of  Universal  Biography,  Beeton :  1869-70. 

Dictionnaire  Universel  des  Contemporains,  G.  Vapereau :  1893. 

Dizionario  Biograflco  degli  Scrittori  Contemporanei,  A.  de  Gubernatis :  1879- 


Early  Annals  of  the  English  in  Bengal,  The,  C.  R.  Wilson :  1895,  1900. 

Early  Records  of  British  India,  J.  T.  Wheeler:  1878. 

East  India  Military  Calendar,  The,  J.  Philippart :  1823-4. 

East  Indian  Gazetteer,  The,  W.  Hamilton :  1815. 

Echoes  from  Old  Calcutta,  H.  E.  Busteed :  1897. 

Eminent  Persons,  Biographies  reprinted  from  the  "  Times,"  1870-94 :  1892-7. 

Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  The. 

Encyclopaedia  of  Missions,  The,  Dwight,  Tupper,  and  Bliss :  1904. 

Forty-one  Years  in  India,  Earl  Roberts :  1898. 

Gazetteer  of  the  Territories  under  the  Government  of  the  E.  I.  Co.,  A,  E.  Thornton  : 

General  Biographical  Dictionary,  The,  A.  Chalmers :  1812-7. 
Gentleman*s  Magazine,  The. 

Glimpses  of  Old  Bombay  and  Western  India,  J.  Douglas .  1900. 
Golden  Book  of  India,  The,  R.  Lethbridge  -.  1893. 
Government  of  India,  The,  Sir  C.  P.  Ilbert:  1898. 

Heroines  of  Ind,  M.  Dutt :  1897. 

Historical  Sketches  of  the  South  of  India,  M.  Wilks :  1810-7. 

History  of  India,  H.  G.  Keene :  1893. 

I^oper  Lethbridge  :  1881-93. 

J.  C.  Marshman  :  1867-93. 

^ James  Mill,  1817  :  ed.  by  H.  H.  Wilson  :  1858. 

History  of  India  from  the  Earliest  Ages,  The,  J.  T.  Wheeler:  1867-81. 

History  of  India  :   Hindoo  and  Mohammedan  Periods,  M.  Elphinstone  :  1841,  1889. 

History  of  the  British  Empire  in  India,  E.  Thornton :   1841-5I:  [L.  J.  iTrotter  : 

History  of  the  Indian  Mutiny,  A,  G.  W.  Forrest :  1904. 

T.  R.  E.  Holmes  .  1891. 

G.  B.  Malleson  :  1878-80. 

History  of  the  Indian  Navy,  1613-1863,  C.  R.  Low :  1877.  '  [ 

History  of  the  Madras  Army,  W.  J.  Wilson:  1882-8.  U 

History  of  the  Military  Transactions  of  the  British  Nation  in  Indostan  from  the 

year  1745,  A,  R.  Orme  :  1775-8. 
History  of  the  Sepoy  War,  J.  W.  Kaye :  1864-76. 
History  of  the  War  in  Afghanistan,  J.  W.  Kaye:  1857. 
Homeward  Mail,  The,  1857-1905- 

Imperial  Dictionary  of  Universal  Biography,  The. 

Imperial  Gazetteer  of  India,  The,  W.  W.  Hunter,  14  vols. :  1885-7. 

India  and  its  Native  Princes,  L.  Rousselet :  1878. 

India  :    its  Administration  and  Progress,  J.  Strachey :  1903. 

India  Lists,  The. 

Indian  Civil  Service  List,  The,  1880,  A.  C.  Tupp :  1880. 

Indian  Directory  :  Thacker  &  Co. 

Indian  Empire  :    its  People,  History  and  Products,  The,  W.  W.  Hunter :  1893. 

Indian  Polity,  G.  T.  Chesney  :  1868:  1894. 

India  Office  Lists,  The. 

India  on  the  Eve  of  the  British  Conquest :   a  Historical  Sketch,  S.  Owen :  1872. 

India's  Princes,  M.  Griffiths :  1894. 

Kabul  Insurrection  of  1841-2,  The,  V.  Eyre :  1879. 

Last  Century  of  Universal  History,  1767-1867,  The,  A.  C.  Ewald :  1868. 

List  of  Inscriptions  on  Tombs  and  Monuments  in  Bengal,  C.  R.  Wilson  :  1896. 

Lives  of  Indian  Officers,  J.  W.  Kaye:  1867. 


Madras  Civil  Servants,  1780-1839,  Dodwell  and  Miles:  1839. 

Medical  Officers  of  the  E.  I.  Co.*s  Service,  1764-1837,  Dodwell  and  Miles :  1839. 

Memorials  of  Old  Haileybury  College,  F.  c.  Danvers  and  others  -.  1894. 

Men  and  Events  of  my  Time  in  India,  R.  Temple  :  1882. 

Men  and  Women  of  the  Time,  V.  G.  Plarr :  1897. 

Men  of  the  Reign,  T.  H.  Ward :  1885. 

Men  of  the  Time,  T.  Cooper  :  1875. 

Men  whom  India  has  Known,  J.J.  Higginbotham :  1874. 

Military  History  of  the  Madras  Engineers  and  Pioneers,  The,  IT.  M.  Vibart :  1881-3. 

Modern  History  of  the  Indian  Chiefs,  Rajas,  Zemindars,  The,  L.  (ihose :  1879-81. 

Mogul  Empire,  The,  H.  G.  Keene  :  1866. 

Monumental  Register,  The,  De  Rozario :  1815. 

Narrative  of  the  War  in  Afghanistan  in  1838-9,  H.  Havelock  -.  1840. 

New  Biographical  Dictionary,  A,  T.  Cooper    1883. 

New  General  Biographical  Dictionary,  A,  H.  J.  Rose  :  1857. 

Nouveau  Dictionnaire,  Larousse. 

Nouvelle  Biographic  Generale  :  i860. 

Obituary  Notices  in  the  "  Times." 

Officers  of  the  Indian|Army,  1760-1837,  Dodwell  and  Miles :  1838. 

Official  Lists. 

Oriental  Biographical  Dictionary,  An,  T.  W.  Beale  :  1881 ;  edited  by  H.  G.  Keene  : 

Oriental  Christian  Biography,  W.  H.  Carey :  1852. 
Our  Indian  Empire,  C.  Macfadane :  1844. 

Panjab  and  Delhi  in  1857,  The,  J.  Cave-Browne:  1861. 

Particular  Account  of  the  European  Military  Adventurers  of  Hindustan,  A,  1784- 

1803,  H.  Compton. 
Peerage,  Baronetcy  and  Knightage,  Burke :  1904. 
Pillars  of  the  Empire,  T.  H.  S.  Escott :  1879. 

Rajas  and  Nawabs  of  the  N.W.P.  :  1877. 

Rajas  of  the  Panjab,  The,  L.  H.  Griffin :  1873. 

Report  on  the  Old  Records  of  the  India  Office,  G.  M.  C.  Birdwood :  1891. 

Representative  Indians,  G.   Paramaswaran  Pillai  :   1902. 

Representative  Men  of  India,  S.  jehangir :  1889. 

Royal  Military  Calendar,  The,  J.  Philippart :  1815-6. 

Rulers  of  India  Series,  The,  W.  W.  Hunter. 

Selections  from  Calcutta  Gazettes,  W.  S.  Seton-Karr  and  H.  Sandeman  :  1864-9. 

Sepoy  Generals,  G.  W.  Forrest .  1901. 

Sepoy  Revolt,  The,  J.  J.  McLeod  Innes  :  1897. 

Short  Account  of  the  Lives  of  the  Bishops  of  Calcutta,  A,  W.  C.  Bromehead :  1876. 

Short  History  of  India,  A,  J.  T.  Wheeler  •  1889. 

Sketches  of  some  Distinguished  Anglo-Indians,  W.  F.  B.  Laurie :  1887-8. 

Indian  Women,  Mrs.  E.  F.  Chapman  :  1891. 

Story  of  the  Nations,  The  :    the  volumes  of  the  Series  relating  to  India. 

The  First  Afghan  War  and  its  Causes,  H.  M.  Durand :  1879. 
Twelve  Indian  Statesmen,  G.  Smith :  1898. 
Twelve  Pioneer  Missionaries,  G.  vSmith :  1900. 

Who's  Who  :  1904,  1905. 



=  Aide  de  Camp. 



= Adjutant-General. 


=  Assistant  Adjutant-General. 



^Deputy  Adjutant-General. 


=  Deputy  Assistant  Adjutant- 



=  Agent    to     the     Governor- 



=Army       Medical       Depart- 



=  Bachelor  of  Arts. 


=  Bengal  Civil  Service. 



-Bachelor    of    Law,     or     of 




=  Bombay  Civil  Service. 


=  Companion  of  the  Bath. 



=  Companion   of    the    Indian 



C.  iiiC.= 

=  Commander  in  Chief. 


=  Crown  of  India. 



=  Chief  Justice. 


=  Companion  of    St.  Michael 
and  St.  George. 



=  Chm:ch  Missionary 



=  Commanding  Officer. 



=  Companion  of   the  Star  of 




=  Commander  of    the   Royal 

Victorian  Order. 



=  Doctor  of  Civil  Law. 


=  Doctor  of  Divinity. 



=  Deputy  Inspector-General. 


=  Deputy  Lieutenant. 



Doctor  of  Laws. 


=  Dictionary      of       National 




=  Distinguished    Service 




=  East  India  Company. 


=  Fellow    of    the    Geological 




=  Fellow  of  Institute  of  Chem- 




=  Fellow  of  Institute  of  Jour- 




,  =  Fellow     of     the     Linnaaan 




=  Field  Marshal 


=  Fellow  V  of       the 

Asiatic  Society. 
-  Fellow       of       the 

Colonial  Institute. 
=  Fellow       of       the 

College  of  Physicians. 
=  Fellow       of       the       Royal 

College  of  Surgeons. 
=  FeUow       of       the       Royal 

College       of     Veterinary 

=  Fellow       of      the       Royal 

Geographical  Society. 
=  Fellow       of      the       Royal 

=  Fellow      of       the       Royal 

Society  of  Edinburgh. 
=  Fellow    of    the    Society     of 

=  Fellow    of    the    Society    of 

Antiquaries    of  Scotland 
=  FeUow    of  I  the    Statistical 

=  Fellow  of    the  [Society    of 

Science  and  Art. 
=  Fellow    of    the    Zoological 

=  Knight  Grand  Cross  of  the 

=  Knight  Grand  Cross  of   the 

Order  of  the  Guelphs. 
=  Knight      Grand      Comman- 
der of  the  Indian  Empire. 
=  Knight     Grand     Cross     of 

St.      Michael      and      St. 

=  Knight    Grand  Commander 

of   the  Star  of  India. 
=  Knight     Grand 

the       Royal 

,  =  Grand      Master 

Indian  Empire. 
=  Grand  Master  of  the    Star 

of  India. 
=  His      (or     Her)     Britannic 

=  Honourable      East      India 

Company's  Service. 

Cross     of 

of      the 




,  =  His      Highness,      or     His 



=  His  (or  Her)  Majesty. 



=  His  (or  Her)   Royal  High- 

N'.L = 




=  Indian  Civil  Service. 



=  Indian  Medical  Service. 


=  Journal      of     the     Asiatic 


Society  of  Bengal. 



=  Justice  of  the  Peace. 



=  Journal      of      the       Royal 
Asiatic  Society. 



=  Knight  Bachelor  or  Knight 


Companion  of  the  Bath. 



=  King's  Counsel. 



=  Knight  Commander  of  the 




=  Knight   Commander  of   the 

Order  of  the  Guelphs. 



=  Knight  Commander  of  the 

Indian  Empire. 



=  Knight  Commander  of  St. 
Michael  and  St.  George. 



=  Knight  Commander  of   the 
Star  of  India. 



=  Knight   Commander]  of  the 


Royal  Victorian  Order. 



=:  Knight  of  the  Garter. 



=  Knight  of  St.  Patrick. 



=  Knight  of  the  Thistle. 



=  Bachelor  of  Laws. 



=  Doctor  of  Laws. 


=  Licentiate  in  Midwifery. 



=  Licentiate  of  the  College  of 




=  Licentiate  of  the  College  of 





=  Master  of  Arts. 



=  Muhammadan     Anglo- 



=  Doctor  of  Medicine. 



=:  Madras  Infantry. 


=  Member  of  Parliament. 

=  Member      of      the      Royal 
Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal. 

=  North  Britain. 

=  Native  Infantry. 

=  North-West  Provinces. 

=  Oxford      University     Boat 

=  Privy  Councillor. 

=  Doctor  of  Philosophy. 

=  Principal     Medical    Officer. 

=  Public      Works      Depart- 

=  Queen's  Counsel. 

=  Quarter-Master-General. 

= Assistant    Quarter  -  Master- 

=  Deputy- Assistant     Quarter- 

=  Deputy      Quarter  -  Master- 

=  quod  vide = which  see. 

=  Royal  Academy. 

=  Royal  Artillery. 

=  Royal      Asiatic       Society's 

=  Royal  Engineer. 

=  Royal  Military  Academy. 

=  Royal  MiHtary  College. 

=  Royal  Navy. 

=  Royal  Naval  Reserve. 

=  Society        for       Promoting 
Christian   Knowledge. 

=  Society    for    the    Propaga- 
tion of  the  Gospel. 

=Trinity  College,  Dublin. 

=  United  Provinces. 

= Victoria  Cross. 

= Volunteer  Decoration. 

=  Young      Men's      Christian 

—  Zeitschrif t    der     Deutschen 




ABADIE,  HENRY  RICHARD  (1841-     ) 

Entered  the  Army,  1858  :  served  in 
the  Abyssinian  campaign,  1868,  and  the 
Afghan  War,  1879-80,  including  the 
capture  of  Kandahar :  commanded 
the  Eastern  District,  1899-1900 :  Maj- 
General  :  C.B.  :  Lieutenant-Governor  of 
Jersey,  1900-4. 

ABBOTT,    AUGUSTUS    (1804-1867) 

Born  Jan.  7, 1804  :  son  of  H.  A.  Abbott  : 
brother  of  Sir  Frederick,  and  Sir  James  A.: 
educated  at  Warfield,  Winchester,  Addis- 
combe  :  entered  the  Bengal  Artillery, 
1819  :  served  at  Bhartpur  in  1825-6  : 
in  1838-9  was  in  the  Army  of  the  Indus, 
in  the  march  to  Kandahar,  and  the  pur- 
suit to  Girishk,  at  the  siege  of  Ghazni,  and 
the  occupation  of  Kabul :  was  in  the 
Kohistan  fighting  with  Sale,  and  under 
him,  on  his  return  to  Jalalabad  ;  com- 
manded the  Artillery  during  the  siege 
of  Jalalabad  and  the  defeat  of  Akbar  Khan 
on  April  7,  1842  :  commanded  the  Artil- 
lery in  Pollock's  relieving  Army,  at  Tezin 
on  Sep.  12,  1842,  and  the  re-occupation 
of  Kabul  :  C.  B.  :  Hony.  A.  D.  C.  to 
Governor  -  Generals  :  Inspr  -  General  of 
Ordnance,  1855  :  retired,  1859  :  Maj- 
General,  i860  :    died  Feb.  25,  1867. 

ABBOTT,  SIR  FREDERICK  (1805-1892) 
Brother  of  Sir  James  Abbott,  and  son 
of  Henry  Alexius  Abbott,  a  Calcutta 
merchant  :  born  June  13,  1805  :  educated 
at  Warfield  and  Addiscombe :  entered 
Bengal  Engineers,  1823  :  Maj-General, 
1858  :  arrived  in  India,  1823  :  in  the 
Burmese  war  of  1824-26:  employed  in  the 
P.  W.  D.  and  garrison-engineer  at  Cal- 
cutta in  1841  :  Chief  Engineer  in  Pol- 
lock's relieving  force  in  1842,  and  at  the 
re-occupation    of    Kabul :     in    the    first 

Sikh  war  and  at  Sobraon  in  1846  :  directed 
the  bridge  and  pontoon  operations : 
C.  B.  :  retired  in  1847  :  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  the  Addiscombe  Military 
College,  1851-61  :  knighted,  1854  :  Mem- 
ber of  Council  of  Mihtary  Education,  and 
Commissioner  of  National  Defence  :  died 
Nov.  4,  1892. 


(1855-  ) 

Son  of  General  Abbott,  Bengal  Infantry  : 
educated  at  St.  Elizabeth  College,  Guern- 
sey, and  R.M.A.  Woolwich  :  entered  the 
Army,  1874  :  served  in  India,  in  the  Afghan 
War,  1878-80  :  P.W.D.  Panjab  ;  Hazara 
expedition  1888  :  Under  Secretary  P.W.D. 
Panjab  :  Chitral  Relief  force,  1895  : 
Superintending  Engineer,  P.  W.  D. :  Lt.- 
Colonel  R.E.  :    D.S.O. 

ABBOTT,     SIR     JAMES     (1807-1896) 

Brother  of  Sir  F.  Abbott  :  born  March 
12,  1807  :  educated  at  Blackheath  and 
Addiscombe  :  entered  the  Royal  Artillery 
in  1823  :  arrived  in  India,  1823  :  served 
at  Bhartpur,  1825-6 :  in  the  Revenue 
Survey  :  with  the  Army  of  the  Indus  in 
1838-9,  to  Kandahar :  in  1839,  with 
D'  Arcy  Todd  to  Herat,  and  sent  by  him 
to  Khiva  to  negotiate  with  the  Khan  for 
the  release  of  Russian  captives  held  by 
him  :  on  the  Khan's  behalf  crossed  the 
Caspian,  and  went  to  St.  Petersburg  and 
on  to  England,  1840  :  after  some  political 
employ,  he  was  Commissioner  of  Hazara  ' 
from  1845  to  1853,  and  held  the  country 
against  the  Sikhs  in  the  second  Sikh  War, 
1848-9 :  his  name  is  preserved  in  the 
town  of  Abbottabad ;  commanded  a 
column  in  the  Black  Mountain  expedi- 
tion, 1852  :  C.  B.,  1873  :  K.  C.  B.,  1894  : 
General,  1877  :  retired  from  the  Army, 
1879  :    died  Oct.  6,   1896.     He  was  also 


"  a  poet,  antiquarian,  and  man  of  let- 
ters ;  "  wrote  a  Narrative  of  a  Journey 
from  Herat  to  Khiva,  Moscow  and  St. 
Petersburg,  etc.,  and  about  Alexander  the 
Great  in  the  Panjab,  etc. 



Maj -General :  born  July  9,  1811  : 
son  of  Henry  Alexius  Abbott,  merchant, 
Calcutta ;  educated  privately  and  at 
Addiscombe  ;  joined  the  Bengal  Infantry 
in  1828  :  appointed,  in  1836,  Assistant 
in  the  Revenue  Survey  under  Sir  H 
Lawrence  (q.v.)  :  held  Survey  charges, 
1838-42  :  present  at  Mudki,  Dec.  18, 
1845,  bringing  the  reserves  from  Kasauli 
and  Sabathu  by  forced  marches :  also 
as  A.D.C.  to  Lord  Hardinge  at  Firoz- 
shahr  ;  dangerously  wounded :  Deputy 
Commissioner  of  Umbala,  1847  :  of 
Hoshiarpur,  1849  :  in  charge  there  during 
the  mutiny  ;  Commissioner  of  Lucknow, 
1858-63  ;  Brevet-Major,  1846 ;  Hon. 
A.D.C.  to  Governor-Generals,  until  he 
retired  Sep.  1864  :  after  retirement  was 
Agent  of  the  Sind,  Panjab,  and  Delhi 
railway  at  Lahore  for  years,  and  after- 
wards on  the  Home  Board  of  Direction  : 
died  at  Brighton,  Feb.  7,  1894. 

UL   MULK  (1863-96) 

Son  of  a  small  hereditary  chieftain  in 
the  Dekkan  :  joined  the  Bombay  Govern- 
ment service  before  he  was  20  :  in  the 
police,  captured  a  dangerous  dakait : 
made  C.  I.  E.  :  joined  the  Hyderabad 
service :  Sir  Salar  J  ung  sent  him  to  Eng- 
land to  obtain  an  alteration  in  the  guaran- 
tee which  the  Nizam  had  given  on  his 
State  railway  :  for  effecting  this,  he  was 
handsomely  rewarded :  was  given  a 
mining  monopoly  in  the  Nizam's  state, 
from  which  he  made  a  personal  profit  of 
nearly  a  quarter  of  a  million  :  but,  after 
the  publication  of  the  facts  in  1888,  he 
suffered  political  downfall  at  Hyderabad  : 
and  strove  in  vain  to  regain  his  position 
in  the  Nizam's  service  :  died  May,  1896. 



Son  of  a  leading  pleader  in  the  Sadr 
Diwani  Court  at  Calcutta  :  born,  March, 
1828  :  educated  at  the  Calcutta  Madrasa  : 
entered    Government    service    in    1846 : 

appointed  a  Deputy  Magistrate  in  1849  : 
acted  sometimes  as  Presidency  Magis- 
trate :  Member  of  the  Bengal  Legislative 
Council  for  several  years,  and  of  the 
Calcutta  Corporation:  J.  P.  :  on  the 
Central  Board  of  Examiners  ;  Fellow  of 
the  Calcutta  University  :  on  the  Income 
Tax  Commission  for  Calcutta,  1861-5  : 
founder  and  secretary,  from  1863,  of  the 
Muhammadan  Literary  and  Scientific 
Society,  and  several  otlaer  public  bodies  : 
Nawab,  1880 :  C.  I.  E.  1883  :  Nawab 
Bahadur,  1887 :  often  consulted  by 
Government,  as  the  most  progressive 
and  enlightened  among  the  Muhammadans 
of  Bengal,  whose  interests  and  aspirations 
he  never  ceased  to  urge  :   died  1893. 

ABDUL    MUSSEAH,   REV.   (  ?     -1827) 

Born  at  Delhi ;  his  original  name  was 
Sheikh  Salih  :  son  of  a  learned  man,  a 
teacher  :  became  a  Munshi  at  Lucknow 
to  Englishmen :  served  at  the  Oudh 
Court,  and  was  a  trooper  under  the 
Mahrattas  :  he  turned  to  Christianity  on 
hearing  preaching  at  Cawnpur,  and  was 
baptized  at  Calcutta  by  Rev.  D.  Brown 
{q.v.)  in  181 1,  receiving  his  name  Abdul 
Musseah  ;  became  in  1812  a  catechist  of 
the  C.M.S.,  a  teacher  and  preacher  and 
writer  of  commentaries  on  Scriptxure, 
making  converts  :  about  1820  he  received 
Lutheran  ordination,  and  undertook  Mis- 
sionary work,  remaining  at  Agra  till  1825  : 
ordained  by  Bishop  Heber  as  minister  of 
the  Established  Church  at  Calcutta,  1825  : 
died  March  4,  1827. 

ABEL,  CLARKE  (1780-1826) 

Physician  to  Lord  Macartney  on  the 
mission  to  China,  and,  as  naturalist, 
made  extensive  collections,  which  were 
lost  :  also  physician  to  Lord  Amherst, 
when  Governor-General :  died  in  India, 
Nov.  24,  1826. 

ABERCROMBY,  SIR  JOHN  (1772-1817) 

Son  of  Sir  Ralph  Abercromby  :  born 
1772  :  entered  the  Army,  1786  :  served  in 
Flanders,  W.  Indies,  and  as'  Military  Secre- 
tary to  his  father  in  Egypt :  seized  in 
1803  and  imprisoned  by  Napoleon,  to 
1808  :  C.  in  C,  Bombay,  1809  :  in  com- 
mand of  the  expedition  for  the  captiure 
?iMauritius,  1810  :  C.  in  C,  and  tempo- 
rary Governor  at  Madras,  May  21, 18 13, 
until  Sep.  16,  1814  :     Lt-General,  1812  : 


K.C.B.,    1814 :    M.P.    for    Clackmannan, 
1815  :  G.C.B.,  1816  :  died  Feb.  14,  1817. 


Younger  brother  of  Sir  Ralph  :  entered 
the  Army  in  1758 :  served  in  North 
America  till  the  peace  in  1763  :  and  again, 
from  1776  to  1783,  throughout  the  war 
to  the  capitulation  of  Yorktown  :  went 
to  India  1788,  and,  in  1790,  was  Governor 
of  Bombay  and  C.  in  C.  there  :  Maj- 
General,  1790.  After  operations  on  the 
Malabar  coast,  he  joined  Lord  Cornwallis 
in  attacking  and  defeating  Tippoo  at 
Seringapatam  in  1792  :  K.  B.  :  succeeded 
Lord  Cornwallis  as  C.  in  C.  in  India, 
Oct.  1793,  being  at  the  same  time  Member 
of  the  Supreme  Council  till  Feb.  1797  : 
he  defeated  the  Rohillas  at  Batina  in 
Rohilkund  in  1794  :  Lt-General  in  1797  : 
M.P.  for  Clackmannan  County  in  1798  : 
Governor  of  Edinburgh  Castle,  1801  : 
General,  1802  :    died  Nov.  1827. 

ROBERT  (1848-1881) 

Born  July  25,  1848  :  son  of  Rev.  Dr. 
James  Aberigh-Mackay,  Chaplain  in  Ben- 
gal :  educated  privately  in  Scotland,  at 
Magdalen  College  School,  Oxford,  and 
St.  Catherine's  College,  Cambridge  :  en- 
tered the  Education  Department  at 
Bareli  in  the  N.  W.  P.,  1870  :  Professor 
of  English  Literature  at  the  Delhi  College, 
1873  :  Tutor  to  the  Raja  of  Ratlam, 
Central  India,  and  Principal  of  the  College 
there,  1876  :  Principal  of  the  Rajkumar 
College  at  Indore,  1877  :  Fellow,  Calcutta 
University,  1880 :  wrote  a  number  of 
educational  works  :  also  Notes  on  Western 
Turkistan,  a  Hand-book  of  Hindustan,  a 
Manual  of  Indian  Sport,  Native  Chiefs 
and  their  States,  The  sovereign  Princes  and 
Chiefs  of  Central  India  :  at  one  time  wrote 
largely  for  the  Pioneer,  and  constantly 
for  other  English  and  Indian  papers, 
including  letters  in  the  Bombay  Gazette 
under  the  nom  de  plume  "  The  Political 
Orphan "  :  but  his  best  work  was  his 
Twenty-one  Days  in  India,  being  the  Tour 
■of  Sir  Ali  Baba,  a  series  of  sketches  of 
Indian  life  and  society  which  appeared 
in  Vanity  Fair  in  1878-9,  and  were  after- 
wards published  together.  For  brilliant 
wit,  his  work  has  not  been  approached 
in  modern  days  in  India.     His  bright  and 

sympathetic  humour,  his  "  suspicion  of 
cynicism  which  is  the  soul  of  modern 
pathos,"  his  freedom  from  maUce,  his 
command  of  style  and  language,  the  keen 
edge  and  truth  of  his  criticisms,  his  grasp 
and  range,  took  the  pubUc  by  storm  :  a 
distinguished  literary  career  lay  before 
him,  when  he  died,  Jan.  12,  1881,  from 
tetanus,  caused  by  a  chill  caught  at  lawn- 
tennis  :  he  was  also  an  ardent  sportsman, 
and  lover  of  birds  and  animals. 

ABRAHAMS,  LIONEL  (1869-  ) 
Educated  at  City  of  London  School  : 
scholar  of  Balliol  College,  Oxford  :  Arnold 
Prize :  entered  the  India  Office  1893  : 
Assistant  Financial  Secretary,  1901: 
Financial  Secretary,  1902 :  contributed 
to^the  Dictionary  of  Political  Economy. 

ADAM,   SIR  FREDERICK  (  ?    -1853) 

Governor  :  son  of  Right  Hon.  William 
Adam  :  entered  the  Army,  1795  :  in  the 
Guards,  1799  :  in  Egypt,  1 800-1  :  in 
Sicily  and  Spain  :  A.D.C.  to  the  Prince 
Regent :  Maj -General :  commanded  a 
Brigade  at  Waterloo  :  K.  C.  B.  :  Lord 
High  Commissioner  of  the  Ionian  Islands, 
1824-6  :  G.C.M.G. :  P.C,  1831  :  Governor 
of  Madras,  1832-7  :  G.C.B.,  1840  :  Colonel 
of  the  57th  and  21st  regts.  :  General, 
1846  :    died  Aug.  17,  1853. 

ADAM,  JOHN  (1779-1826) 
Son  of  Right  Hon.  W.  Adam  :  born 
May  4,  1779.  educated  at  Charterhouse 
and  Edinburgh  University :  writer  in 
the  E.  I.  Co.'s  service,  reached  Calcutta, 
.Feb.  1796  :  three  years  at  Patna  :  head 
assistant  in  the  judicial-revenue  Secre- 
tariat :  in  May,  1802,  was  Head  of  the 
"  Governor-General's  office  "  :  in  1804, 
Deputy  Secretary  in  the  Secret  and  Poli- 
tical Departments :  in  1809,  Secretary 
in  the  Military  Department  :  in  1812, 
Secretary  in  the  Secret,  Foreign  and 
Political  Departments  :  Private  Secretary 
in  1 817  and  Political  Secretary  to  the 
Marquis  of  Hastings,  whom  he  accom- 
panied during  the  Mahratta-Pindari  war, 
greatly  influencing  his  policy  of  estab- 
lishing the  British  supremacy  :  was  "  the 
very  able  and  very  conservative  "  Mem- 
ber of  the  Supreme  Council,  1819-25  : 
opposed  the  liberty  of  the  Press  as  un- 
suited  to  India,  and  the  financial  transac- 
tions of  Palmer   &   Co  with   the   Nizam  : 


acted  as  Governor  General  from  Lord 
Hastings'  departure  in  Jan.  until  Lord 
Amherst's  arrival  in  Aug.,  1823  : 
adopted  a  strong  and  active  policy  :  a 
Regulation  was  passed,  in  April,  1823, 
to  curb  the  public  Press  :  under  it,  John 
Silk  Buckingham,  who  had  established 
the  Calcutta  Journal  and  criticised  Govern- 
ment, satirically  commenting  upon  an 
appointment  made  by  Government,  was 
deprived  of  his  licence  and  deported  to 
England.  The  Court  of  Directors  ap- 
proved Adam's  policy,  and  the  Privy 
Council  concurred.  Adam  was  the  first 
to  grant  public  money,  a  lakh  of  rupees  a 
year,  in  support  of  native  education : 
devoted  town  duties  to  public  works : 
increased  civil  judicial  establishments : 
added  four  regiments  to  the  Bengal 
Army :  was  given  a  renewed  term  as 
Member  of  Council :  he  died  at  sea,  off 
Madagascar,  June  4,  1825.  His  picture, 
by  Chinnery,  is  in  the  Town  Hall,  Cal- 
cutta, and  a  tablet  to  his  memory  is  in 
St.  John's  Church  there,  testifying  to  his 

ADAM,    WILLIAM    PATRICK    (1823- 

Governor  :  son  of  Admiral  Sir  Charles 
Adam,  K.C.B.  :  born  1823  :  educated  at 
Rugby  and  Trinity  College,  Cambridge  : 
B.A. :  called  to  the  bar  by  the  Inner 
Temple,  1849  :  Private  Secretary  to  Lord 
Elphinstone,  Governor  of  Bombay,  1853- 
58  :  M.P.  for  Clackmannan  and  Kinross, 
1859-80  :  Lord  of  the  Treasury,  1865-6, 
and  1868-73  •  First  Commissioner  of 
Works  in  1873,  and  Privy  Councillor : 
'  Whip '  of  the  Liberal  party,  1874-80, 
and  Governor  of  Madras,  Dec.  20,  1880  : 
died  at  Ootacamund  May  24,  1881  :  his 
eldest  son  was  created  a  Baronet  in  recog- 
nition of  his  father's  public  services  : 
his  widow  was  given  the  rank  of  a 
Baronet's  widow  and  made  a  member  of 
the  Order  of  the  Crown  of  India. 

ADAMS,  ANDREW  LEITH  (  ?     -1882) 

NaturaUst,  Army-Surgeon  and  Sur- 
geon-Major from  1848  to  1873  :  Professor 
of  Zoology  at  Dublin,  and  of  Natural 
History  at  Cork  :  wrote  Wanderings  of 
a  Naturalist  in  India,  and  The  Western 
Himalayas  and  Cashmere :  F.  G.  S.  : 
F.  R.  S.  :  and  LL.D.  of  Aberdeen :  died 
in  Aug.  1882. 



Educated  at  Trinity  College,  Dublin: 
ordained,  1863  :  on  the  Bengal  Ecclesi- 
astical Establishment,  1868-1887:  chosen, 
1879,  to  be  Chaplain  to  the  Kabul  Field 
Force  :  was  at  Charasia  and  other  engage- 
ments, and  in  Lord  Roberts'  march  from 
Kabul  to  Kandahar  :  won  the  Victoria 
Cross — the  only  clergyman  who  ever 
gained  it — in  the  Chardeh  valley,  near 
Kabul,  in  Dec.  1879  :  first  saved  a 
wounded  man  of  the  9th  Lancers,  by 
dismounting  and  supporting  him  imtil 
relieved  ;  he  then,  up  to  his  waist  in  water, 
and  under  a  heavy  fire  from  the  Afghans 
within  a  few  yards,  by  sheer  strength 
dragged  out  two  more  men  of  the  same 
regiment  from  under  their  horses  in  a 
ditch.  He  also  saw  service  as  Chaplain 
in  Burma.  On  his  retirement,  in  1887, 
he  was  appointed  Rector  of  Postwick, 
Norfolk  ;  died  at  Ashwell  Rectory  near 
Ockham,  on  Oct.  20,  1903,  "  Padre " 
Adams,  as  he  was  called,  had  immense 
influence  with  the  British  soldier,  who 
adored  him.  He  was  Chaplain  in  Ordinary 
to  H.M.,  1901. 



Entered  the  Army  1780  :  fought 
under  Sir  R.  Abercromby  {q.  v.)  against 
the  Rohillas :  was  at  the  capture  of 
Seringapatam,  1799  :  commanded  his 
regt.  in  1809,  on  active  service  in  Central 
India  :  C.  B.,  1815  :  held  commands  in 
Kumaon,  Nagpur,  the  Dekkan :  took 
Chanda  in  1818,  was  at  Bhartpur  in  1826  : 
commanded  the  Sirhind  Division,  May, 
1828  :  Maj-General  1830  :  Colonel  of  the 
1 6th  Bengal,  N.I.  :  K.  C.  B. :  died  March  9, 
1837,  at  Sabathu. 

ADAMS,  THOMAS  (  ?    -1764) 

Major :  an  officer  of  the  school  of 
Clive  :  in  1763  succeeded  to  a  command 
in  Bengal :  defeated  Mir  Kasim,  Nawab 
of  Bengal,  performing  splendid  exploits 
during  the  campaign  :  he  started,  just 
after  a  British  reverse,  with  a  few  English 
veterans  and  a  handful  of  sepoys  :  de- 
feated one  of  the  Nawab's  Generals  at 
Katwa :  marched  on  Murshidabad  and 
occupied  it  :  won  a  briUiant  victory  at 
Gheria  :  dislodged  the  enemy  from  their 
position  of  great  strength  at  the  pass  of 


Udwanala :  took  Monghyr :  marched 
on  Patna,  and  took  it  by  assault,  though 
he  was  so  broken  down  by  illness  that  he 
could  scarcely  retain  his  command.  Mir 
Kasim  had  fled  from  Patna  on  the  ap- 
proach of  the  English  :  Adams  pursued 
him  as  far  as  the  boundary  of  Oudh  : 
he  then  handed  over  the  command  to 
Knox  and  died,  worn  out,  Jan.  i6,  1764. 

ADYE,SIR  JOHN  MILLER  (1891-1900) 

Born  Nov.  i,  18 19,  son  of  Major  J. P. 
Adye,  R.A.  :  entered  the  Royal  Artillery 
in  Dec.  1836 :  in  the  Crimea  as  Brig- 
Major  to  the  Artillery ;  Brevet-Lt- 
Colonel,  1854,  and  C.  B.  :  through  the 
mutiny  as  A.A.G.  for  Royal  Artillery  : 
with  General  Windham  at  Cawnpur  and 
at  the  defeat  of  the  Gwalior  contingent, 
Dec.  6,  1857  :  commanded  the  R.A.  in 
Madras  in  1859  :  D.A.G.  of  Artillery  in 
India,  1863  ;  in  the  Sitana  (Umbeyla) 
campaign  :  Director  of  Artillery  at  the 
War  Office,  1870  :  to  the  Crimea  in  1872, 
to  report  on  the  British  cemeteries  and 
monuments  :  Governor  of  R.M.A.  Wool- 
wich, 1875  :  wrote  largely  on  the  ques- 
tion of  the  Russians  in  Central  Asia 
and  on  Afghanistan,  opposing  a  forward 
policy :  Surveyor-General  of  Ordnance, 
1880  :  Chief  of  the  Staff  to  Lord  Wolseley 
in  the  Egyptian  campaign,  1882  :  Gov- 
ernor of  Gibraltar,  1883-1886  :  K.C.B. 
in  1873  :  Commander  of  the  Legion  of 
Honour,  1874  :  G.C.B.  in  1882,  and  the 
Order  of  the  Medjidie :  General,  Nov. 
20,  1884  :  died  Aug.  26,  1900.  He  wrote 
on  India,  viz..  The  Defence  of  Cawnpur^ 
Sitana,  a  Mountain  Campaign,  Indian 
Frontier  History,  and  an  autobiography. 

AMIR  OF  (1844-1901) 

Son  of  Afzal  Khan,  and  grandson  of 
the  Amir  Dost  Muhammad  :  confirmed 
by  Shir  Ali,  in  1863,  in  a  government  in 
Turkistan  :  took  part  in  the  civil  war 
between  his  father  and  his  uncle  Shir  Ali 
{q.v.)  :  escaped  to  Bokhara  when  his 
father  was  imprisoned  in  1864  :  collected 
a  force  and  defeated  Shir  Ali  at  Shekhabad 
in  May,  1866,  and  recovered  Kabul  for 
his  father  :  on  the  latter's  death,  in  1867, 
became  C.  in  C.  to  his  uncle  Muhammad 
Azim  :  retired  to  Balkh  :  he  was  defeated 
at  Tinak  Khan,  by  Yakub  on  behalf  of 
Shir  Ali,  on  Jan.  3,  1869,  and  made  for 
Bokhara,    receiving    an    allowance    from 

Russia  :  remained  for  10  years  at  Samar- 
kand. In  1880  he  watched  events  from 
Balkh,  and,  when  Yakub  Khan  abdicated 
and  was  sent  to  India,  negotiations  were 
opened  with  Abdur  Rahman,  who  pro- 
ceeded to  Charikar,  was  recognised  as 
Amir  of  Kabul  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment in  July,  1880,  and  finally  nominated 
Amir  on  Aug.  10 :  he  subsequently 
occupied  Kandahar  when  evacuated  by 
the  British  forces,  lost  it  to  his  uncle 
Ayub  Khan  {q.v.)  in  1881,  but  personally 
recovered  it  from  Ayub  in  Sep.  1881  : 
established  his  power  throughout  Afghan- 
istan, and  had  frontier  disputes  with 
Russia  :  visited  the  Viceroy,  Lord  Duf- 
ferin,  at  Rawul  Pindi,  March,  1885,  to 
discuss  Afghan  affairs,  and  was  then 
made  G.C.S.I.  At  the  time  of  the  Penjdeh 
incident  with  Russia,  in  April,  1885,  he 
showed  great  forbearance.  He  had  to 
repress  risings  in  various  parts  of  the 
kingdom :  defeated  his  cousin  Ishak, 
Governor  of  Turkistan.  In  1893  he 
received  Sir  M.  Durand's  mission  to 
settle  a  number  of  frontier  questions, 
which  at  times  had  nearly  led  to  hostili- 
ties with  the  British.  He  ruled  with  a 
rod  of  iron.  GC.B.,  1895  :  disappointed 
at  not  being  allowed  to  have  a  diplomatic 
agent  resident  in  London,  for  which  he 
asked  through  his  son  Nasrulla,  in  1895. 
During  his  reign  he  employed  English 
firms  and  experts  to  work  for  him  at 
Kabul,  and  greatly  strengthened  his 
kingdom  and  military  power,  but  main- 
tained the  traditional  Afghan  policy  of 
keeping  foreigners  in  general  out  of  his 
country  :  in  an  autobiography  he  showed 
his  confidence  in  the  British  alliance  :  he 
died  Oct.  3,  1901. 

KHAN,  AMIR  OF  (1791-1863) 

Twentieth  son  of  Payinda  Khan 
(executed  1799),  who  was  chief  of  the 
Barakzais,  and  brother  of  Fateh  Khan, 
the  Barakzai  "  Mayor  of  the  Palace " 
of  Mahmud  Shah,  of  the  Abdalis,  or 
Duranis.  As  the  result  of  the  fighting 
among  the  members  of  the  Durani  and 
Barakzai  families  from  the  time  of  Payinda 
Khan,  Dost  Muhammad  established 
himself  in  1822-3  iii  Kabul,  Kashmir  hav- 
ing been  lost  to  the  Sikhs  in  1819,  Herat 
and  Peshawar  not  being  in  his  power. 
He  defeated  Shah  Shuja,  the  Sadazai  or, 
Durani,  late  Amir,  at  Kandahar  in  1833  : 


but  lost  Peshawar  to  the  Sikhs  in  1834  : 
styled  himself  Amir  in  1833.  In  1837 
Burnes  was  sent  on  an  embassy  to  Kabul, 
to  oppose  Persian  designs  on  Herat : 
Dost  Muhammad  was  found  to  be  intri- 
guing with  Russia,  and  a  Russian  Envoy 
appeared  at  Kabul :  Lord  Auckland's 
Government  decided  to  depose  Dost 
Muhammad  and  reinstate  Shah  Shuja 
as  Amir  :  on  the  approach  of  the  British 
force  in  1839  Dost  Muhammad  fled  to 
Bokhara,  but  escaped,  advanced  on 
Kabul,  made  a  stand  at  Bajgah,  but  was 
defeated  and  fled  again  :  after  a  success 
against  the  English  at  Parwandarra,  he 
surrendered,  Nov.  3,  1840,  to  the  Eng- 
lish envoy  and  was  sent  down  to  Cal- 
cutta :  at  the  end  of  the  first  Afghan 
war,  in  1842,  he  returned  to  Kabul  and 
resumed  his  reign  :  in  the  Panjab  cam- 
paign of  1848-9,  he  sent  assistance  to  the 
Sikhs  :  he  concluded  the  treaty  of  Pesha- 
war with  the  Governor-General  in  March, 
1855,  by  which  the  independence  of 
Afghanistan  was  recognised  :  and  a  sub- 
sidy was  given  to  him,  under  an  agreement 
made  in  Jan.  1857  :  he  regained  Kanda- 
har in  Jan.  1856  :  remained  quiet  and 
staunch  to  the  British  during  the  mutiny  : 
established  his  power  throughout  Afghanis- 
tan, capturing  Herat,  May  27,  1863  : 
died  at  Herat,  June  9,  1863  :  was  a 
strong  ruler,  and  leader  of  men,  but  cruel 
and  unscrupulous. 



Fifth  son  of  Dost  Muhammad  {q.v.), 
whom  he  accompanied  in  exile  to  India  : 
succeeded  him  on  his  death,  at  Herat,  in 
1863,  being  recognised  by  the  Government 
of  India  :  civil  war  ensued  between  him 
and  his  brothers.  He  lost  his  eldest  son, 
Muhammad  Ali,  in  the  battle  of  Kajhbaz, 
in  1865,  when  he  defeated  his  brother 
Muhammad  Amir  and  took  Kandahar : 
lost  Kabul  to  his  nephew,  Abdur  Rahman  : 
imprisoned,  1864,  his  brother  Afzal,  who 
regained  his  freedom  after  the  battle  of 
Shekhabad  in  May,  1866,  was  proclaimed 
Amir,  but  died  1867.  Shir  Ali  at  one 
time  had  lost  Kabul  and  Kandahar,  but, 
having  recovered  Kabul  from  his  brother 
Muhammad  Azam,  defeated  Abdur  Rah- 
man {q.  v.),  son  of  Afzal,  on  Jan.  3, 1869, 
drove  him  out  and  was  recognised  as 
Amir  by  the  Government  of  India.  Lord 
Mayo  received  him  in  darbar  at  Umbala 

in  1869.  Shir  Ali  returned  disappointed 
from  the  darbar,  and  showed  resentment 
at  the  failure  of  his  requests  and  his  subse- 
quent treatment  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment :  in  1873  he  sent  an  envoy,  Saiyad 
Nur  Muhammad,  to  India,  to  make  cer- 
tain proposals,  which  were  not  accepted  : 
negotiations  took  place  in  1877  between 
the  envoy  and  Sir  L.  Pelly,  on  behalf  of 
the  Governor-General,  Lord  Lytton,  but 
were  fruitless.  Abdullah  Jan,  named 
in  1873  as  his  heir,  died  in  1877.  In  1878 
Shir  Ali  was  found  to  have  received,  at 
Kabul,  a  Russian  mission  under  General 
Stolietoff :  he  stopped  Sir  Neville  Cham- 
berlain's mission  at  Ali  Masjid,  and  the 
second  Afghan  war  ensued.  On  the 
approach  of  the  British  forces.  Shir  Ali 
fled  from  Kabul  and  died  at  Mazar-i- 
Sharif,  in  Afghan  Turkistan,  on  Feb.  21, 

AGA  ALI  SHAH    (  ?    -1886) 

Like  his  father,  Aga  Khan,  the  spiritual 
head  of  the  Khoja  community,  from  whom 
he  received  tribute  in  Asia  and  Africa  : 
best  known  to  Englishmen  as  a  keen 
sportsman,  a  strong  supporter  of  the  turf  : 
Member  of  the  Bombay  Legislative  Coun- 
cil :  succeeded  by  his  son,  Aga  Sultan 
Muhammad  Shah  :    died  in  1885. 

AGA  KHAN  (1800-1881) 

The  venerable  spiritual  head  of  the 
Khoja  community,  of  Shia  Muhamma- 
dans  :  descendant  of  the  mysterious  and 
dreaded  "  old  man  of  the  mountains  "  : 
claimed  to  be  descended  from  Ali  and 
Fatima  :  fled  from  Persia  40  years  before 
his  death,  after  an  attempt  to  gain  the 
Persian  throne,  at  which  his  family  aimed  : 
assisted  the  British  with  his  light  horse 
in  the  Afghan  war,  1842  :  received 
Rs.  1,000  a  month  as  pension  :  resided  a 
short  time  in  Calcutta,  and  then  30  years 
in  Bombay,  holding  his  court  in  grand 
style,  and  taking  a  leading  part  in  turf 
and  sporting  matters  :  the  keenest  racing 
man  in  India  :  exercised  almost  absolute 
control  over  his  subjects,  "  a  king  without 
a  territory,"  the  annual  tribute  from  his 
followers  amounting  to  a  lakh  of  rupees  : 
died  April  12,  1881. 


(1875-         ) 

Born  1875  :    Aga   Khan:  succeeded  his 


father,  Aga  Ali  Shah,  as  head  of  Ismaili  Mu- 
hammadans  :  has  many  religious  followers 
in  East  Africa,  Central  Asia  and  India  : 
attended  the  Coronation  (1902)  as  guest 
of  the  English  nation  :  K.C.I.E.  1898  : 
G.C.I. E.  1902  :  Member  of  the  Governor 
General's  Legislative  Council:  has  the 
Zanzibar  and  Prussian  Orders. 


VANS  (1822-1848) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Lt.-Colonel  P.  Vans 
Agnew,  a  Director  of  the  E.I. Co  :  educated 
at  Haileybury  :  arrived  in  India  in  1841  : 
Assistant  to  the  Superintendent  of  the 
Cis-Satlaj  States,  and  at  Sobraon  in  1846  : 
after  political  work  connected  with 
Kashmir  was  assistant  to  the  British 
Resident  at  Lahore  :  was  sent  in  1848 
with  Lt.  Anderson  to  Multan,  to  introduce 
both  a  change  in  the  personnel  of  the  native 
Government  and  new  fiscal  arrangements  : 
they  were  treacherously  attacked  on 
April  20,  1848,  wounded  and  subsequently 
murdered  by  Mulraj's  retainers,  with  his 
knowledge  :  this  outrage  led  to  the  second 
Sikh  War  of  1848-9,  after  which  the 
Panjab  was  annexed. 



Son  of  General  Agnew,  of  the  Indian 
Staff  Corps  :  called  to  the  bar  at  Lin- 
coln's Inn,  1870  :  joined  the  bar  of  the 
Calcutta  High  Court  :  edited,  from  1877, 
the  Indian  Law  Reports,  Calcutta  :  was 
Law  Lecturer,  Presidency  College,  1879  : 
Recorder  of  Rangoon,  1884— 1900,  officia- 
ting in  1885-6  as  a  Judge  of  the  Calcutta 
High  Court  :  knighted,  1899  :  retired 
in  1900  :  edited  several  books  on  Indian 
Law:   died  Dec.  26,  1903. 

AHLIA  BAI  (  ?     -1795) 

Wife  of  Khandi  Rao  Holkar,  (who  died 
i754),son  of  Malhar  Rao  Holkar,  of  Indore. 
On  the  latter's  death,  in  1765,  Mali  Rao, 
son  of  Khandi  and  Ahlia,  succeeded  to 
the  throne,  but  died  in  9  months.  Then 
Ahlia  assumed  the  government,  chose 
Takaji  Holkar  as  her  minister,  and  ruled 
till  her  death  in  1795.  She  transacted 
business  daily,  unveiled,  in  open  darbar 
from  2  p.m  :  had  great  ability  and  charac- 
ter, was  deeply  rehgious,  and  governed 

BAHADUR  (1817-1898) 
Educational  reformer :  born  Oct.  17, 
1 81 7,  at  Delhi,  of  a  noble  family  :  his 
ancestors  came  into  India  from  Central 
Asia,  and  held  high  office  under  the  Mogul 
Emperors  :  he  entered  Government  ser- 
vice in  1837  and  rose  to  be  a  subordinate 
Judge  in  the  N.W.P.  In  the  mutiny  he 
rendered  faithful  service  to  the  British  at 
Bijnur,  saving  their  lives  :  he  wrote  a 
pamphlet  in  Urdu  on  the  causes  of  the 
mutiny.  He  was  devoted  to  antiquarian 
research  and  was  a  Member  of  the  Royal 
Asiatic  Society :  in  1864  he  formed  a 
Translation  Society  at  Ghazipur  (after- 
wards moved  to  Alighar)  and  had  several 
valuable  English  works  translated  into 
Urdu.  He  visited  England  in  1869,  and 
left  his  son  (afterwards  Mr.  Justice  Mah- 
mud  of  the  Allahabad  High  Court),  to 
be  educated  at  Cambridge.  He  wrote  a 
reply  to  Sir  W.  W.  Hunter's  work  on 
The  Indian  Musalmans — are  they  bound 
in  Conscience  to  rebel  against  the  Queen  ? 
In  1876  he  retired  from  Government 
service,  and  in  1877  commenced  the  Anglo- 
Oriental  College  at  Alighar.  He  was  a 
Member  of  the  Legislative  Council,  N.W.P. 
and  an  Additional  Member  of  the  Governor 
General's  Legislative  Council,  1 878-1 882  : 
was  made  a  K.C.S.I.  in  1888  :  a 
man  of  extreme  courtesy  combined  with 
personal  dignity  :  to  his  College  he 
devoted  his  whole  energy  and  means : 
died  March  27,  1898  :  wrote  ArchcBolo- 
gical  History  of  Delhi  1847  :  F.R.A.S. 


(  ?  -1772) 
Son  of  an  Afghan  chief  of  the  tribe  of 
Abdal,  near  Herat :  held  a  command  under 
Nadir  Shah  :  after  whose  death,  in  i747» 
he  attacked  the  Persians,  seized  Kandahar, 
Kabul  and  Lahore  :  in  1748  he  attacked 
the  Moguls  in  Hindustan :  returned  to 
Kabul,  but,  in  1757,  came  down  on  Delhi 
and  Agra,  plundered  Mathura  and  re- 
turned to  Kandahar :  about  1758,  in 
response  to  an  invitation  from  India,  he 
advanced  against  the  Mahrattas,  then  in 
great  power,  and  defeated  them  at  Panipat, 
Jan.  1761  :  returned  to  Kabul :  again 
invaded  India  in  1767  :  returned  to 
Afghanistan  with  little  success,  but  some 
plunder :  died  1772,  succeeded  by  his 
second  son,  Timtu:  Shah. 



?     ) 

Of  Bareli :  a  horseman  under  Amir 
Khan  (q.v.) :  went  to  Delhi,  became  a 
disciple  of  Shah  Abdul  Aziz,  a  famous 
devotee  there  :  became  a  religious  teacher 
and  reformer,  aiming  at  the  restoration  of 
pure  Muhammadanism  :  went  to  Calcutta 
in  1821  :  to  Mecca,  1822  :  to  Bombay, 
1823  :  wrote  the  Incitement  to  Religious 
War,  and  opened  a  jihad  against  the  Sikhs 
in  1826  :  was  killed  in  battle,  and  the 
movement  terminated. 

AINSLIE,    WHITELAW    (1766-1836) 

Joined  the  E.  I.  Go's  medical  service  in 
1788,  and  served  in  Madras  :  in  1810  he 
was  made  Superintending  Surgeon,  and 
retired  in  1815  :  he  wrote  on  cholera, 
fever,  the  Materia  Medica  of  Hindostan, 
Materia  Indica,  and  similar  subjects  : 
died  April   29,    1836, 


Son  of  Lt-General  Sir  George  Airey, 
and  brother  of  Lord  Airey  :  born  Sep. 
6,  1812  :    entered  the  Army  in  1830  :    in 

1841  he  accompanied  General  Elphinstone 
{q.v.)  to  Kabul  as  his  A.  D.  C.  :  in  Dec. 
he  was  one  of  the  hostages  given  up  to 
Akbar  Khan  :   they  were  released  in  Sep. 

1842  :  was  present  under  McCaskill  {q.v.) 
at  Istalif  :    in  the  Gwalior  campaign  in 

1843  :  at  Punniar  :  served  in  the  Guards 
in  the  Crimea  :  C.B.  :  Colonel,  1859  : 
Lt-General  and  K.C.B.  in  1877  :  retired 
as  General  in  1881":  died  Jan.  i,  1898. 

STON  (1832-1896) 

I.C.S.  :  born  May  20,  1832,  son  of 
Hugh  Aitchison,  of  Edinburgh  :  educated 
at  the  High  School  and  University  there  : 
and  at  the  University  of  Halle  :  passed 
in  the  first  competitive  examination, 
while  Haileybury  was  being  abolished  :  ar- 
rived in  India  in  1856  :  he  narrowly  escaped 
the  massacre  of  Emropeans  at  Hissar  in 
1857  :  was  Under  Secretary  in  the  Foreign 
Department  of  the  Government  of  India, 
1859-65,  and,  after  some  executive  work, 
was  Foreign  Secretary,  1868-78.  Sharing, 
as  he  did,  the  views  of  Lord  Lawrence  on 
questions  of  Central  Asian  and  Afghan 
policy,  he  was  strongly  opposed  to  the 
measures  which  led  to  the  second  Afghan 

War  of  1878-80.  He  was  Chief  Com- 
missioner of  British  Burma  from  March, 
1878,  to  July,  1 880;  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  the  Panjab,  1882-87  ;  Member  of  the 
Supreme  Council  from  April,  1887.  to  Nov. 
1888  :  also  President  of  the  important 
Public  Service  Commission  in  1887-88  : 
K.C.S.I.  in  1881,  CLE.  in  1882  :  also 
LL.D.  of  Edinburgh  and  honorary  M.A. 
of  Oxford.  He  compiled  the  first  edition 
of  the  Treaties,  Engagements  and 
Sunnuds,  an  authoritative  work  of 
reference,  always  quoted  under  his  name  : 
wrote  also  The  Native  States  of  India,  and 
Lord  Lawrence  in  the  Rulers  of  India 
series  :  he  died  at  Oxford  Feb.  18,  1896. 


(1851-      ; 

Son  of  the  Rev.  J  ames  Aitken,  mission- 
ary. Free  Church  of  Scotland :  passed 
the  B.A.  and  M.A.  examinations  of  the 
Bombay  University  at  the  head  of  the 
list  :  Latin  reader  in  the  Dekkan  College, 
1880-6  :  entered  the  Customs  and  Salt 
Department  :  writes  under  the  name  of 
E.  H.  A.  :  author  of  Tribes  on  my  Frontier, 
Behind  the  Bungalow,  The  Naturalist  on 
the  Prowl,  Five  Windows  of  the  Soul, 
Common  Birds  of  Bombay  :  Chief  Collector 
of  Customs,  Karachi. 


(  ?  -1887) 
Of  the  13th  Bengal  N.I. :  served  in  the 
Panjab  campaign,  1848-9  :  in  the  mutiny, 
at  Lucknow,  in  the  operations  before 
Cawnpiur,  and  in  the  Oudh  campaign, 
1858  :  gained  the  V.C.  for  acts  of  gallantry 
during  the  defence  of  the  Lucknow 
Residency :  Inspr-General  of  Police  in 
Oudh  :   Colonel  1876  :   died  Sep.  18,  1887- 


Son  of  James  Aitken,  of  Falkirk,  N.B., 
educated  at  Edinburgh  Academy  and 
Heidelberg  :  entered  the  Royal  Artillery, 
1867,  Captain  in  1878  :  in  Afghan  war, 
1878-80  :  in  the  Mahsud  Waziri  expedi- 
tion, 1 881  :  Major,  1884  :  served  in  the 
Burma  expedition,  1885-87 :  Brevet 
Lt-Colonel :  in  the  Chitral  Relief  Force, 
1895  :  C.B.  :  Brevet  Colonel,  1897  :  served 
with  the  Malakand  Field  Force,  and  in 
the  Mohmand  and  Buner  expeditions, 
1897-8:  commanded  the  Mountain  Artil- 
lery,   Rawul    Pindi,    Panjab,    till    1899  : 


A.D.C.  to  his  Majesty  :  and  Colonel  on 
the  Staff,  commanding  R.A.,  Scottish 
District  since  1899. 

AIYAR,  SIR  SHESHADRI  (1846-1901) 

Son  of  a  Brahman  of  Palghat  in  the 
District  of  Malabar :  educated  at  the 
Provincial  School  at  Calicut  and  the 
Presidency  College  in  Madras :  entered 
the  Government  service  as  translator  in 
the  Collector's  office  at  Calicut  :  trans- 
ferred in  1868  to  Mysore  under  Ranga 
Charlu  (q.v.).  In  13  years  he  filled  various 
subordinate  offices  until  the  rendition  of 
the  State  to  its  ruler  in  1881  :  then  he 
became  Personal  Assistant  to  Runga 
Charlu,  whom  he  succeeded  as  Diwan  in 
1883.  For  17  years  he  laboured  assidu- 
ously to  promote  the  economic  and 
industrial  development  of  the  State.  He 
began  with  a  debt  of  30  lakhs  and  left 
with  a  surplus  of  176  lakhs.  In  railway, 
irrigation,  and  mining  works  immense 
progress  was  made  during  his  adminis- 
tration :  his  unpopularity  was  due  to 
his  showing  preference  in  his  appointments 
to  "  outsiders  "  over  natives  of  the  State  : 
a  high  -  principled  and  accomplished 
statesman :  received  a  handsome  bonus 
of  4  lakhs  on  his  retirement  in  1900: 
made  C.S.I,  in  1887,  K.C.S.I.  in  1893  : 
Fellow  of  the  Madras  University  :  died 
Sep.  13,  1901. 

SAWMY  (1832-1895) 

Born  Jan.  28,  1832  :  of  a  poor  but 
respectable  family  in  the  Tanjore  Dis- 
trict :  his  father  died  when  he  was  young, 
and  his  mother  had  not  the  means  to 
educate  him  :  began  life  as  assistant  to  a 
village  accountant  :  in  1846,  Tahsildar 
Mutusawmy  Naik  was  struck  with  his 
intelligence,  and  sent  him  to  the  Madras 
High  School.  He  was  a  favourite  pupil 
of  E.  B.  Powell  {q.v.)  :  after  serving  for  a 
time  in  the  Tanjore  District,  was  appointed 
a  Deputy  Inspector  of  Schools  in  1856  : 
and,  later.  District  Munsif  of  Tranque- 
bar  :  in  1859,  Deputy  Collector  of  Tan- 
jore :  in  1865,  Sub- Judge  of  S.  Canara  : 
in  1868,  Police  Magistrate  at  Madras: 
passed  the  B.L.  degree  at  the  University, 
and  became  a  Judge  of  the  Small  Cause 
Coiurt :  in  1878,  CLE.  and  Judge  of  the 
High  Court,  where  he  remained  for  15 
years  ;  acting  as  Chief  Justice  for  3  months 

in  1893  :  K.C.I.E.  :  was  very  learned  in 
Hindu  Law  and  a  soimd  English  lawyer, 
somewhat  timid  in  coming  to  a  decision  : 
died  Jan.  25,  1895. 

AJUDHIA  NATH  PANDIT  (1840-1892) 

A  Kashmiri  Brahman  :  born  April  8, 
1840 :  his  father,  Kedar  Nath,  was  a 
merchant  at  Agra  and  for  some  time 
Diwan  to  the  Nawab  of  Jaflfhar  :  edu- 
cated at  the  Agra  College  :  in  1862  joined 
the  bar.  When  the  seat  of  Government 
was  moved  from  Agra  to  Allahabad  ,he 
migrated  there  :  in  1869  Professor  of  Law 
at  Agra  :  very  successful  as  a  pleader, 
and  amassed  a  fortune  :  continued  his 
studies  in  Persian  and  Arabic  :  became 
a  member  of  the  N.W.P.  Legislative 
Council ;  Fellow  of  the  Calcutta  and 
Allahabad  Universities ;  a  prominent 
member  of  the  National  Congress  in  1888, 
and  afterwards  became  Joint  General 
Secretary :  a  man  of  strong  individu- 
ality :    died  Jan.  11,  1892. 

AKBAR  KHAN  (  ?    -1849) 

Eldest  son  of  Dost  Mahammad  (q.v.), 
the  Amir  of  Afghanistan  :  distinguished 
himself  against  the  Sikhs,  and  took  an 
active  part  in  the  insurrection  in  Kabul 
in  1841  against  Shah  Shuja,  the  Amir  and 
the  British  forces  :  at  the  conference  to 
which  the  envoy.  Sir  W.  H.  Macnaghten, 
was  invited  on  Dec.  23,  1S41,  outside 
Kabul,  he  treacherously  murdered  Mac- 
naghten :  the  British  hostages,  including 
women  and  children,  were  given  over  to 
him,  when  the  British  army  retreated 
from  Kabul  and  was  destroyed,  in  Jan., 
1842,  by  the  Afghans  and  the  climate  :  he 
treated  them  chivalrously  :  he  attacked 
Sale's  garrison  near  Jalalabad,  but  was 
beaten  off  on  April  7,  1842,  by  a  force 
under  Havelock  :  he  was  again  routed,  in 
Aug.,  1842,  at  Tezin  by  the  relieving 
force  under  General  Pollock :  he  died 
1849,  in  Kabul,  after  the  restoration  of 
Dost  Muhammad. 


(1859-    ) 

Educated  at  MUl  HUl,  Blackheath, 
Westminster,  and  Aberdeen  University : 
Assistant  Professor  of  Zoology,  Aberdeen 
University,  1883-85  :  joined  the  Indian 
Medical  Service,  1885  :  served  in  the 
Panjab  Frontier  Force  :   Surgeon  Natura- 



list  to  the  Marine  Survey  of  India  on 
board  the  Investigator,  1888-1892  :  Super- 
intendent of  the  Indian  Museum  and 
Professor  of  Zoology  in  the  Medical  College, 
Calcutta,  since  1893  :  CLE. :  author  of 
A  Naturalist  in  Indian  Seas  and  numerous 
zoological  monographs :  Major. 

ALEXANDER,  SIR  JAMES  (  ?    -  ?     ) 

Entered  the  Bengal  Artillery,  1820  :  at 
capture  of  Bhartpur,  1825-6  :  commanded 
the  Artillery  under  Pollock  in  Afghanistan, 
1842  :  forced  the  Khyber  Pass,  at  Tezin 
and  Kabul :  in  the  Gwalior  campaign, 
at  Maharajpur,  1843  :  in  the  Satlaj  cam- 
paign, 1845-6,  at  Badiwal,Aliwal,  Sobraon: 
C.B.  :  K.C.B.,  1871  General,  -872  : 
retired,  1887' 



Born  Oct.  16,  1803  :  son  of  Edward 
Alexander,  of  Powis  :  educated  at  Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow  and  the  R.M.C.,  Sand- 
hurst :  to  Madras  as  a  cadet  in  1820  : 
Adjutant  of  the  bodyguard  to  Sir  Thomas 
Munro,  and  served  in  the  Burmese  war  of 
1824  :  left  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  army  in  1825, 
but  saw  much  active  service,  with  the 
Persian  army,  in  the  Balkans,  Portugal, 
S.  Africa,  Canada,  the  Crimea,  New 
Zealand  :  employed  on  Government  expedi- 
tions in  exploring  and  surveying  in  Central 
Africa  and  New  Brunswick,  for  which  he 
was  knighted  :  took  a  leading  part  in  the 
removal  of  'Cleopatra's  Needle'  to  England, 
1867-77  :  made  C.B.  in  1873,  retired  as 
Lt-General,  and  became  General  in  1881  : 
died  April  2,  1885  :  wrote  Travels  from 
India  to  England  by  way  of  Burma,  Persia, 
Turkey,  etc.,  1827,  and  other  works  :  was 
Knight  Commander  of  the  Lion  and 
Sun  :  F.R.S.  Edinburgh  :  F.R.G.S.  : 
F.R.A.S.  :    F.S.S.A. 


(      r       -1793    ?) 

Of  Patna  :  "  Daroga  "  of  the  Court  at 
Benares,  that  is.  President  of  the  tribunal 
there,  in  the  time  of  Warren  Hastings' 
Governorship  :  besides  a  number  of  com- 
positions, he  compiled  the  Gulzar-i 
Ibrahim,  described  as  an  anthological 
biography  of  Hindustani  poets,  written 
1772-1784  :  he  had  a  poetical  name, 
Khatil  :    died  1793  or  1794. 


(1826-  ) 

General :  son  of  Sir.  A.  A.,  the  historian  : 
born  Jan.  21,  1826  :  educated  at  Glasgow 
and  Edinburgh  Universities :  entered 
the  Army  in  1846  :  served  in  the  Crimea  ; 
in  the  Indian  mutiny  he  was  Military 
Secretary  to  Sir  Colin  Campbell,  then 
C.  in  C.  in  India  ;  lost  his  arm  at  the 
relief  of  Lucknow  in  Nov.,  1857  :  made 
C.B.  :  served  in  the  Ashanti  expedition 
in  1873-4  :  made  K.C.B.  and  later  G.C.B.  : 
Commandant  of  the  Staff  College,  1877  : 
Head  of  the  Intelligence  Department, 
1878-8  :  in  the  Egyptian  campaign  of 
1882,  commanded  at  Alexandria,  and  the 
Highland  Brigade  at  Tel-el- Kebir  :  C  in 
C.  in  Egypt,  1882-3  :  commanded  the 
Aldershot  Division  from  1883  :  Adjutant - 
General,  1888  :  retired  from  the  Army, 
1893  :  member  of  the  Council  of  India, 
1 889-1 899  :  wrote  a  number  of  articles  in 
Blackwood'' s    Magazine. 

ALIVERDI  KHAN  (1676P-1756) 

Nawab  Nazim  of  Bengal,  Bihar  and 
Orissa :  son  of  Mirza  Muhammad,  a 
Turkoman  employed  at  Delhi :  entered 
the  service  of  Nawab  Shujauddin,  governor 
of  Orissa  (son-in-law  of  Nawab  Murshid 
Kali  J  afar  Khan)  as  a  commander  of 
troops  :  in  1726,  J  afar  Khan  died,  Shu- 
jauddin succeeded  him  as  Nawab  Nazim, 
and  Aliverdi  Khan  became  General  of 
the  Imperial  troops :  in  1729  he  was 
appointed  Governor  of  Bihar  by  Nawab 
Shujauddin,  and,  later,  became  free  from 
any  dependence  on  the  Nizam  of  Bengal : 
in  1739  Shujauddin  died,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son,  Sarfaraz  Khan,  Aliverdi 
continuing  to  be  governor  of  Bihar  :    in 

1740  Aliverdi  quarrelled  with  the  Nawab 
Sarfaraz,  defeated  and  killed  him  in  battle 
and  seized  the  Nizamat :  he  was  known 
in     Bengal     as     Muhabat     Jang.     From 

1 74 1  the  Mahrattas  invaded  Bengal,  and 
their  leader,  Bhashkar  Pandit,  was  in- 
veigled by  Aliverdi  to  a  conference,  and 
treacherously  killed  :  the  Mahratta  raids 
spread  consternation  throughout  Bengal, 
and,  after  fighting  with  them  up  to  1751, 
Aliverdi  made  peace  by  ceding  Orissa 
to  them  and  agreeing  to  an  annual  pay- 
ment of  12  lakhs  of  rupees.  Aliverdi 
allowed  the  English  to  protect  themselves 
in  1742,  by  digging  the  Mahratta  ditch 
round  the  Company's  territory  to  stop  the 



Mahratta  raids.  In  1753  he  adopted  his 
grandson,  Surajuddaula,  and  declared 
him  his  successor.  On  April  9,  1756, 
Aliverdi  died  at  the  age  of  80,  at  Mur- 

ALLARD,  JEAN  FRANCOIS  (1785-1839) 

General :  born  in  France,  March  8, 
1785  :  served  in  the  French  Cavalry  from 
1803  :  in  Italy :  A.D.C.  to  Marshal 
Brune  :  after  Waterloo,  went  to  Persia  ; 
thence  through  Kandahar  and  Kabul  to 
Lahore  :  entered  Ranjit  Singh's  service 
in  March,  1822,  and  drilled  Sikh  cavalry 
for  him  on  the  European  model :  engaged 
in  numerous  campaigns  :  of  high  character 
and  much  liked  and  respected  by  Euro- 
peans :  was  General  in  the  French  Army, 
and  Political  Agent  of  the  French  Govern- 
ment at  Lahore  :  died  at  Peshawar,  Jan. 
23.  1839,  and  buried  at  Lahore. 

Educated  at  Aberdeen  University : 
for  years  connected  with  Blackwood,  and 
his  chief  adviser  in  the  management  of 
the  magazine  :  went  to  India  as  a  journal- 
st  on  the  staff  of  the  Indian  Statesman  : 
declined  a  civil  appointment  offered 
him :  went  to  Ceylon :  was  special 
correspondent  there  in  connexion  with 
H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales'  visit  to  the 
East :  on  returning  to  England,  wrote 
for  Reviews  and  Magazines  :  wrote  novels 
with  success,  such  as  The  City  of  Sunshine, 
EarVs  Court,  a  biography  of  Admiral 
Keith,  and  other  similar  works :  died 
April  22,  1896. 

ALLEN,  CHARLES  (1808-1884) 

I.C.S.  :  born  July  29, 1808  :  son  of  Rev. 
David  Bird  Allen :  educated  at  West- 
minster and  Haileybury  :  went  to  India 
1827  :  served  chiefly  in  the  N.W.P.  : 
Magte.  CoUr.  of  Moradabad,  1837  :  Hamir- 
pur,  1841  :  Settlement  Officer  in  Bundel- 
kund  :  Judge  at  Agra,  1843-9  '  and  at 
Fatehghar  :  acted  as  Foreign  Secretary 
to  the  Government  of  India,  1852  :  Finan- 
cial Secretary,  1854  :  and  Member  of  the 
Legislative  Council  of  India,  1854  :  retired, 
1857  :  died,  Nov.  5,  1884  :  was  J. P.  and 
Alderman  and  Mayor  of  Tenby,  and  High 
Sheriff  of  Pembrokeshire,  1876  :  wrote  in 
support  of  Lord  Dalhousie  The  Yellow 
Pamphlet    in    answer    to    Colonel    G.    B. 

Malleson's  Red  Pamphlet  at  the  time  of  the 



Son  of  James  Allen  :  founder  of  the 
Pioneer  and  Civil  and  Military  Gazette,- the 
first  daily  newspapers  published  elsewhere 
than  in  the  Presidency  towns  in  India  : 
promoted  private  enterprise :  CLE., 
1879  :  K.C.I.E.,  1897 :  died  Nov.  4. 

ALMS,  JAMES  (1728-1791) 

Naval  officer  :  born  July  15,  1728,  of 
humble  origin,  entered  the  Navy  early  : 
served  in  the  East  Indies :  narrowly 
escaped  when  his  ship  sank  in  a  storm  in 
April,  1749,  near  Fort  St.  David  : 
commanded  an  East  Indiaman  in  the 
Bombay-China  trade  :  was  present  at  the 
capture  of  Gheria,  the  stronghold  of  the 
pirate  Angria  in  1756.  After  service  in 
other  stations,  he,  in  1780,  commanded 
the  Monmouth,  60  guns,  joining  Sir  Edward 
Hughes  in  the  Indian  seas  :  was  present 
in  the  engagements  of  1782  off  Sadras, 
Providien,  Negapatam,  Trincomalee,  in 
which  his  ship  suffered  severely  and  his 
losses  were  heavy  :  his  health  gave  way  : 
retired  in  1784,  and  died  June  8,  1791- 

AMEER  ALI,  SYAD  (1849-    ) 

Born  April  6,  1849  :  son  of  Syad  Saadat 
Ali,  of  Unao,  Oudh,  of  a  family  originally 
from  Persia  :  descendant  of  Muhammad 
through  the  Imam  Ali-ar-Raza,  of  Mashad: 
educated  at  Hughli  College  :  M.A.  and 
B.L.,  Calcutta  :  called  to  the  bar  at  the 
Inner  Temple,  1873,  practised  in  the 
High  Court,  Calcutta:  FeUow  of  the 
Calcutta  University,  1874 :  Magistrate 
and  Chief  Magistrate,  Calcutta,  1878-81  : 
Lecturer  on  Muhammadan  Law,  1875-9  '- 
Member  of  the  Bengal  Legislative  Council, 
1878-83  :  and  of  the  Governor  General's 
Legislative  Council,  1883-5  :  Tagore 
Law  Professor,  1884:  CLE. :  Puisne  Judge 
of  the  Calcutta  High  Court,  1890-1904  : 
President  of  the  Committee  of  the  Hughli 
Imambara,  1876-1904 :  founder  of  the 
Central  National  Muhammadan  Associa- 
tion, and  its  Secretary,  1876-90  :  a 
strong  advocate  of  English  education  and 
of  the  education  of  Indian  ladies  :  very 
influential  among  the  Muhammadans  in 
Bengal :    wrote  A  Critical  Examination  of 



the  Life  and  Teachings  of  Muhammad, 
The  Spirit  of  Islam,  The  Ethics  of  Islam, 
A  Short  History  of  the  Saracens,  Personal 
Law  of  the  Muhammadans,  Students' 
Handbook  of  Muhammadan  Law,  Muham- 
madan  Law :  was  joint  author  of  A 
Commentary  on  the  Indian  Evidence  Act, 
and  of  A  Commentary  on  the  Bengal  Tenancy 
Act :  has  frequently  written  articles  in 
The  Nineteenth  Century,  and  is  engaged 
on  a  History  of  Muhammadan  Civilization 
in  India. 

PITT,    FIRST    EARL    (1773-1857) 

Governor-General :  born  in  Jan.  1773  : 
sent  on  an  embassy  to  China  in  1816  : 
arrived  in  Calcutta  as  Governor-General, 
Aug.  I,  1823  :  it  devolved  on  him  to 
allay  the  excitement  caused  by  the  action 
of  the  Government  towards  the  Press 
and  Mr.  J.  S.  Buckingham  {q.v.)  In 
Feb.,  1824,  the  Burmese  having  occupied 
countries  near  Bengal  and  attacked  British 
territory,  Amherst  declared  war  and 
despatched  an  expedition,  which  cap- 
tured Rangoon,  Martaban  and  Prome : 
•peace  was  made  by  the  treaty  of  Yanda- 
boo,  1826,  by  which  Assam  and  Tenasserim 
were  ceded  to  the  British.  In  Jan.,  1826, 
the  capture  of  Bhartpur  by  Lord  Comber- 
mere  took  place,  when  the  British  Govern- 
ment restored  the  youthful  Raja  Balwant 
Singh,  whom  Government  had  recognized, 
to  the  throne,  which  had  been  seized  by  a 
cousin,  Durjan  Sal.  Lord  Amherst  was 
made  an  Earl.  He  was  the  first  Governor- 
General  to  spend,  in  1827,  the  summer  in 
Simla  :  left  India  March  10,  1828  :  died 
March  13,   1857. 



Born  at  Barh,  March  10,  1810  :  ap- 
pointed, 1829,  Assistant  to  the  Ambassador 
of  Nasiruddin  Hyder,  King  of  Oudh  :  in 
1838  Deputy  Assistant  Superintendent 
in  the  Presidency  Special  Commissioner's 
Court  at  Calcutta  :  in  1845,  Government 
Pleader  in  the  Sadr  Diwani  A  dalat :  in 
1857,  Personal  Assistant  to  the  Com- 
missioner of  Patna :  in  1864  Khan 
Bahadur  and  Member  of  the  Bengal 
Legislative  Council :  entered  the  service 
of  the  late  ex- King  of  Oudh,  and  appointed 
a  Commissioner  to  settle  the  debts  of  the 
late  Nawab  Nazim  of  Bengal :    in    1875 

made  Nawab :  in  1878  the  Sultan  of 
Turkey  made  him  a  Companion  of  the 
Order  of  the  Osmanli :    died  Nov.,  1879. 

AMIR  KHAN  (1790?-after  1877) 

A  wealthy  banker  and  money-lender  of 
Patna :  was  arrested  and  tried  as  a 
member  of  a  Wahabi  conspirary,  at  Patna, 
in  1 871,  on  various  charges  of  attempting 
to  wage  war  against  the  Queen  :  con- 
victed and  sentenced  to  transportation 
for  life,  with  forfeiture  of  property,  and 
released  on  the  proclamation  of  the  Queen 
as  Empress  of  India,  Jan.  i,  1877. 

AMIR  KHAN  (  ?    -1834) 

Born  in  Rohilkund,  of  Afghan  parents  : 
at  20  went  with  followers  to  Malwa : 
took  service  under  Bhopal :  next  under 
the  Mahrattas  :  from  1799  to  1806  com- 
manded the  army  of  J  aswant  Rao  Holkar  : 
next  under  the  Raja  of  Jaipur  :  always 
committing  plunder  and  depredations : 
attacked  the  Mahrattas,  in  Nagpur,  but 
returned  to  his  own  capital,  Sironj,  to 
defend  it  against  the  British  :  he  was 
essentially  a  Pindari :  when  the  British 
entered  Malwa  in  18 17,  negotiations  passed 
between  them  and  Amir  Khan,  which 
resulted  in  his  abandoning  the  predatory 
system,  dismissing  his  army,  and  being 
allowed  to  keep  the  lands  he  held  under 
grants  from  Holkar  :  he  received  territory 
and  a  gift  of  money  from  the  British  : 
and,  by  the  Treaty  of  Nov.  15,  18 17,  was 
confirmed  in  his  possessions.  The  Princi- 
pality of  Tonk  was  thus  established,  and 
Amir  Khan's  descendants  are  still  Nawabs 
there  :    he  died  1834. 

AMOS,  ANDREW  (1791-1860) 

Lawyer  :  born  in  India,  1791  :  son  of 
James  Amos,  merchant :  educated  at 
Eton,  and  Trinity  College,  Cambridge  : 
Fellow,  1813  :  called  to  the  bar  by  the 
Middle  Temple  :  had  a  large  practice  : 
Recorder  of  Oxford,  Nottingham,  and 
Banbury  :  a  member  of  the  Criminal  Law 
Commission  for  some  years :  Professor 
of  English  Law  at  University  College, 
London,  1829-37  :  Legal  Member  (suc- 
ceeding Macaulay)  of  the  Supreme  Coun- 
cil of  the  Governor-General,  1838-42  : 
had  much  to  do  with  the  abolition  of 
slavery  in  India,  and  the  framing  of  the 
Penal   Code.     On  return  to  England  he 



became  a  County  Court  Judge,  and 
Downing  Professor  of  Laws  at  Cam- 
bridge :  wrote  on  a  number  of  legal  and 
literaryjsubjects  :    died  April  18,  i860. 

AMPTHILL,         OLIVER         ARTHUR 

(1869-         ) 

Born  Feb.  19,  1869  :  son  of  the  first 
Baron  (better  known  as  Lord  Odo  Rus- 
sell) educated  at  Eton,  and  New  College, 
Oxford  :  rowed  in  the  Oxford  University 
Eight,  1889-91  :  President  of  the  O.U.B.C. 
1891  :  President  of  the  Oxford  Union 
Society,  1891  :  won  the  Pair  Oars  at 
Henley  Regatta  with  Guy  Nickalls,  1890- 
91  :  Private  Secretary  to  Rt.  Hon.  J. 
Chamberlain  :  Governor  of  Madras,  from 
Dec,  1900  :  Viceroy  and  Governor-General 
from  April  30  to  Dec,  1904. 



A  Bengal  Civilian  :  chief  of  the  English 
factory  at  Patna  in  1759  :  a  member  of 
the  Calcutta  Council  when  Vansittart 
{q.v.)  was  Governor  in  Bengal.  Amyatt 
had  been  superseded  by  dive's  appoint- 
ment of  Vansittart,  and  therefore  con- 
stantly opposed  all  his  measures  :  sent 
on  a  mission  to  Mir  Kasim,  Nawab  of 
Bengal :  it  was  unsuccessful,  and  war 
was  imminent,  but  Amyatt  was  given 
leave  to  return  to  Calcutta :  meanwhile, 
however,  the  disaster  took  place  at  Patna  : 
Amyatt  was  attacked  and  murdered  by 
Mir  Kasim' s  troops  before  he  had  reached 
his    destination,    1763. 

ANDERSON,  DAVID  (   ?    -  ?     ) 

Employed  by  Warren  Hastings  on 
important  negotiations ;  sent  on  an 
embassy  to  Madhava  Rao  Sindia,  at  the 
close  of  the  first  Mahratta  war,  to  conclude 
peace,  1782  :  accompanied  by  his  brother, 
Lieut.  James  Anderson,  as  his  assistant : 
he  remained  with  Sindia  as  Political 
Resident  until  Warren  Hastings  left 
India,  1785,  when  James  succeeded  as 
Resident.  The  conciliatory  attitude  of 
the  Mahratta  Government  at  a  critical 
period  was  due  to  the  exertions  of  the 
brothers  Anderson.  David  was  examined 
as  a  witness  at  Hastings'  trial,  1790,  being 
then  President  of  the  Committee  of 



LC.S.  :  entered  the  Bombay  Civil 
Service  in  1806  :  drew  up  the  "  Bombay 
Code  of  1827  ":  was  a  Judge  of  the  Sadf 
Court,  and,  in  1835,  was  appointed  to 
the  Indian  Law  Commission  :  in  1838 
he  became  Member  of  Council,  Bombay  : 
from  April,  1841,  to  June,  1842,  acted  a§ 
Governor  of  Bombay,  between  Sir  J. 
Rivett-Carnac  and  Sir  G.  Arthur  :  retired 
in  1844 :  in  1849  was  knighted  and 
appointed  Governor  of  the  Mauritius, 
but  after  16  months  was  transferred  to 
Ceylon  as  Governor,  and  made  K.C.B.  : 
resigned  in  1855  :  died  March  12,  1857. 



I.C.S.  :  eldest  son  of  Sir  George  William 
Anderson,  K.C.B.  {q.v.)  :  educated  at 
Haileybury :  went  to  Bombay  in  the 
Civil  Service,  1820  :  Secretary  to  Govern- 
ment,  Bombay,  in  the  Secret,  Political 
and  Judical  Departments,  1855  :  Chief 
Secretary,  1861  :  member  of  the  Legislar 
tive  Coimcil,  Bombay  :  resigned,  1865  : 
Secretary  in  the  Judicial  Department  at 
the  India  Office,  1866  :  K.C.S.I.,  1867  : 
died  April  7,  1879. 



In  the  medical  service  of  the  E.  I. 
Co.  :  served  in  Madras :  appointed 
Assistant  Sturgeon,  1765  :  Surgeon,  1786  ; 
Member  of  the  Madras  Medical  Board, 
1800  :  a  distinguished  botanist  :  worked 
at  developing  the  cochiiieal  dye,  and  intro- 
ducing  the  cultivation  of  silk  :  wrote  for 
some  years  on  sugar-cane,  the  coffee* 
plant,  cotton,  and  the  apple  :  died  Aug.  5, 

ANDERSON,  JOHN  (1795-1845) 

Of  the  E.I.Co.'s  service  :  went  out  to, 
Pulo  Penang,  or  Prince  of  Wales'  Island, 
in  181 3,  as  a  writer :  after  the  usual 
succession  of  minor  appointments  he. 
became,  in  1827,  senior  merchant.  Secre- 
tary to  Government,  and  Malay  translator  : 
was  employed  in  negotiations  with  the 
neighboiuring  potentates  of  Sumatra,  etc  : 
died  Dec.  2,  1845  :  wrote  several  works 
about  the  Malayan  Peninsula,  the  British 
settlements,  and  the  adjacent  countries 
and  their  commerce. 



ANDERSON,   REV.   JOHN  (1805-1855) 

Missionary:  born  in  1805,  son  of  a 
Scotch  farmer  :  educated  at  Edinburgh 
University  :  ordained  in  1836  a  minister 
of  the  Church  of  Scotland,  and  was  sent 
as  missionary  to  Madras  :  founded  the 
Madras  Christian  College,  which,  after 
1843,  was  continued  in  connexion  with 
the  Scotch  Free  Church  :  the  education 
there  afforded  was  greatly  appreciated, 
and  with  Mrs.  Anderson's  help  the  educa- 
tion of  native  girls  of  all  castes  and  creeds 
was  successfully  undertaken  :  he  died  at 
Madras  in  1855. 

ANDERSON,  JOHN  (1833-1900) 

Son  of  Thomas  Anderson :  born  Oct.  4, 
1833,  at  Edinburgh  :  M.D.  at  Edinburgh 
University,  1862,  obtaining  the  gold 
medal  for  zoology :  President  of  the 
Royal  Physical  Society,  Edinburgh,  which 
he  helped  to  found  :  Professor  of  Natural 
History  in  the  Free  Church  College,  Edin- 
burgh :  in  1865  appointed  Xurator,  and, 
later.  Superintendent  of  the  Indian 
Museum,  Calcutta,  an  office  which  he 
held  till  he  retired  in  1886.  He  was  a 
member,  as  naturalist,  of  scientific 
expeditions  to  Upper  Burma  and  Yunnan 
in  1867  :  in  the  same  direction,  as  far  as 
the  Burmese  frontier,  in  1875-6  :  and  to 
the  Mergui  Archipelago  in  188 1-2  :  wrote 
full  accounts  of  his  travels,  adding  largely 
to  the  science  of  marine  and  general 
zoology,  and  anatomy  :  also  on  the 
reptiles  and  fauna  of  Egypt  :  and  con- 
tributed to  the  proceedings  of  learned 
societies  :  F.R.S.  .  in  1879  :  LL.D.  of 
Edinburgh,  1885  :  Fellow  of  the  Linnaean 
Society  and  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
and  Vice-President  of  the  Zoological 
Society  of  London  :   died  Aug.  15,  1900. 

ANDERSON,  THOMAS  (1832-1870) 
Botanist  :  born  Feb.  26,  1832,  and  took 
his  M.D.  degree  at  Edinburgh  University 
in  1853  :  joined  the  Medical  Service, 
Bengal,  in  1854,  at  Calcutta :  was  at 
Delhi  during  the  mutiny  :  was,  in  i860. 
Superintendent  of  the  Botanic  Garden  at 
Sibpur,  opposite  Calcutta,  introduced 
many  improvements,  and  laboured  speci- 
ally for  the  cultivation  of  cinchona  in 
India,  which  afterwards  was  effected  :  in 
1864  he  organised  the  Forest  Department 
in  Bengal :  died  Oct.  26,  1870,  at  Edin- 
burgh :   published  an  account  of  the  flora 

of 'Aden,  and  worked  at  the  flora  of  India 

ANDREW,  JAMES  (1774  7-1833) 

A  Scotchman,  educated  at  Aberdeen  : 
had  a  school  at  Addiscombe,  which  the 
E.  I.  Co.  took  over  for  the  education  of 
their  engineer  and  artillery  officers  :  on 
its  purchase  in  1809  he  was  appointed 
Headmaster  and  Professor  of  Mathe- 
matics :  retired  about  1823  and  died 
June  13,  1833. 



Born  1807  :  son  of  Patrick  Andrew  : 
educated  at  Edinburgh  and  Oxford  :  was 
for  a  short  time  in  India  in  his  younger 
days  :  published  a  work  on  Indian  Rail- 
ways, 1846  :  devoted  much  attention  to 
the  promotion  of  railway  and  telegraphic 
communication  between  England  and 
India  :  specially  advocating  the  scheme 
for  an  Euphrates  Valley  Railway  :  sub- 
mitted to  the  Home  Government  his 
schemes  for  the  defence  of  India  :  pub- 
lished, during  40  years,  a  number  of  works, 
letters  and  papers,  and  delivered  lectures 
on  the  subject  of  Indian  railways,  the 
Euphrates  Valley  route,  and  the  import- 
ance of  the  Indus  and  its  provinces  :  was 
founder  and  Chairman  of  the  Sind,  Pan  jab 
and  Delhi  Railway  :  in  1856  he  arranged 
with  Government  for  the  establishment 
of  telegraphic  communication  with  India  : 
lectured  and  wrote  on  the  Central  Asian 
question,  1872-86  :  wrote  to  the  Times  on 
the  A  dvance  of  Russia  :  wrote  India  and 
her  Neighbours,  1878  :  advocated  the  con- 
struction of  railway  lines  to  the  Bolan  and 
the  Khyber  :  advocated  the  5 '6"  gauge 
for  Indian  railways  :  Chairman  in  1879  of 
a  meeting  to  promote  the  construction 
of  a  railway  from  the  Persian  Gulf  to 
Constantinople  and  the  Mediterranean  : 
was  called  "  an  apostle  of  railways,"  "the 
railway  statesman,"  "  the  pioneer  of 
railway  enterprise "  :  continued  to  urge 
the  advantage  of  the  Euphrates  Valley 
line  as  alternative  to  that  of  the  Red  Sea  : 
knighted,  1882  :  CLE.  :  Fellow  of  many 
scientific  societies  :    died  March  11,  1887. 

ANQUETIL,    THOMAS    JOHN    (1781- 

Native  of  Jersey  :  entered  the  Army, 
1803  :    served  in  the  Mahratta  campaign. 



attached  to  the  Light  Brigade,  commanded 
the  Pioneer  Corps,  the  57th  N.I.,  and  the 
44th  N.I.  successively  :  Adjutant-General 
of  General  Stevenson's  force  in  the 
Shekhawati  campaign  :  D.A.G.  :  com- 
manded the  Oudh  Contingent  as  Brigadier  : 
Inspecting  Officer  of  all  the  Contingents  : 
as  a  Lt-Colonel  and  Brigadier  commanded 
Shah  Shuja's  army  :  in  the  retreat  from 
Kabul  was  killed  at  Jagdalak  on  Jan.  12, 

HYACINTHE  (1731-1806) 

Brother  of  L.  P.  Hyacinthe,  the  French 
historian  :  born  at  Paris  in  1731  :  being 
bent  on  studying  Oriental  languages,  he 
went  to  India  as  a  private  soldier  in  I754. 
and  acquired  considerable  knowledge  of 
Sanskrit,  translating  a  dictionary  in  that 
language  :  on  the  taking  of  Pondicherry 
by  the  English  he  returned  to  Europe 
and  conveyed  his  MSS.  to  Paris,  where 
he  was  appointed  Oriental  interpreter  to 
the  King's  Library  :  was  Member  of  the 
Academy  of  Inscriptions  and  Belles 
Lettres,  and  the  National  Institute,  and  one 
of  the  most  celebrated  of  the  literati  of 
Europe  :    he  died  Jan.  17,  1805. 

ARCHIBALD  (1835-77) 

Younger  brother  of  the  Earl  of  Lich- 
field :  born  1835  :  entered  the  Army 
1853,  in  the  Rifle  Brigade  :  in  the  Crimea  : 
joined  the  84th  regt.  :  in  the  mutiny,  was 
A.D.C.  to  Sir  J.  Hope  Grant  :  wounded  at 
the  siege  of  Delhi :  at  Bulandshahr 
■deserved  his  V.C,  and  gained  it  as  a  Cap- 
tain at  the  capture  of  the  Sikandarbagh 
on  Sir  Colin  Campbell's  relief  of  Lucknow, 
Nov.  16,  1857  :   died  Nov.  17,  1877. 

ANSON,  HON.  GEORGE  (1797-1857) 

General :  second  son  of  the  first  Vis- 
'Count  Anson  :  served  at  Waterloo  in  the 
Guards  :  was  M.P.  from  1818  for  many 
years  :  in  1853,  appointed  to  command  a 
Division  in  India  :  C.  in  C.  Madras,  1854, 
and  C.  in  C.  in  India,  1856  :  was  at  Simla 
when  the  mutiny  broke  out  in  May,  1857, 
and  hastened  down  to  the  plains  :  while 
on  the  march  from  Umbala  to  Delhi  with 
a  force,  he  died  of  cholera  at  Karnal, 
May  27,  1857. 


Barrister  and  political  writer  :  born  in 
London,  1816  :  educated  at  Wellington 
and  University  College,  London  :  called 
to  the  bar  at  the  Middle  Temple,  1839  : 
became,  in  the  Oxford  movement,  a  Roman 
Catholic,  and  Professor  of  Law  at  the 
Roman  Catholic  College  near  Bath : 
wrote  on  legal  and  political  subjects  :  was 
M.P.  for  Youghal  1847-52,  when  his 
excessive  speaking  in  Parliament  was 
much  resented :  appointed  Attorney 
General  at  Hongkong,  1854,  but  was  sus- 
pended by  the  Governor,  Sir  John  Bowring, 
in  1858  :  after  a  short  time  at  Calcutta, 
he  was  very  successful  at  the  Bombay 
bar,  and  in  1865  acted  for  a  few  months 
as  a  Judge  of  the  High  Court  :  failing  to 
obtain  work  at  the  English  bar,  he  returned 
to  Bombay  and  died  there,  Aug  17,  1873  : 
his  violent  temper  stood  in  his  way  through 
life,  leading  him  into  constant  quarrels 
with  his  profession  and  society 



Judge :  son  of  Sir  R.  Anstruther, 
Bart  :  born  Sep.  10,  1769  :  called  to  the 
bar  at  Lincoln's  Inn,  and  published  legal 
reports  :  was  Advocate-General,  Madras, 
1803  :  Recorder  of  Bombay,  1812  : 
knighted  :    died  July  16,  1819. 

ANSTRUTHER,     SIR     JOHN     (1753- 

Chief  Justice  :  born  March  27,  1753  : 
son  of  Sir  John  Anstruther,  Bart.  :  edu- 
cated at  Glasgow  :  called  to  the  bar  at 
Lincoln's  Inn,  1779  '  was  M.P.  for  Cocker- 
mouth,  1790-96  :  supported  C.  J.  Fox, 
and  was  one  of  the  managers  of  the 
impeachment  of  Warren  Hastings,  having 
to  speak  on  certain  of  the  charges  :  in 
1797,  appointed  Chief  Justice  of  Bengal, 
made  a  Baronet,  and  retired  to  England, 
1806  :  Privy  Councillor  :  re-entered  Par- 
liament :  died  in  London,  Jan.  26,  1811. 

APPA  SAHIB  (    ?     -1840) 

Raja  of  Nagpur  :  when  Regent,  in  1816, 
he  put  to  death  his  cousin,  Parsoram,  or 
Parsoji,  Bhonsla,  an  idiot  Raja  of  Nagpur, 
and  succeeded  the  late  Raja's  uncle, 
Raghoji  Bhonsla  II  (q-v.)  as  Raja  :  Baji 
Rao  appointed  him  nominal  C.  in  C  of  the 



Peshwa's  army :  Appa  treacherously 
attacked  the  British  under  Mr.  Jenkins, 
Resident  of  Nagpur,  and  was  defeated 
at  Sitabaldi,  Nov.,  26-7,  1817 :  taken 
prisoner,  he  escaped  from  custody  and 
sought  refuge,  in  i8i8,  at  Jodhpur,  where 
he  is  said  to  have  died  in  1840. 


(1829-  ) 

Son  of  F.  N.  Appleyard,  a  Cursitor  .of 
the  High  Court  of  Chancery  :  educated 
at  Elizabeth  College,  Guernsey  :  entered 
the  80th  regt.,  1850  :  served  in  the  second 
Burmese  war  :  present  at  Martaban,  the 
storming  of  Rangoon  and  taking  of 
Prome  :  exchanged  to  the  7th  R.  Fusiliers  : 
in  the  Crimea  :  wounded  at  Alma,  1854, 
and  the  Redan,  1855  :  present  at  Inker- 
man,  in  the  trenches  at  Sebastopol : 
commanded  a  Brigade  in  the  Afghan  cam- 
paign, 1878-80 :    Maj-General,  and    CB. 

JOHN  (1822-    ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  the  Bishop  of  Killaloe  : 
born  Oct.  11,  1822  :  educated  at  Rugby 
and  Haileybury  :  entered  the  Madras 
Civil  Service,  1842  :  Director  of  Public 
Instruction,  1855  :  Chief  Secretary  to 
Government,  Madras,  1862  :  Additional 
Member  of  the  Legislative  Council, 
Madras,  1862  :  Member  of  Council, 
Madras,  1867-72  :  Acting  Governor  of 
Madras,  Feb.  to  May,  1872  :  K.CS.I.  : 
1873  :  Member  of  the  Supreme  Council, 
1875-80  :  CLE.  :  President  of  the 
Council,  1878  and  1879  :  Vice-Chancellor 
of  Madras  and  Calcutta  Universities  : 
Member  of  the  Council  of  India,  1887-97  : 
author  of  Selections  from  Minutes  of  Maj- 
General  Sir  Thomas  Munro,  Life  of  Lord 
Clive,  and  a  number  of  articles  in  the 
Dictionary  of  National  Biography. 



Son  of  the  Bishop  of  Killaloe,  and 
brother  of  Sir  A.  J.  Arbuthnot  {q.v.)  : 
born  May  19,  1824  :  educated  at  Rugby 
and  the  R.M.A.,  Woolwich  :  entered  the 
Royal  Artillery  1843  :  served  in  the 
Crimea  :  became  Lt-Colonel  1864  :  went 
to  India  in  1868  :  C.B.,  1871  :  D.A.G. 
of  Artillery,  1873-7:  Inspr-General  of 
Artillery     in     India,     1877-80  :      in    the 

second  Afghan  War  was  employed  as 
Brig-General,  first  in  the  Kandahar 
Field  force  and  later  in  the  Khyber  : 
K.C.B.  in  1881  :  D.A.G.  of  Artillery  in 
England,  1880-3  '  Inspr-General  of  Artil- 
lery, 1883  :  and  President  of  the  Ord- 
nance Committee,  1885  :  in  1886  was 
made  C.  in  C.  Bombay,  and  transferred 
to  Madras  in  the  same  year  :  succeeded 
Lord  Roberts  in  the  command  in  Burma 
in  1887  :  retired  from  Madras  in  1891  : 
General,  1890 :  G.C.B.,  1894  :  died 
April   14,   1899. 

ARBUTHNOT,     GEORGE     (1772-1843) 

Went,  with  his  brother  Robert,  who 
was  Chief  Secretary  in  Ceylon,  to  Colombo,, 
in  1800  :  thence  to  Madras  and  joined  a 
Mr.  Lautour  in  business  :  on  the  latter's 
death  the  firm  was  reconstituted,  under 
the  name  of  Arbuthnot  &  Co.,  which  it 
still  bears  :  retired  from  India  in  1823,. 
and  settled  in  England. 


(1848-  ) 

Born  Aug.  28,  1848  :  educated  at 
Eton  :  partner  in  the  firm  of  Arbuthnot 
&  Co.,  Madras  :  Member  of  the  Legislative 
Council,  Madras  :  Chairman  of  the 
Chamber  of  Commerce,  Madras  :  Fellow 
of  the  Madras  University  :  Chairman  of 
the  Famine  Relief  Fund  :  Knight  Bache- 

HART  (1 807-1874) 

I.C.S.  :  fifth  son  of  Sir  WiUiam  Arbuth- 
not, Bart  :  born  1807  :  educated  at  the 
Edinburgh  High  School  and  Haileybury  : 
went  to  Madras,  1826  :  became  Agent  to 
the  Governor  at  Vizagapatam  :  resigned 
the  service,  1846  :  joined  the  firm  of 
Arbuthnot  &  Co.  at  Madras :  retired 
to  England  in  1838 :  was  one  of  the 
original  members,  "chosen  by  the  Crown, 
of  the  new  Council  of  India,  from  Sep.  21, 
1858,  under  the  Statute  of  185,8  :  more 
than  once  he  declined  the  appointment  of 
Finance  Minister  in  India  :  died  Dec  11, 

ARCOT,    AZIM    JAH,     PRINCE     OF 


Uncle  of  Muhammad  Ghaus  (q.v.),  the 
Nawab  of  the  Camatic,  whom  he  succeeded, 
but  only  as  the  first  Prince  of  Arcot,  the 



title  granted  to  him  in  1867,  with  a  pension 
and  various  concessions,  a  personal  salute 
of  15  guns,  etc.  :   died  Jan.  14,  1874. 


(1882-  ) 

Born  1882  :  succeeded  his  father, 
Muhammad  Munawwar  Ali,  1903  :  Pre- 
mier Muhammadan  nobleman  of  the 
Carnatic  and  acknowledged  head  of  the 
Muhammadan  community  of  the  Madras 
Presidency  :  was  given  the  title  of  Khan 
Bahadur  in  1897. 

WAR    ALI      KHAN      BAHADUR, 
PRINCE  OF         (1856-1903) 

Son  of  Muazzaz-ud-daula,  and  nephew 
of  Intizam-ul-mulk,  whom  he  succeeded 
as  Prince  of  Arcot,  1889  :  leader  of  the 
Muhammadan  community  in  the  Madras 
Presidency,  and  held  in  high  esteem  by  it 
and  the  British  authorities  :  Khan  Baha- 
dur, 1876  :  K.C.I. E.,  1897  :  died  at  the 
Delhi  Imperial  Assemblage,  Jan.  4,  1903. 


(1840-         ) 

Maj -General,  R.E.  :  educated  at  Trinity 
College,  Dublin  :  entered  the  Royal 
Engineers  in  April,  1859  :  passed  the  Staff 
College :  his  services  in  Europe,  on 
frontier  commissions,  and  in  Africa  on 
military  campaigns,  have  been  distin- 
guished :  in  India  he  was  Private  Secre- 
tary to  the  Marquis  of  Lansdowne,  Gover- 
nor-General and  Viceroy,  from  Dec,  1888, 
to  Jan.,  1894,  and  also  to  the  Earl  of 
Elgin,  in  the  same  appointment,  Jan.  to 
April,  1894  :  is  C.B.  (Civil  1878,  Military 
1884):  CLE.  (1892):  K.C.I.E.  (1894): 
K.C.M.G.  (1902):  also  Hon.  LL.D.  of 
Trinity  College,  Dublin. 


Statesman  :  K.G.,  K.T.,  P.C.  :  born 
April  30,  1823  :  his  connection  with  India 
began  when  he  was  Secretary  of  State  for 
India  in  Mr.  Gladstone's  administration, 
1868-1874  :  when  in  opposition,  he  wrote 
and  spoke  strongly  against  (the  forward 
Afghan  policy  of  the  Conservative  Govern- 
ment. In  1865  he  wrote  India  under 
Dalhousie  and  Canning,  and  in  1899   The 

Eastern  Question  :  he  always  showed  great 
interest  in,  and  knowledge  of,  Indian 
questions  :  he  died  April  24,  1900. 

HUGHES,    BARONET    (1836-        ) 

Educated  privately  :  entered  the  Indian 
Army,  1855  :  served  throughout  the 
Indian  mutiny  :  severely  wounded,  1857  : 
retired  as  Captain  on  pension,  and  became 
orderly  officer  of  the  R.M.C.,  Addiscombe, 
until  it  was  broken  up  :  subsequently 
became  proprietor  and  editor  of  the 
Globe  newspaper,  and  received  a  Baronetcy 
in  1892. 

ARNOLD,     SIR     EDWIN     (1832-1904) 

Poet  :  born  June  10,  1832  :  educated  at 
Rochester,  King's  College,  London,  and 
University  College,  Oxford,  (Scholar)  : 
gained  the  Newdigate  Verse  Prize,  1853  : 
Principal  of  the  Government  Dekkan 
College,  in  Poona,  1856-1861  :  Fellow 
of  the  Bombay  University :  joined  the 
Daily  Telegraph  newspaper  in  London,  and 
became  its  editor  :  visited  and  admired 
Japan,  and  married  a  Japanese  lady  in 
1897  :  made  a  C.S.I.  :  and  K.C.I.E.  in 
1888  :  held  Orders  from  the  rulers  of  Siam, 
Japan,  Turkey  and  Persia  :  distinguished 
as  a  poet,  scholar,  teacher,  journalist  and 
man  of  letters  :  wrote  The  Light  of  Asia, 
Indian  Idylls,  Indian  poetry,  etc.  :  died 
March  24,   1904. 


(1864-  ) 

Born  April  19,  1864  :  educated  at  the 
City  of  London  School  and  Magdalen 
College,  Cambridge :  Professor  at  the 
M.A.O.  College,  Alighar :  Professor  of 
Philosophy  at  the  Government  College, 
Lahore  :  Dean  of  the  Oriental  Faculty, 
Pan  jab  University  :  Assistant  Librarian 
at  the  India  Office,  1904  :  Professor  of 
Arabic  at  University  College,  London,  since 
1904  :  published  The  Preaching  of  Islam, 
1896  :    Al  Mutazilah,  1902. 



Son  of  Dr.  Arnold,  of  Rugby  :  born 
April  7,  1828  :  educated  at  Rugby  :  stu- 
dent of  Christ  Church,  Oxford  :  went  to 
India  in  1848,  into  the  Native  Infantry  : 
was  an  Assistant  Commissioner  in  the 
Panjab,  and,  in  1856,  Director  of  Public 




Instruction  :  did  good  service  in  organising 
the  Department :  died  at  Gibraltar  on 
April  9,  1859,  on  his  way  to  England  : 
wrote  essays  on  social  and  Indian  subjects, 
and  Oakfield,  or  Fellowship  in  the  East : 
his  brother,  Matthew  Arnold,  wrote  A 
Southern  Night  in  memory  of  him,  and 
alluded  to  him  in  Stanzas  from  Carnac. 

ARNOULD,  SIR  JOSEPH  (1814-1886) 
Judge  :  son  of  Joseph  Arnould  :  born 
Nov.  12,  1814  :  educated  at  Charterhouse 
and  Wadham  College,  Oxford  :  Newdi- 
gate  Verse  Prize,  1834  :  Fellow  of  his 
College  :  called  to  the  bar  by  the  Middle 
Temple,  contributed  to  journalism  and 
wrote  legal  works  :  in  1859  was  made  a 
Judge  of  the  Bombay  Supreme  (afterwards 
the  High)  Court,  and  knighted  :  retired 
in  1869  :    died  Feb.  16,  1886. 



Son  of  John  Arthur  of  Plymouth  : 
entered  the  Army  in  1804  :  served  in 
Italy,  1806,  Egypt,  1807,  Sicily,  1808, 
Walcheren,  1809  :  D.A.A.G.  :  MiUtary 
Secretary  to  the  Governor  of  J  ersey : 
Major  in  a  regiment  in  Jamaica,  1812  : 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  British  Honduras 
and  Colonel,  1814-22  :  Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor of  Van  Diemen's  Land,  1824-37  : 
received  the  Hanoverian  Order  :  Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of  Upper  Canada,  1837-41  : 
made  Baronet  in  1841  :  Governor  of  Bom- 
bay from  June  9,  1842  to  Aug.  5,  1846, 
during  the  difi&cult  time  of  the  latter 
portion  of  the  first  Afghan  War,  and  of 
Lord  Ellenborough's  tenure  of  office  as 
Governor-General :  appointed  provisional 
Governor-General :  after  retirement  he 
was  made  a  Privy  Councillor  and  D.C.L., 
Oxford  :  Lt-General,  and  Colonel  of  the 
50th  regt.  :    died  Sep.  19,  1854. 


I.C.S.:born  1827:  educated  at  Haileybury: 
entered  the  Bombay  Civil  Service  in  1848, 
and  retired  in  1883  :  in  the  mutiny,  1857, 
raised  and  organized  a  body  of  horse  and 
foot  to  protect  the  E.  frontier  of  Gujarat  : 
was  Special  Commissioner  to  try  offences 
against  the  State  :  tried  and  convicted 
certain  chiefs  :  C.S.I.  :  Member  of  Council 
in  Bombay,  1877-83  :  acted  as  Governor 
of  Bombay  from  March  13  to  April  28, 


General :  son  of  George,  third  Earl  of 
Ashburnham,  K.G.  :  entered  the  Army, 
1823  :  Lt-Colonel,  1835  :  commanded  a 
Brigade  in  the  Satlaj  campaign,  1845-6, 
at  Firozshahr  and  Sobraon  :  C.B.  :  A.D.C. 
to  the  Queen  :  appointed  to  the  command 
of  the  forces  in  China,  1857  :  transferred 
to  a  military  command  in  India  :  returned 
to  England,  1858  :  Colonel  of  the  82nd 
regt.,  1859  :  General,  1868  :  died  March  3, 


SIR  (1839-1898) 
Great-grandson  of  the  second  Nizam  of 
Hyderabad  :  born  1839  :  Minister  of  Jus- 
tice in  1869,  and  acted  as  Prime  Minister 
and  Regent  during  Sir  Salar  Jang's 
absence  in  Europe  :  on  the  latter's  death, 
in  1883,  he  became  a  member  of  the  Coun- 
cil of  Regency  :  represented  the  Nizam 
at  Queen  Victoria's  Jubilee,  1887  :  was  for 
7  years  Prime  Minister  of  Hyderabad, 
1887  :  made  K.C.I.E.,  1887  :  died  1898. 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  William  Astell,  [q.v.). 
Chairman  of  the  Directors  of  the  E.I. 
Co.  :  educated  at  Eton  and  Haileybury  : 
in  the  mutiny  was  Judge  of  Azimghar, 
N.W.P. :  was  supported  by  two  companies 
of  sepoys  and  some  cavalry  of  doubtful 
loyalty,  when  he  was  attacked  by  about 
2,000  rebels  :  after  an  engagement,  in  which 
his  cavalry  deserted,  he  was  forced  to  retire 
to  his  entrenchments  and  Ghazipur  :  was 
later  besieged  at  J  aunpur,  until  relieved  by 
General  Lugard  with  a  force  from  Luck- 
now  :    died  July  6,  1903. 

ASTELL,  WILLIAM  (1774-1847) 
Son  of  Godfrey  Thornton,  Bank  of 
England  Director  :  changed  his  name  to 
Astell,  1807  :  was  Director  of  the  E.I. 
Co.,  1807-46,  and  M.P.  for  Bridgewater 
1807-32,  afterwards  for  Bedfordshire  : 
Chairman  of  the  Directors  in  1810,  1824, 
1830,  1838  :  much  opposed  to  Lord  Ellen- 
borough's  administration  of  India :  Colonel 
of  the  Royal  East  India  Volunteers  :  died 
March  7,  1847. 


(    ?     -1890) 
I.C.S.  :     educated    at    Trinity    College, 
Dublin  :    went  out  to  the  N.W.P.,  1862  : 


Census  officer  in  the  N.W.P.,  1881  :  com- 
piled the  Gazetteer  of  the  N.W.P.  :  Ac- 
countant-General  of  the  N.W.P.,  and  of 
Bengal :  President  of  the  Asiatic  Society 
of  Bengal :  took  a  keen  interest  in 
intellectual  piursuits  :    died  Sep.  18,  1890. 

ATKINSON,  JAMES  (1780-1852) 

Born  March  9,  1780  :  studied  medicine 
at  Edinburgh  and  London  :  joined  the 
Bengal  Medical  service,  1805  :  Civil  Sur- 
geon at  Backerganj,  to  1813  :  studied 
Persian :  Assay  Master  of  the  Mint, 
1813-28  :  officiating  Deputy  Professor  of 
Persian  at  Fort  William  College,  181 8, 
Superintendent  of  the  Government  Gazette, 
1 817,  and  of  the  Press  from  1823  :  com- 
menced the  Calcutta  Annual  Register, 
1823  :  in  1833,  became  Surgeon  to  the 
55th  N.I.  :  in  1838-41,  went  to  Kabul 
with  the  Army  of  the  Indus,  as  Super- 
intending Surgeon  :  returned  to  Bengal 
in  1 841  :  member  of  the  Medical  Board, 
1845  :  retired,  1847  :  died  Aug.  7.  1852  : 
published  a  number  of  translations  from 
the  Persian  classics,  many  of  them  in 
verse,  including  a  portion,  and  an  epitome, 
of  the  Shah  Nameh  :  edited  the  Persian 
Hatim  Tai  :  contributed  publications  to 
the  Oriental  Translation  Fund  :  e.g.  On 
the  Loves  of  Laili  and  Majnun  :  wrote, 
1842,  an  illustrated  narrative  of  the  expedi- 
tion into  Afghanistan  :  was  also  an  artist 
of  considerable  merit  :  brought  out 
lithographed  Sketches  in  Afghanistan. 

AUBER,  PETER  (1770-1866) 

Entered  the  India  House  at  16  :  rose  to 
be  Assistant  Secretary,  and  afterwards 
Secretary  to  the  E.  I.  Co.,  1829-36  ;  after 
50  years'  service,  retired  in  1836,  on  a 
pension  of  £,2000  a  year,  thus  drawing 
£60,000  as  pension.  His  name  stands  as 
the  author  of  two  important  works,  viz., 
an  Analysis  of  the  Constitution  of  the  E.I. 
Co.  with  supplement,  1826-8  :  and  Rise 
and  Progress  of  British  Power  in  India, 
1837  :  but  his  claim  to  have  written  the 
firstnamed  has  been  disputed  :   died  1866. 

AUCHMUTY,    SIR    SAMUEL    (1756- 

General :  born  in  New  York,  1756,  the 
grandson  of  a  Scotch  settler  in  Boston  : 
saw  service,  first  as  a  volunteer,  from  1777 
in    the  Army,  in  N.  America  :    went    to 

India  in  1783  in  the  52nd  regt. :  became 
Adjutant :  promoted  to  Captain  in  the 
75th,  in  1788  :  was  in  the  campaigns  of 
1 790- 1  against  Tippoo,  and  at  the  first 
siege  of  Seringapatam  under  Lord  Corn- 
wallis  in  1792  :  D.Q.M.G.  at  Calcutta  : 
Military  Secretary  to  Sir  Robert  Aber- 
cromby  {q.v.)  when  C.  in  C,  i795-7  •  in 
his  campaign  against  the  Rohillas  :  re- 
turned to  England  in  i797  :  commanded 
a  force  from  the  Cape  to  Egypt  to  co- 
operate with  Sir  D.  Baird  and  Sir  Ralph 
Abercromby  against  the  French  :  Adju- 
tant-General in  Egypt  :  K.C.B.  in  1803  : 
in  1806-7,  Brig-General  in  S.  America  at 
Monte  Video  and  Buenos  Ayres  :  Maj- 
General  in  1808  :  went  out  to  Madras  as 
C.  in  C,  May,  1810  :  in  181 1  took  Java 
and  Batavia,  and  defeated  the  Dutch  at 
Cornells  and  Samarang  :  left  Madras  for 
England  in  March,  1813  :  Lt- General  : 
G.C.B.,  1815  :  C.  in  C,  and  Privy  Coun- 
cillor in  Ireland,  1821  :  died  Aug.  11,  1822. 


OF  (1784-1849) 
Governor  General :  second  son  of  the 
first  Lord  Auckland  :  born  Aug.  25,  1784  : 
educated  at  Christ  Church,  Oxford  :  called 
to  the  bar,  1809  :  President  of  the  Board 
of  Trade  and  Master  of  the  Mint,  1833  : 
First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1834-35  : 
G.C.B.  :  appointed  Governor-General  of 
India,  April  4,  1836.  In  1836-7  he  sent 
Burnes  {q.v.)  on  a  mission  to  Kabul :  in 
distrust  of  the  Amir,  Dost  Muhammad, 
who  received  in  1837  the  Russian 
officer,  Vitkievitch,  at  Kabul,  and  with  a 
view  to  counteract  Russian  influence  there, 
Auckland,  under  pressure  of  the  English 
Government,  decided  to  dethrone  Dost 
Muhammad  {q.v.)  and  reinstate  Shah 
Shuja  (q.v.)  as  Amir  :  his  declaration  of 
war  was  issued  on  Oct.  i,  1838  :  the  facts 
of  the  first  Afghan  War  are  well  known  : 
Dost  Muhammad  fled  in  Aug.,  1839  :  Shah 
Shuja,  though  set  up  in  1839,  and  sup- 
ported till  1 84 1,  was  unpopular  as  a  ruler  : 
the  British  force  was  reduced  :  the  sub- 
sidies were  diminished  :  the  Afghans  rose 
in  1 841  :  Sir  A.  Burnes  was  murdered  on 
Nov.  2,  1841,  and  the  envoy.  Sir  W.  Mac- 
naghten  on  Dec.  23,  :  the  British  army  was 
destroyed  in  its  retreat  from  Kabul  to  the 
Khyber.  Lord  Auckland  was  made  an 
Earl  in  1839,  on  the  capture  of  Kabul :  he 
had  left  India  on  March  12,  1842,  before 
Pollock's  avenging  Army  had  advanced 



beyond  Jalalabad.  Afghan  affairs  chiefly 
engaged  Auckland's  attention.  In  1840 
the  British  Resident  at  Ava  was  expelled 
by  the  King  of  Burma  and  not  re-estab- 
ished.  Auckland  was  again  First  Lord 
of  the  Admiralty  in  1846  :  died  Jan.  i, 

AUFRECHT,  THEODOR  (1822-  ) 
Born  Jan.  7,  1822,  at  Leschnitz  in 
Silesia  :  educated  at  the  College  of  Oppeln  : 
studied  Sanskrit  and  Philology  at  Berlin, 
and  later  the  ancient  languages  of  Northern 
Europe  :  Privat-docent  at  Berlin  Univer- 
sity, 1850  :  went  to  England,  1852,  to 
study  Sanskrit :  Professor  of  Sanskrit  and 
Philology  at  Edinburgh  University,  1862  : 
Professor  of  Philology  at  Bonn,  1875-89  : 
now  Professor  of  the  Comparative  Study 
of  Languages  at  Bonn  :  Levi  calls  him  the 
*'  illustrious  veteran  of  Indian  studies  "  : 
he  is  especially  noted  for  his  catalogues  of 
Sanskrit  MSB.  :  among  his  works  may 
be  mentioned  :  De  accentu  compositorum 
Sanskriticorum,  1847  :  Halayudha's  Abhi- 
dhanaratnamata,  1861  :  Die  Hymnen  des 
Rigweda,  1877 :  Bluten  aus  Hindostan, 
1873  :  Das  Aitareya  Brahmana,  1879  : 
his  catalogues  of  Sanskrit  MSS.,  at  the 
Bodleian  Library  (1859-64),  and  at  Cam- 
bridge (1869)  :  Catalogus  catalogorum,  a 
register  of  Sanskrit  works  and  authors, 
1 89 1-3  :  and  Katalog  der  Sanskrit  Hand- 
schriften  der  Universitdts-Bibliothek  zii 
Leipzig,  1 90 1. 

AUSTEN,  CHARLES  JOHN  (1779-1852) 
Son  of  Rev.  George  Austen,  and  brother 
of  Miss  Austen  :  entered  the  Navy  early  : 
served  against  the  Dutch  and  French,  and 
on  a  number  of  stations  :  at  the  bom- 
bardment of  Acre,  1840,  for  which  he  was 
made  C.B.  :  Rear  Admiral,  1846  :  Naval 
C.  in  C.  of  the  E.  India  station,  1850  :  in 
the  second  Burmese  war,  died  of  cholera 
at  Prome,  Sep.  29,  1852. 



Brother  of  Jane  Austen,  the  novelist : 
born  April  23,  i774  :  educated  at  the 
Royal  Naval  Academy  :  entered  the  Navy 
in  1788  :  was  on  the  East  India  station, 
in  the  Perseverance,  from  1788  to  1801, 
and  again  from  1807  to  1809  in  the  St. 
Albans,  64  guns  :  his  services  were  re- 
warded by  the  E.  I.  Co  :  served  also  in  the 

North  Sea,  Baltic  and  West  Indies  ' 
Admiral  of  the  Fleet,  1863  :  K.C.B.,  1837  : 
G.C.B.,  i860  :   died  Aug.  10,  1865. 


Educated  at  Merchant  Taylors'  school, 
and  St.  John's  College,  Oxford  :  Senior 
Fellow :  edited  the  Madras  Times  and 
afterwards  the  Athenceum  and  Daily 
News  of  Madras  :  Correspondent  of  the 
London  Times  during  the  siege  of  Paris 
and  the  Commune,  1870 :  also  in  the 
Ashanti  war,  and  at  Simla,  and  in  the  S. 
States  of  America  :  a  brilliant  and  very 
vivid  writer  :   Dr.  :   died  May  2,  1903. 


(1791-after  1845) 

General :  a  Neapolitan  :  born  Oct.  25 
1791  :  served  in  the  Neapolitan  forces, 
1807-9  :  and  in  the  Artillery  under  King 
Joseph  Buonaparte  and  Murat  in  the 
Imperial  Army  :  left  Italy,  and  went,  via 
Constantinople,  to  Persia,  1820  :  after  6 
years  there,  joined  Ranjit  Singh  in  the 
Pan  jab  :  made  Governor  of  Wazirabad, 
and  of  Peshawar  in  1834  :  ruled  by  fear 
and  severity  and  with  success  :  gave  great 
assistance  to  General  Pollock  and  the 
Army  of  Retribution,  1842  :  left  Peshawar, 
1843,  took  refuge  at  Jalalabad  and  in  India 
and  returned  to  Europe :  received  a 
sword  from  the  Court  of  Directors  :  a 
General  in  the  French  Army  :  died  in  a 
few  years  near  Naples. 


Born  1795  :  educated  at  Winchester  and 
Christ  Church,  Oxford  :  Fellow  of  Oriel : 
called  to  the  bar  from  the  Middle  Temple 
in  1822  :  after  being  Puisne  Judge  of  the 
Bombay  Supreme  Court,  from  1830,  was 
Chief  Justice,  1839-42  :  knighted  1830  : 
D.C.L.  of  Oxford,  1844  :  one  of  the  Com- 
missioners of  Oxford  University :  died 
June,  1878. 

AYLMER,  FENTON  JOHN  (1862-        ) 

Born  April  5,  1862  :  son  of  Captain 
F.  J.  Aylmer,  97th  regt.  :  educated 
privately  and  at  R.M.A.,  Woolwich  : 
entered  the  Royal  Engineers,  1880 : 
served  in  India  since  1883  :  in  the  Burma 
war,    1886-87 :     the    Hazara    expedition 



1891  :  in  the  Hunza  expedition,  189 1-2  : 
Isazai  expedition,  1892  :  Chitral  expedi- 
tion, 1895  :  at  the  storming  of  the  Nilt 
Fort  in  189 1-2  :  he  obtained  his  V.C.,  and 
Brevet  Majority  :    Colonel  R.E. 



Born  Oct.,  1779  :  only  daughter  of 
Henry,  fourth  Baron  Aylmer,  and  his 
wife  Catherine,  who  was  sister  to  Lord 
Whitworth,  Ambassador  to  Buonaparte 
in  1803.  Walter  Savage  Landor  wrote 
verses  to  her  at  Swansea  about  1796-7, 
and  she  lent  him  the  book  which  suggested 
the  subject  of  his  poem  "  Gebir."  She 
went  to  India  in  1878  with  her  aunt  {nee 
Whitworth)  wife  of  Sir  Henry  Russell  {q.v.). 
Puisne  judge,  afterwards  Chief  Justice  of 
Bengal,  and  became  engaged  to  Sir  Henry's 
son,  afterwards  second  Baronet,  but  died 
of  cholera  on  March  2,  1800,  at  her  uncle's 
house  in  Calcutta.  Landor's  elegy  on 
her  death  was  published  in  1806.  She  was 
buried  in  the  cemetery  in  South  Park 
Street,  Calcutta,  the  inscription  on  her 
tomb  being  taken  from  Young's  Night 
Thoughts,    iii.    70. 

AYRTON,  ACTON  SMEE  (1816-1886) 
Born  1816  :  son  of  Frederick  Ayrton, 
barrister  at  Bombay :  practised  as  a 
solicitor  at  Bombay,  1836-50,  when  he 
retvurned  to  England  :  Chairman  of  the 
Board  of  Directors  of  the  Great  Indian 
Peninsular  Railway :  called  to  the  bar 
from  the  Middle  Temple,  1853  :  M.P.  for 
the  Tower  Hamlets,  1857-74 :  Parlia- 
mentary Secretary  to  the  Treasury  in 
Gladstone's  Administration,  1868-9  : 
Privy  Councillor  :  Furst  Commissioner  of 
Works,  1869-73  :  Judge  Advocate  Gener- 
al, 1873-4  :  defeated  in  his  candidatures 
for  the  Tower  Hamlets,  1874,  and  for  the 
Mile  End  Division,  1885  :  died  Nov.  30, 

AYUB  KHAN,  (1849-        ) 

Fourth  son  of  Shir  Ali,  Amir  of  Afghanis- 
tan, brother  of  Yakub  Khan  {q.v.)  :  was 
long  a  fugitive  in  Persia,  but  was  ap- 
pointed Governor  of  Herat  by  Yakub  in 
1879  :  he  advanced  thence  upon  Kandahar 
in  July,  1880,  and  atMaiwand,  on  the  27th, 
defeated  General  Burrows  and  his  force  : 
besieged  Kandahar :  on  Sep.  i.  he 
fought  the  battle  of  Kandahar  against 
Sir  F.  Roberts  {q.v.),  who  had  marched 

thither  from  Kabul,  and  was  routed,  fleeing 
towards  Herat :  in  July,  1 881,  he  defeated 
Amir  Abdur  Rahman's  troops  and  cap- 
tured Kandahar,  but,  being  defeated 
there  by  the  Amir,  fled  to  Persia,  where  he 
was  made  a  prisoner  of  state  :  he  escaped 
and  tried  to  cross  the  Afghan  frontier  in 
1887,  but  was  repulsed,  and  surrendered 
to  the  British  Agent  at  Mashad  :  eventu- 
ally he  was  made  over  to  the  Government 
of  India  and  interned  in  India,  being  kept 
at  Rawul  Pindi. 


(1830-  ) 

Fourteenth  in  direct  descent  from  Sikh 
Guru,  the  great  reformer :  Member  of 
Legislative  Council  of  the  Pan  jab  for  two 
years  :    K.C.I.E. 

ROBERT  (1844-    ) 

Born  Jan.  11,  1844  :  educated  at 
Elstree  and  Harrow  :  entered  the  Indian 
Army,  1861  :  served  in  the  Bhutan  Cam- 
paign, 1864-5  :  Hazara,  1868  :  Perak, 
1875-6  :  Afghanistan,  1878-80,  in  the 
Commissariat  Department :  at  the  Peiwar 
Kotal,  and  in  the  engagements  at  Kabul : 
Chief  Commissariat  of&cer  of  Sir  F. 
Roberts'  force  on  the  Kabul- Kandahar 
march  in  Aug.  1880,  and  in  the  battle  of 
Kandahar  :  made  C.B.  :  was  Q.M.G.  in 
India,  1900  :  C.S.I.  :  K.C.B.  in  1902  : 
Member  of  the  Council  of  India  in  1901. 


I.C.S.  :  born  1841  :  son  of  Professor 
Baden  Powell  of  Oxford  :  educated  at  St. 
Paul's  School :  in  the  Civil  Service  in  the 
Panjab,  1861-89  •  served  in  the  Indian 
Forest  Department :  was  an  authority 
on  Indian  land  tenures  :  for  some  years  a 
Judge  of  the  Chief  Court  of  the  Panjab  : 
wrote  Land  Systems  of  British  India,  The 
Indian  Village  Community  :  helped  to 
establish  the  Lahore  University  :  M.A. 
Oxford,  1894  :   CLE.  :   died  Jan.  2,  1901. 


Born  in  April,  1815  :  spent  his  youth  at 
Malta,  and  1835-36  at  Bairut  to  learn 
Arabic  :  ordained  in  1841  :  for  his  know- 
ledge of  the  East  and  of  Arabic  was  sent 
as  a  delegate  to  the  Eastern  Churches, 



including  the  Nestorians,  in  Kurdistan, 
1842-5  and  1850  :  appointed  a  Chaplain 
under  the  Bombay  Government,  1845  : 
his  knowledge  of  Arabic  was  utilised  at 
Aden  and  under  Outram  in  the  Persian 
expedition  of  1856-7  :  in  i860  he  helped 
to  settle  the  troubles  in  Oman :  was 
Secretary  to  Sir  Bartle  Frere's  mission  to 
Zanzibar,  1872  :  D.C.L.  in  1873  :  died 
Feb.  21,  1888  :  wrote  The  Nestorians  and 
their  Rituals,  A  History  of  the  Imaums  and 
Sayyids  of  Oman,  1871  :  on  Muhammad 
and  Muhammadanism  :  and  an  English- 
Arabic  Lexicon,  besides  other  works : 
F.Z.S.  :    F.S.A. 

BAIGRIE,  ROBERT  (    ?    -1877) 

Colonel :  son  of  John  Baigrie  :  joined 
the  E.  I.  Co.'s  Bombay  Infantry,  1848  : 
served  in  the  Panjab  campaign,  1848-9  : 
at  Mult  an,  Gujarat,  the  pursuit  and  sur- 
render of  the  Sikhs,  the  occupation  of 
Peshawar :  at  the  siege  of  Sebastopol, 
1855  :  in  the  Persian  war,  1856-7  :  at  the 
Khushab,  Muhamra,  Ahwaz  :  in  Sir  H. 
Rose's  force  in  the  mutiny :  Bombay 
Staff  Corps,  1861  :  A.Q.M.G.  at  Mhow, 
1865  :  and  in  Abyssinia,  1867-8  :  Brevet 
Lt-Colonel :  Q.M.G.  of  the  Bombay 
Army  :  C.B.,  1873  :  died  at  Poona,  Sep. 
25,  1877  :    an  accomplished  artist. 

BAILEY,    REV.    BENJAMIN    (1791- 

Missionary  for  40  years  in  Travancore  : 
distinguished  as  a  linguist  and  botanist, 
and  author  of  a  Malayalam  dic- 
tionary:  died,  1871. 

BAILLIE,  JOHN  (1772-1833) 

Lt-Colonel :  younger  son  of  George 
Baillie,  of  Leys  Castle,  Inverness  :  entered 
the  service  of  the  E.I.  Co.  in  1791  :  took 
part  in  the  military  operations  of  the 
Mahratta  war,  1803  :  but  his  principal 
services  in  India  were  political :  as  Politi- 
cal Agent,  1803-7,  he  succeeded,  under 
great  difficulties,  in  establishing  British 
authority  in  Bundelkimd,  and  in  trans- 
ferring to  the  Company  a  large  and 
valuable  territory  :  for  his  services,  he 
was  appointed  Resident  at  Lucknow, 
1 807-1 5 »  he  established  the  celebrated 
"  Guard  "  or  "  Gate,"  which  still  bears 
his  name  at  Lucknow :  after  leaving 
India,  he  was  appointed,  1823,  a  Director: 
of  the  E.I.  Co.  :  M.P.  for  Hendon  in  1820  : 
and  in  1830  for  the  Burghs  of  Inverness, 

in  which  town  is  his  portrait  by  Raebum  : 
died  in  London,  April  20,  1833.  From 
the  commencement  of  his  career,  Baillie 
was  a  devoted  student  of  Oriental  lan- 
guages, and  was  the  first  Professor  of 
Arabic  and  Persian,  when  the  College  of 
Fort  William  was  instituted  in  1801  : 
published  several  important  works,  and 
made  a  large  and  choice  collection  of 
oriental  works,  at  his  house  in  Inverness, 
which  was  presented  by  his  heirs  to  the 
University  of  Edinburgh.  A  Digest  of 
Mohummudan  Law,  which  he  left  unfin- 
ished, was  completed  and  greatly  enlarged 
by  his  son,  Neil  B.  E.  BailUe,  (1799-1883), 
an  Indian  Jurist  of  some  eminence  :  it  is 
still  a  standard  work  of  reference. 

BAILLIE,  WILLIAM  (   ?    -1782) 

Entered  the  E.I.  Co.'s  service  in  the 
Madras  N.  I.,  1759  :  Lt-Colonel,  i775  - 
served  against  Hyder  Ali,  1767-8  :  held  a 
command  at  Pondicherry,  i779»  against 
the  French  :  and  in  the  Guntur  Sircars  in 
1780 :  defeated,  in  1780,  a  portion  of 
Hyder  All's  invading  army  under  Tippoo 
near  Perambakam  :  was  unable  to  join 
Sir  Hector  Munro's  army,  but,  on  receipt 
of  small  reinforcements,  advanced  from 
Polilore  to  do  so  :  was  attacked  by  Hyder' s 
force  and  overwhelmed,  Sep.  10,  1780  : 
severely  wounded  and  captiured :  with 
the  few  survivors  was  kept  prisoner  at 
Seringapatam,  generally  in  chains :  died 
in  captivity,  Nov.  13,  1782. 

General :  son  of  William  Baird,  of 
Newbyth  :  bom  Dec,  i757  :  entered  the 
Army  in  the  2nd  foot,  in  1772  :  came  to 
England  from  Gibraltar  in  1776  :  went 
to  India  in  the  73rd  in  1779-80  :  was  in 
Colonel  Baillie's  force  which  was  over- 
whelmed by  Hyder  Ali  at  Perambakam, 
Sep.  10,  1780 :  was  imprisoned  by 
Hyder  Ali  at  Seringapatam  for  3 J 
years,  and  released  at  the  Treaty  of  Man- 
galore  in  1784.  His  mother,  knowing 
his  intractable  temper,  remarked,  on 
hearing  of  his  imprisonment,  that  "  she 
pitied  the  man  who  was  chained  to  our 
Davie."  He  commanded  a  Brigade,  and 
served  under  Lord  Cornwallis  at  the  cap- 
ture of  Savandrug  in  179 1,  and  at  Seringa- 
patam in  1792  :  in  1793  he  took  Pondi- 
cherry :  commanded  a  Brigade  at  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope  in  i797»  and,  returning 



to  India  in  1798,  as  Maj-General,  led  the 
storming  party  at  the  siege  of  Seringapa- 
tam  on  May  4,  1799,  after  which  he 
considered  himself  slighted  at  Colonel 
Arthur  Wellesley  (afterwards  Duke  of 
Wellington,  (q.v.)  being  placed  in  command 
at  Seringapatam  :  commanded  the  Dina- 
pur  Brigade,  1800  :  led  an  expedition  to 
Egypt  down  the  Nile  in  1801,  to  co-operate 
with  the  British  army,  and  was  at  the 
capture  of  Alexandria :  led  back  the 
Egyptian  Indian  army,  1802  :  in  1802  he 
commanded  a  Division  of  the  Madras 
Army,  but,  when  again  placed  under 
General  A.  Wellesley  for  the  Mahratta 
war,  resigned  and  returned  to.  England, 
being  captured  on  the  voyage  by  the 
French  :  was  knighted  and  became  Lt- 
General :  in  1805-6  was  sent  to  retake  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope  from  the  Dutch  :  served 
at  Copenhagen,  and  in  Spain,  in  1808, 
losing  an  arm  at  Corunna  :  was  made 
K.B.,  1809,  and  a  Baronet;  and  General 
in  1814  :  G.C.B.,  1815  :  C.  in  C.  in  Ire- 
land, in  1820  :  Governor  of  Fort  George, 
1829  :  died  in  Perthshure,  Aug.  18, 1829. 


(1857-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  educated  at  Christ's  College, 
Finchley  :  went  out  to  Bengal  in  the  Civil 
Service,  1878  :  Under  Secretary  to  the 
Governor  of  Bengal,  and  to  the  Govern- 
ment of  India,  Finance  Department, 
1885  :  Deputy  Secretary,  1892-5  :  Secre- 
tary, 1902-5  :  Financial  Secretary  to  the 
Government  of  Bengal  and  Member  of 
Bengal  Legislative  Council,  1898-1902  : 
Financial  Member  of  the  Supreme  Council, 
1905  :    C.S.I. ,  1900. 



Son  of  Rev.  John  Durand  Baker,  Vicar 
of  Bishop's  Pawton,  Devon  :  born  March 
23.  1837  :  educated  at  Cheltenham : 
entered  the  i8th  Royal  Irish  regt.,  1854  : 
served  in  the  Crimea,  1854-6  :  in  the 
Indian  mutiny  was  with  the  Central  India 
Field  Force  :  passed  the  Staff  College, 
1862  :  in  the  New  Zealand  war,  1863-67  : 
was  Assistant  Adjutant  and  Q.M.G.  in 
Ashanti  Expedition,  1873-4,  and  Chief  of 
the  Staff :  C.B.  :  A.D.C.  to  the  Queen  : 
attached  to  the  Russian  Army  during  the 
Russo-Turkish  war,  1877  :  Military  Secre- 
tary to  Lord  Lytton,  Viceroy  of  India, 
1878  :    in   1879,   commanded   a   Brigade 

under  Lord  Roberts,  through  the  Kuram 
to  Kabul,  commanded  at  Charasia  Oct.  6, 
1879,  and  was  engaged  in  many  of  the 
fights  near  Kabul :  was  in  Lord  Roberts' 
Kabul- Kandahar  march,  Aug.,  1880,  and 
the  battle  of  Kandahar  :  K.C.B.  1881  :  in 
the  Boer  War  1881  as  Brig-General  : 
in  1884  was  Adjutant-General  in  India  : 
in  the  Burmese  expedition,  1886-7  '  com- 
manded a  Division  in  Bengal,  1887-90  : 
Q.M.G.  of  the  Army,  1890 :  Lt-General, 
1891  :    died  at  Pau,  Feb.  9  1893. 



Son  of  Capt.  Joseph  Baker,  R.N.  :  born 
Nov.  29,  1808  :  educated  at  Ludlow  and 
Addiscombe  :  joined  the  Bengal  Engineers 
1826  :  to  India,  1828  :  employed  in  canal 
work  :  led  an  attacking  column  in  the 
battle  of  Sobraon,  in  the  Sikh  war  of  1845- 
6  :  rendered  excellent  service  in  the 
P.W.D.,  as  Superintending  Engineer  of  the 
Delhi  canals,  and  of  the  Sind  canals  and 
forests.  Director  of  the  Ganges  canal,  and 
Consulting  Engineer  for  Railways  :  Secre- 
tary to  the  Government  of  India  in  the 
P.W.D.,  1854-5  ••  Colonel,  1857  =  in  1858 
was  made  Military  Secretary  at  the  India 
Office  :  Member  of  the  Council  of  India, 
1861-1875  :  K.C.B.,  1870 :  General, 
1877  :  died  at  Barnwell,  Somersetshire, 
Dec.  16,  1881. 

Doctor  and  author  :  son  of  Capt.  George 
Balfour,  and  nephew  of  Joseph  Hume, 
M.P.  :  bom  Sep.  6,  1813  :  educated  at 
Montrose,  and  Edinburgh  University  :  in 
1839  went  to  India  in  the  Medical  Depart- 
ment, serving  in  both  the  Bombay  and 
Madras  Armies  :  became  full  Surgeon  in 
1852  :  wrote  medical  papers  on  subjects 
relating  to  the  health  of  the  troops,  and 
besides  his  profession  did  much  useful 
work  :  studied  Oriental  languages,  and 
founded  the  Muhammadan  public  library 
at  Madras  :  established,  in  1850,  a  Govern- 
ment Central  Museum,  and  was  Super- 
intendent for  9  years :  published  an 
Encyclopasdia  of  India,  which  went 
through  several  editions  :  and  commenced 
the  Mysore  Museum,  1866  :  was  Political 
Agent  with  the  Nawab  of  the  Carnatic 
for  years  :  as  Deputy  Inspr-General  of 
Hospitals,  1862-1870,  he  served  in  the 
stations  under  the  Madras  command,  and 



as  Surgeon-General,  Madras,  1871-76, 
paid  much  attention  to  female  medical 
education,  for  which  the  Madras  Medical 
College  was  thrown  open  :  Fellow  of  the 
Madras  University  :  retired  in  1876,  and 
died  Dec.  8,  1889. 

BALFOUR,    FRANCIS    (before    1769- 
after  1807) 

M.D.  at  Edinburgh  :  entered  the  E.I. 
Co.'s  medical  service  in  Bengal,  1769  :  and 
retired,  1807,  to  Edinburgh  :  was  an  inti- 
mate friend  of  Warren  Hastings,  dedicated 
a  book  to  him,  and  corresponded  with 
him  from  Benares  :  he  wrote  The  Forms 
of  Herkern,  a  Persian  Letter-writer  and  con- 
tributed papers  on  Oriental  subjects  to 
the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  besides  writ- 
ing medical  works. 

BALFOUR,  SIR  GEORGE  (1809-1894) 

Born  1809  :  son  of  Capt.  George  Bal- 
four :  brother  of  E.  G.  Balfour  {q.v.)  : 
educated  at  Eddiscombe :  joined  the 
Madras  Artillery,  1825,  the  Royal  Artil- 
lery, 1826  :  served  in  the  Malacca  cam- 
paign, 1832-33  :  in  China  with  the  Madras 
force,  1840-2  :  and  was  Colonel  at  Shanghai 
from  1843  for  some  years  :  on  the  Madras 
Military  Board  1849-57,  and  Inspr- 
General  of  Ordnance  :  C.B.,  1854:  on  the 
Military  Finance  Commission  of  1859-60, 
and  Head  of  the  Military  Finance  Depart- 
ment, 1860-62,  doing  valuable  work  in 
these  appointments :  in  England,  em- 
ployed on  the  Recruiting  Commission, 
1866  and  1868-70  :  as  Assistant  to  the 
Controller  in  Chief  at  the  War  Office,  1868- 
71  :  K.C.B.,  1871  :  M.P.  Kincardineshire, 
1872-1892  :  became  a  General  in  1877  : 
died,  March  12,  1894:  his  wife  was  a 
daughter  of  Joseph  Hume,  M.P. 

BALL,  GEORGE  (1761-1811) 

Colonel :  served  in  Lord  Lake's  cam- 
paign, and  described  as  a  very  meritorious 
and  distinguished  officer :  died  when 
Adjutant-General  of  the  Bengal  Army, 
Dec.  8,  1811  :   buried  at  Calcutta. 

BALL,    VALENTINE     (    ?    -1895) 

Doctor  :  in  the  Geological  Survey  of 
India  for  17  years :  Treasurer  of  the 
Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  1881  :  contri- 
buted papers  on  the  Geology  of  the  Nicobar 
Islands  and  of  the  vicinity  of  Port  Blair  : 
Professor  of  Geology  at  Dublin  :    F.R.S.  : 

Director  of  the  National  Museum,  Dublin, 
1883  :  died  June  15,  1895  :  wrote  valuable 
works  on  geology  and  jungle  life  in  India  : 
edited,  in  1889,  /.  B.  Tavernier's  Travels 
in  India,   1676  :    C.B. 



Born  Dec.  13,  1813  :  educated  at  Kelso, 
Edinburgh  New  Academy  and  College  : 
studied  Oriental  languages  :  taught  them 
at  the  Naval  and  Military  Academy, 
Edinburgh,  1839  :  in  India  was  Principal 
of  the  College  at  Benares,  1845-61  :  be- 
came Librarian  of  the  India  Office  :  while 
in  India  studied  the  highest  Sanskrit  ethi- 
cal and  philosophical  literature  :  published 
Sanskrit  works  and  lectures  on  systems  of 
Indian  philosophy,  also  papers  on  Hindu 
philosophy  and  logic  :  wrote  a  Hindustani 
grammar  and  selections  :  and  a  Mahratti 
grammar  :  LL.D.  :  died  Feb.  16,  1864. 



Born  June  20,  1830  :  son  of  a  Calcutta 
merchant :  educated  at  Addiscombe  : 
joined  the  Bombay  Engineers  in  1850  :  on 
his  way  to  England  in  1854,  he  went  to 
Constantinople,  and  joined  the  Turkish 
Army,  as  Lt-Colonel,  at  the  siege  of  Silis- 
tria  by  the  Russians,  and  in  the  attack  on 
the  Russians  at  Giurgevo  :  in  the  Crimean 
campaign,  including  the  siege  of  Sebasto- 
pol,  the  operations  at  Eupatoria  and  the 
occupation  of  Kertch  :  he  also  commanded 
a  Turkish  Brigade  in  Omar  Pasha's  cam- 
paign in  Mingrelia  :  was  conspicuous  for 
his  cool  bravery  in  action  :  C.B.,  1856  : 
served  as  A.Q.M.G.  in  the  Persian  war  of 
1856-7,  and  in  the  same  capacity  in  the 
Indian  mutiny  in  the  Rajputana  Field 
Force  :  was  Mint-master  at  Bombay,  1861, 
and  Chairman  of  the  Bombay  Port  Trust  : 
retured  at  end  of  1878  as  Lt-General : 
wrote  articles  for  Blackwood's  Magazine, 
on  Indian  subjects  :  LL.D.  of  Edinburgh  : 
he  died  near  the  battlefield  of  Thermopylae 
April  2,  1880. 

DRIGBIJAI  SINGH,  of  (1818-1882) 

Son  of  Raja  Arjun  Singh  :  descendant 
of  a  long  line  of  chieftains  of  the  J  an  war 
clan  of  Rajputs  :  succeeded  his  brother 
Raja  Jai  Narain  Singh,  in  1836  :  spent 
his  early  years  fighting  with  his  neighbours, 



the  Pathans  of  Utraula  and  the  Chauhan 
Rajas  of  Tulsipur,  also  with  the  Oudh 
revenue  officials  :  driven  out  of  Balrampur 
by  Raja  Darshan  Singh,  who  pursued  him 
into  Nipal  territory  :  restored  to  his  Raj  : 
distinguished  himself  in  the  mutiny  as  one 
of  the  five  loyal  talukdars  :  received  the 
fugitives  from  Sikraura  and  Gonda,  19 
persons,  and  several  children  :  sheltered 
and  escorted  them  to  Gorakhpur :  re- 
mained faithful,  and  was  proscribed  by  the 
rebels :  joined  the  advancing  British 
forces  and  remained  in  the  field  till  the 
restoration  of  order  :  rewarded  with  the 
title  of  Maharaja  Bahadur  and  vast  landed 
estates  confiscated  from  rebels,  with  a  re- 
duced land  revenue  assessed  in  perpetuity  : 
in  1866,  K.C.S.I.  :  salute  of  9  guns,  in 
1877  :'  Member  of  the  Governor-General's 
Legislative  Council :  a  great  patron  of 
education,  instituting  schools  on  his  es- 
tates before  their  general  introduction 
elsewhere :  founded  one  of  the  first 
hospitals  in  Oudh  outside  Lucknow,  and 
a  medical  school :  a  noted  sportsman  :  a 
fall  from  an  elephant  hastened  his  death, 
which  occurred  on  May  27,  1882. 

Born  in  Bombay  April  3,  1767  :  son  of 
Cowasji  Byramji  (1744-1834)  merchant, 
and  of  a  family  which  settled  in  Bombay 
from  near  Surat,i690,  and  traded  with  Eng- 
land, China  and  Burma.  He  was  a  scientific 
agriculturist,  and  improved  agriculture  in 
W.  India  :  took  a  leading  part  in  establish- 
ing the  Agri-Horticultural  Society  of 
Bombay,  1830  :  was  a  Vice-President  : 
the  Bombay  Government  gave  him,  1829, 
some  villages  in  Salsette,  where  he  settled 
cultivators,  and  successfully  managed 
the  Pawai  estate :  instituted  many 
charities  for  the  native  community  :  some 
for  the  Parsis  :  made  wells  and  tombs  :  a 
large  Tower  of  Silence,  1832  :  a  Fire 
Temple,  1845  :  a  school  for  Parsi  children, 
for  instruction  in  the  Avesta :  was  a 
leading  member  of  the  Parsi  panchayat, 
1 8 17-5 1,  and  an  original  Trustee  of  their 
communal  funds  from  1823  :  was  a 
prominent  member  of  the  Native  Educa- 
tion Society  from  1827,  of  the  Elphinstone 
College  committee  from  1835  :  Director 
of  the  Board  of  Education  from  1841  : 
was  nominated,  1834,  one  of  the  first 
12  native  J.P.s  :  a  Government  Director 
of  the  Savings'  Bank  :  helped  to  establish 

the  old  Bombay  Bank,  1840  :  Director 
of  the  G.I. P.  Railway,  1844  :  suffered 
pecuniary  losses  in  his  business,  which 
curtailed  his  means,  but  not  his  zeal,  for 
philanthropic  charity :  died  Feb.  12, 
1851  :  after  a  public  meeting  of  all  classes, 
the  Framji  Institute  was  erected  in  his 
memory,  where  public  meetings  are 
generally  held,  and  an  extensive  Library 
is  located. 

BANDULA,  MENGYEE  MAHA   (  ?    - 

Burmese  Statesman  and  General :  in 
Oct.,  1819,  he  led  a  successful  expedition 
against  the  chief  of  Manipiu: :  in  182 1  he 
attacked  Assam  :  in  1823,  the  Burmese 
invaded  British  possessions  near  Chitta- 
gong,  occupying  the  island  of  Shapuri  on 
Sep.  24,  1823  :  in  March,  1824,  Bandula 
marched  to  Arakan,  attacked  an  English 
force  at  Ramu,  near  Chittagong,  and 
defeated  it:  Lord  Amherst  declared  war 
against  the  Burmese.  On  May  11,  1824, 
the  British.Army  took  Rangoon,  but  were 
unable  to  advance.  Bandula  was  re- 
called from  Arakan  and  ordered  to  proceed 
against  the  English  forces.  As  C.  in  C, 
he  approached  Rangoon  and  stockaded 
his  60,000  men  :  but  was  attacked  and 
defeated,  Dec,  1824.  He  retired  to 
Donabew,  a  strongly  defended  position, 
which  the  British  Army  under  General 
Campbell  reached  on  April  i,  1825.  The 
siege  of  the  place  by  the  English  had  just 
begun  when  Bandula  was  killed  by  a  shell 
from  the  British* Artillery,and  the  Burmese 
army  fled. 

DUR (1838-1903) 
Born  Jan.  19,  1838  :  member  of  the 
Subordinate,  and  Provincial  Executive 
Service,  Bengal :  Deputy  Magistrate, 
1856 :  Personal  Assistant  to  the  Com- 
missioner of  Patna  for  15  years  :  Member 
of  the  Salaries  Commission,  1885  :  Member 
of  the  Bengal  Legislative  Council,  1895  : 
and  of  the  Calcutta  Corporation  :  Deputy 
Collector  of  Calcutta,  Superintendent  of 
Excise  Revenue  and  Collector  of  Stamp 
Revenue,  1889-1901  :  retired,  iqoi  : 
CLE.,  1895  :    died  March  26,  1903. 


Born    1813  :     son    of    Jiban    Krishna 
Banerjea,    a    member    of    a    high    caste 



Brahman  family  in  Calcutta :  educated 
at  the  Hindu  College  :  in  1829,  became  a 
teacher  in  the  Hare  School,  Calcutta : 
came  under  the  influence  of  Derozio  and 
Dr.  Duff,  and  was  converted  to  Christian- 
ity in  1833  :  became  a  teacher  in  the 
C.M.S.  School  in  Calcutta,  and  in  1837  was 
ordained  a  clergyman  in  the  Church  of 
England  :  from  1852  to  1868,  was  a  Pro- 
fessor in  Bishop's  College,  Calcutta : 
Fellow,  1858,  of  the  Calcutta  University : 
Doctor  of  Law,  1876:  Examining  Chaplain 
to  the  Bishop  of  Calcutta :  Examiner  in 
Sanskirt,  Hindi,  Tamil,  and  Uriya: 
M.R.A.S.B.,  also  of  the  British  Indian  As- 
sociation, Calcutta  Corporation,  and  Board 
of  Examiners  :  was  made  a  CLE.  :  was  in 
his  later  years  regarded  by  Government  as  a 
Head  and  Leader  of  the  Indian  Com- 
munity :  wrote  many  books  and  pam- 
phlets, chief  among  which  are  Dialogues 
on.  Hindu  Philosophy  and  Aryan  Witness  : 
he  knew  eleven  languages  well  :  his  name 
will  pass  to  posterity  as  a  great  scholar  and 
linguist :    died  May  11,  1885. 

BANERJI,  SIR  GURU  DAS  (1844-        ) 

Born  near  Calcutta,  Jan.  26,  1844  :  edu- 
cated at  the  Hare  School,  Presidency 
College  and  Calcutta  University :  B.A. 
(1863),  M.A.  (1864)  in  Mathematics,  gold 
medal:  B.L.  (1865):  Law  Lecturer  at 
the  Berhampur  College  :  began  to  practise 
in  the  High  Court  in  1872  :  Doctor  of 
Law  in  1876 :  Tagore  Law  Professor,  1878  : 
lectured  on  "  Hindu  Law  of  Marriage  and 
Stridhan  "  :  Fellow  of  the  Calcutta  Univer- 
sity, 1879  :  member  of  the  Bengal  Legisla- 
tive Council,  1887  :  acted  as  Judge  of 
the  High  Court,  1888,  confirmed  in  Jan. 
1889  :  Vice-chancellor  of  the  Calcutta 
University,  1890-3  :  member,  1902,  of 
the  Indian  Universities'  Commission  : 
retired  in  Jan.,  1904  :  knighted  the  same 
year  :  wrote  A  Few  Thoughts  on  Education. 


Educated  in  his  village  and  at  the 
Hindu  College,  Calcutta :  Scholar :  en- 
tered Government  service  in  the  Military 
Auditor  General's  office  :  B.A.  :  munsif 
at  Howrah  and  Serampur  :  practised  as  a 
High  Coiurt  Vakil  from  1862,  and  became 
Senior  Government  Pleader  :  as  a  Bengali 
poet  he  had  perhaps  no  rival  in  modern 
Bengal :    died  1902. 

BANERJI,   KALI  CHURN  (     ?  -        ) 

Educated  at  the  Calcutta  University  : 
M.A.  :  B.L.  :  a  leading  pleader  in  the  Cal- 
cutta High  Court :  member  of  the  Bengal 
Legislative  Council :  Registrar  of  the  Cal- 
cutta University  :  President  Y.M.C.A.,  Cal- 
cutta :  a  Brahman  convert  to  Christianity  : 
has  taken  a  prominent  part  in  all  social, 
religious  and  educational  movements  of 
the  day. 


(1848-  ) 

Second  son  of  Diu-ga  Charan  Banerji, 
medical  practitioner,  Calcutta :  born 
Nov.,  1848  :  educated  at  the  Doveton 
College,  Calcutta  :  B.A,,  1868  :  passed  in 
England  the  competitive  examination  for 
the  Indian  Civil  Service,  1869  :  went  out 
to  Bengal,  1871  :  Assistant  Magistrate  at 
Sylhet :  ceased  to  be  a  member  of  the 
Civil  Service  in  March,  1874  :  became  a 
Professor  of  English  Literature  in  the 
Metropolitan  Institution,  1876  :  joined 
the  Free  Church  Institution  and  Duff 
College,  1881  :  founded  the  Ripon  College, 
1882  :  proprietor  of  the  weekly  Bengalee 
in  1878  :  imprisoned  for  one  month  in  the 
civil  side  of  the  Presidency  Jail,  1883,  for 
contempt  of  court  :  established  the  Indian 
Association,  1876  :  represented  the  Cal- 
cutta Corporation  in  the  Bengal  Legisla- 
tive Council,  1893  :  President  of  the  nth 
meeting  of  the  Indian  National  Congress 
at  Poona,  1895,  of  the  i8th  at  Ahmadabad, 
1902  :  elected  a  Fellow  of  the  Calcutta 
University  by  the  Graduates,  1904. 

Major  :  joined  the  Indian  Army  in  1829  : 
was  employed  on  civil  duties  for  a  time, 
but  in  1842  served  in  Pollock's  Kabul 
force  :  was  in  the  Military  Secretariat  : 
accompanied  Lord  Dalhousie  to  Burma, 
and  was  on  his  personal  Staff :  joined 
the  Oudh  Commission  and  became  Com- 
missioner of  Lucknow  :  was  in  the  Resi- 
dency during  the  siege,  and  succeeded  Sir 
Henry  Lawrence  as  Chief  Commissioner 
from  the  latter's  death  until  his  own  on 
July  21,  1857. 


(1841-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  1841  :  educated  at 
Queen's  College,  Belfast  :  went  to 
India,    1863  :     served   in   Lower   Bengal, 



until  he  became  Under  Secretary,  Finan- 
cial Department  of  the  Government  of 
India,  1872  :  Accountant  General,  Bengal : 
Secretary  to  Government  of  Bengal, 
Revenue  Department,  1882  :  member  of 
the  Bengal  Legislative  Council,  1882  : 
Secretary  to  the  Government  of  India, 
Financial  Department,  1882  :  C.S.I. , 
1887  :  Member  of  the  Royal  Commission 
in  England  on  gold  and  silver,  1886  : 
Financial  Member  of  the  Supreme  Council 
of  the  Governor  General,  1 888-1 893  : 
K.C.S.I.,  1889  :  Member  of  the  Indian 
Currency  Commission,  1898  :  K.C.M.G., 
1899  :  Member  and  Chairman  of  several 
important  Royal  Commissions  and  Com- 
mittees on  the  currency  and  finance  of 
other  countries,  and  on  questions  involving 
great  financial  considerations  :  wrote  The 
Theory  of  Bimetallism. 


f^  ,^  ^  FALL  (1847-        ) 

Son  of  Charles  Barclay,  Surgeon-General 
Madras  Army :  born  Aug.  25,  1847: 
educated  at  St.  Andrews,  in  Germany, 
and  at  Edinburgh  University :  M.A., 
1867  :  in  the  Indian  Government  Tele- 
graph Department,  1868-71  :  editor  of 
the  CalcuttSi  Englishman,  1872-77  :  Fellow 
of  the  Calcutta  University :  left  India, 
1877:  F.R.S.E.,  1883:  J. P.:  sometime 
acting  Editor  of  the  Calcutta  Review,  and 
of  Vanity  Fair  :  has  held  various  local 
appointments  at  Edinburgh. 



Educated  at  the  R.M.A.,  Woolwich  : 
entered  the  Royal  Artillery  in  1834  :  served 
in  the  Crimea  :  became  a  Colonel :  in  the 
Indian  mutiny  served  under  Sir  Colin 
Campbell,  commanding  as  Brigadier  the 
siege  Artillery  at  the  capture  of  Lucknow, 
March,  1858  :  commanded  a  Brigade  in 
subsequent  operations  :  captured  Birwa  : 
K.C.B. :    died  at  Simla,  July  27,  1861. 



Served  in  the  Camatic  and  Bengal  from 
1754  :  as  a  Captain  accompanied  Clive  to 
Calcutta  in  1757,  commanding  the  Artil- 
lery at  Chandernagore  and  Plassy : 
returned  to  Madras,  1758  :  served  in 
1792  in  Colonel  Draper's  expedition  from 
Madras  to  the  Phillippine  Islands :  knighted 

in  1763  :  raised  the  24th  N.I.  1876  :  Brig- 
General,  1770,  and  provincial  C.  in  C, 
Bengal,  in  1773  :  in  July,  1772,  a  treaty  was 
signed  in  his  presence  between  the  Nawab 
Wazir  of  Oudh  and  the  Rohillas  against  the 
Mahrattas  :  after  a  quarrel  with  Warren 
Hastings  he  left  India  :  became  M.P.  for 
Wallingford :  Baronet,  1781  :  died  Sep. 
i4»  1789. 

BARONET  (1762-1847) 
Governor :  son  of  William  Barlow,  of 
Bath  :  joined  the  Bengal  Civil  Service 
in  1778  :  when  employed,  1788-96, 
in  the  Revenue  Secretariat,  he  had  to 
carry  out  the  Permanent  Settlement  of 
1793  in  Bengal :  was  Chief  Secretary  in 
1796  :  became  Member  of  the  Supreme 
Council  from  Oct.,  1801,  and  Vice-President 
in  Council  until,  on  Lord  Cornwallis' 
death  on  Oct.  5,  1805,  he,  as  provisional 
Governor-General,  acted  in  that  capacity 
until  Lord  Minto's  arrival  on  July  31, 
1807  :  Baronet,  1803  :  and  K.C.B.  : 
though  he  had  supported  Wellesley's 
policy  of  extending  British  power,  he 
continued  Cornwallis'  policy  of  neutrality 
and  conciliation  towards  the  Native 
States,  making  concessions  to  Sindia  and 
Holkar,  and  annulling  protective  treaties 
with  Chiefs  in  Rajputana.  In  1807  he 
went  to  Madras  as  Governor  from  Dec. 
24  :  there  he  quarelled  with  the  principal 
officers  of  both  services :  the  military 
combined  in  a  general  mutiny,  which 
Barlow  suppressed  vigorously :  he  was 
recalled  and  made  over  charge  at  Madras 
on  May  21,  1813  :  G.C.B.,  1815  :  died  in 
England,  Dec.  18,  1846. 


Son  of  the  Rev.  William  Barnard : 
born  in  1799  :  was  educated  at  Westminster 
and  Sandhurst :  joined  the  Guards  in 
1814  :  was  at  the  occupation  of  Paris  : 
served  in  Jamaica  and  Canada  :  in  the 
Crimea  :  Maj -General :  commanded,  first 
a  Brigade,  and  later  a  Division,  and  was 
Chief  of  the  Staff  to  General  Simpson  : 
K.C.B.,  1856  :  in  1857,  went  to  India  as 
General  of  the  Sirhind  Division.  Upon 
General  Anson's  death  at  Karnal,  Barnard 
succeeded  to  the  command,  and,  moving 
towards  r  Delhi,  defeated  the  rebels  at 
Badli-ka-sarai  on  June  8  :  died  of  cholera 
on  the  ridge  at  Delhi,  July  5,  1857. 



BARNES,    SIR    EDWARD    (1776-1838) 

Commander-in-Chief  :  entered  the  Army 
in  1792  :  Colonel,  1810  :  served  in  the 
Peninsula,  from  1812,  commanding  a 
Brigade,  and  was  in  several  battles  :  Adju- 
tant -  General  at  Waterloo :  severely 
^vounded :  K.C.B.  :  went  to  Ceylon, 
1819  :  Governor  there  from  1824  to  1831  : 
put  down  the  last  outbreaks  of  the  Kandy 
chiefs  there  :  Lt-General,  1825  :  General, 
1831,  and  C.  in  C.  in  India,  1831-33  : 
Colonel,  31st  foot  :  and  G.C.B.  :  became 
M.P.  for  Sudbury  in  1837  :  died  March  19, 


(1853-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  James  Ralph  Barnes, 
I.C.S.  :  born  1853  :  educated  at  Malvern  : 
joined  the  Civil  Service,  at  Allahabad, 
1874  :  Private  Secretary  to  the  Financial 
Member  of  Council,  1876  :  Political 
Officer,  Kandahar,  1880  :  Political  Agent, 
Quetta,  1883  :  Under  Secretary,  Foreign 
Department,  1889  :  Deputy  Secretary, 
1890 :  Revenue  Commissioner,  Quetta, 
1891  :  Resident  in  Kashmir,  1894  :  A.G.G. 
and  Chief  Commissioner,  Beluchistan, 
1896  :  Foreign  Secretary  to  the  Govern- 
ment of  India,  1900-3  :  President  of 
Central  Committee  for  the  Delhi  Darbar, 
1902-3  :  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Burma, 
1903-5  :  Member  of  the  Council  of  India, 
1905  :    K.C.S.I.,  1903  :    K.C.V.O.,  1903. 

GAEKWAR  OF  (     ?  -1882) 

Succeeded  his  brother,  Khandi  RaO, 
in  Nov.,  1870,  as  ruler  of  Baroda  :  com- 
plaints of  his  misrule  having  reached 
Government  an  inquiry  was  held  in  1873, 
and  time  to  reform  was  allowed  him : 
before  the  time  elapsed  an  attempt  was 
made  in  1874  to  poison  the  Resident, 
Colonel  R.  Phayre  {q.v.)  :  in  1875,  the 
Gaekwar  was  tried  by  a  mixed  Commission : 
the  three  British  officers  found  him  guilty  : 
the  three  native  members  declared  the 
charge  not  proven  :  he  was  then  deposed 
for  gross  misgovernment,  and  deported 
to  Madras,  where  he  died  in  1882. 

BARODA,     SIR     SAYAJI     RAO     III 
SHIR  BAHADUR  OF  (1863-      ) 

Maharaja:  born  March  10,  1863: 
descended  from  the  founders  of  the  Baroda 

dynasty  :  adopted  on  May  27,  1875,  by 
Jamnabai,  widow  of  the  Gaekwar  Khandi 
Rao  :  educated  at  the  Maharaja's  School 
at  Baroda  :  was  installed,  1875  :  during 
his  minority,  there  was  a  Council  of 
Regency  under  a  British  officer  and  Raja 
Sir  Tanjore  Madhava  Rao  K.C.S.I.  {q.v.)  : 
on  Dec.  28,  i88i,hewas  given  the  admin- 
istration of  the  State  :  made  G.CS.I.  in 
1887  :  an  enlightened  ruler,  and  holds 
advanced  views  on  social  questions  :  he 
has  several  times  visited  Europe. 


(1846-  ) 

Born  Nov.  29,  1846 :  entered  the 
Army,  1864  :  served  in  the  Abyssinian 
expedition :  boundary  settlement  officer 
in  the  Malwa  Bhil  covmtry  :  Assistant  to 
the  A.G.G.  for  Central  India,  1870 : 
Political  agent  at  Jodhpur,  1878-9  :  in 
Baghelkund  and  Rewa :  Resident  at 
Gwalior,  1887  :  in  Kashmir,  1892  :  A.G.G. 
for  Central  India,  1895  :  Resident  at 
Hyderabad,  Feb.  24,  1900-March,  1905  : 
C.S.I.  :  K.C.S.I,  1903 :  Member  of  the 
Council  of  India,  1905. 

NICOLAS,  COMTE  DE  (1755-1829) 
Chasseur  of  the  French  regiment  of 
Pondicherry :  taken  prisoner  at  the 
capture  of  Pondicherry  in  1778  by  Sir 
Hector  Munro :  at  the  request  of  the 
French  Governor,  B  arras'  regiment  was 
permitted  to  retain  its  colomrs :  he 
became  a  prisoner  on  parole  in  Madras 
and  Poonamali:  returning  to  France, 
he  rose  to  prominence  as  a  Director  dvuring 
the  Revolution  :  he  was  under  orders  to 
return  to  India,  with  other  commissaires, 
but  they  never  started :  he  became 
Commandant-General  of  the  armies  of 


(1852-  ) 

Maj -General :  born  Jan.  28,  1852  :  son 
of  Maj -General  Joseph  Lyon  Barrow, 
C.B.,  R.A.  :  joined  the  Army,  Dec.  1781  : 
D.A.Q.M.G.  :  with  the  Indian  Contingent 
in  Egypt,  1882,  and  in  the  Intelligence 
Branch,  Bengal,  1885-7  :  Assistant  Secre- 
tary to  the  Government  of  India,  Military 
Department,  1887-91  :  Deputy  Secretary, 
1 897-1900  :  Secretary,  1901-3  :  D.A.G. 
Bengal,  1900 :  served  in  the  Afghan 
War,    1879,    Egyptian   expedition,    1882, 



Tirah  campaign,  1897-8  :  Chief  Staff 
Officer,  China  expedition,  1900 :  Com- 
manding First  Division,  Northern  Army- 
Corps,  1904. 

BARROW,  LOUSADA  (  ?  -1877) 

Joined  the  Madras  cavalry  in  1836,  and 
saw  constant  service,  being  engaged  in 
the  S.  Mahratta  country  in  1844-5,  and 
imder  Havelock  in  many  actions  in  the 
mutiny  :  in  the  Alambagh  under  Outram  : 
present  at  the  siege  and  capture  of  Luck- 
now  :  Brevets  of  Major  and  Lt-Colonel  : 
C.B.  in  1858  :  Commissioner  of  Lucknow, 
1864  :  Maj-General,  1870  :  Chief  Com- 
missioner of  Oudh,  Jan.-April,  1871  : 
died  Oct.  i,     1877.  -    i  j 


(1834-  ) 

Born  March  22,  1834,  at  Strasburg: 
son  of  Etienne  Barth,  of  the  Rhone  an 
Rhin  Canal  Company  :  educated  at  the 
College  Royal  (now  Lycee  Imperial)  at 
Strasburg :  Professor  of  Rhetoric  and 
Philosophy  at  the  College  at  Bouxwiller, 
1857-61  :  then  retired  from  the  public 
service  to  devote  himself  to  Indian  study : 
lived  first  at  Strasburg,  then  at  Geneva, 
(1871-76),  and  lastly  removed  to  Paris: 
member  of  many  learned  societies :  Societe 
Asiatique,  1857:  Academy  of  Inscriptions, 
1893  :  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  1894,  etc.:  Col- 
laborator in  the  Journal  Asiatique,  Revue 
Critique,  etc.  His  chief  works  are:  Les 
Religions  de  VInde,  1880  (also  translated 
into  English)  Inscriptions  Sanskrites  du 
Camhodge,  1885  :  VInde  ;  Buddhisme,  Jain- 
isme,  Hindouisme,  1894,  etc.  :  has  pub- 
lished a  yearly  bulletin  of  the  religions  of 
India  in  the  Revue  de  VHistoire  des  Re- 
ligions, 1885,  etc. 

JULES   (1805-1895) 

Born  Aug.  19,  1805,  in  Paris  :  studied 
Sanskrit  under  Eugene  Burnouf :  early 
entered  public  life :  attached  to  the 
Ministry  of  Finance,  1825-38  :  an  editor 
of  the  Globe,  1825-30  :  as  a  journalist, 
signed  the  protest  against  the  July 
ordinances  of  Charles  X.  :  became  famous 
as  a  politician  and  ardent  Republican, 
and  lived  through  several  revolutions : 
held  office  several  times,  as  colleague  of 
Victor  Cousin  in  the  Ministry  of  Public 
Instruction  :    in  1848,  as  Secretary  of  the 

provisional  Government :  from  1871, 
took  an  active  part  in  public  affairs,  as 
member  of  the  National  Assembly : 
Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs  in  1880,  etc.  : 
yet  he  was  greatest  as  a  scholar,  and 
student  of  Philosophy  :  was  Professor  of 
Greek  and  Latin  Philosophy  at  the  College 
de  France,  1838-52,  Member  of  the 
Institute,  1839  :  in  this  year,  began  his 
study  of  Sanskrit  Philosophy  :  adminis- 
trator of  the  College  de  France,  1849  : 
accompanied  Lesseps  on  his  journey  to 
Egypt,  1855,  to  explore  the  Isthmus  of 
Suez.  After  the  death  of  Eugene  Burnouf, 
Barthelemy  took  his  place  as  a  writer  on 
Indian  matters  in  the  Journal  des  Savants  : 
died  Nov.  24,  1895  :  best  known  as  a 
Greek  scholar  :  the  great  achievement  of 
his  life  was  his  translation  of  Aristotle  : 
also  did  valuable  work  as  an  Indianist  i 
among  his  publications  are  Des  VedaSy 
1854:  Du  Bouddhisme,  1855  :  Le  Bouddha 
et  sa  religion,  1866  :  VInde  Anglaise,  1887,. 


DIN,  (1748-1806) 

Studied  at  Prague :  joined  the  Car- 
melites at  Rome  and  learned  Oriental 
languages :  went  to  the  Malabar  coast 
in  1774  :  stayed  there  14  years,  and  was 
appointed  Vicar-general  and  Apostolic 
visitor  :  returned  to  Rome  in  1790,  to 
superintend  the  printing  of  religious  works, 
for  the  use  of  Indian  missionaries  :  studied 
Sanskrit,  published  a  Sanskrit  grammar 
in  Tamil  in  1790,  and  wrote  largely  of  his. 
Indian  travels  and  experiences  :  he  died 
in  1806. 

BARWELL,    RICHARD    (1741-1804) 

Son  of  William  Barwell  (who  was. 
Governor  of  Bengal  in  1748)  :  born  in  Cal- 
cutta, Oct.  8,  1741,  and  joined  as  a 
"  writer  "  in  Bengal  under  the  E.I.  Co. 
in  1758  :  made  a  Member  of  the  Supreme 
Council  under  the  Regulating  Act  of  1773, 
which  made  Warren  Hastings  Governor- 
General,  and  steadily  supported  him  in 
Council  against  Francis,  Clavering,  and 
Monson  :  fought  a  duel  with  Clavering  in 
April,  1775  :  resigned  his  seat  in  Council . 
on  Oct.  I,  1 78 1,  retiring  with  a  large 
fortune,  reported  to  have  been  irregularly 
acquired  :  he  appears  to  have  had  two  - 
houses   in   Calcutta,   one   at   the   present 



"  Writers'  Buildings,"  tlie  other  "  Kidder- 
pur  House "  in  Alipur :  M.P.  for  St. 
Ives  and  Winchester,  and  died  Sep.  2, 
1804.  The  story  is  told  of  him,  as  illustra- 
tive of  the  luxurious  living  of  those  days, 
that  he  said  "  bring  more  curricles."  The 
Echoes  from  Old  Calcutta  by  Dr.  Busteed 
contains  a  picture  of  Barwell  and  some 
account  of  his  life  and  character. 

BASEVI,    JAMES    PALLADIS    (     ?  - 


Son  of  the  architect,  George  Basevi : 
was  educated  at  Rugby,  Cheltenham  and 
Addiscombe  :  went  to  India  in  the  E.I. 
Co.'s  Engineers,  185 1  :  joined  the  P.W.D. 
in  Bengal :  was  transferred  in  1856  to  the 
Great  Trigonometrical  Survey,  and  did 
valuable  work,  especially  in  the  principal 
triangulation  :  he  also  did  good  service  in 
reconnaissances  in  the  Mahsud-Waziri 
expedition,  i860,  and  in  the  wild  tracts  of 
Jaipur  and  Bustar  on  the  east  coast, 
1862 :  Captain,  R.E.  :  in  1864,  he  was 
selected  specially  to  conduct  some  highly 
scientific  investigations  proposed  by  the 
Royal  Society,  for  the  determination  of 
gravity  at  certain  stations  of  the  great 
meridional  arc  of  triangles  extending 
from  Cape  Comorin  to  the  Himalayas,  by 
pendulum  observations,  which  lasted 
some  years,  and  necessitated  exposure  at 
high  altitudes.  He  crossed  Kashmir  and 
Ladak  and  travelled  through  the  Chanch- 
enmo  valley  to  the  Chinese  frontier  to 
make  observations  at  above  16,000  feet : 
he  burst  a  blood-vessel,  and  died  July  17, 
1871,  "a  martyr  to  his  love  of  science," 
an  officer  "  of  sterling  worth  and  excellent 

UNDERWOOD  (1835-1887) 

Son  of  Colonel  Agnew  Champain  :  born 
July  22,  1835  :  educated  at  Cheltenham, 
the  Edinburgh  Military  Academy,  and 
Addiscombe  :  went  to  India  in  the  Bengal 
Engineers,  1854  :  in  the  mutiny  was  in 
the  action  of  Badli-ka-sarai    on  June  8, 

1857,  and  at  the  siege  and  capture  of 
Delhi :  was  in  several  other  engagements : 
at    the    capture    of   Lucknow   in    March, 

1858,  by  Sir  Colin  Campbell :  at  the  tak- 
ing of  Jagdishpur  :  in  1862  he  went  to 
Persia  in  connection  with  the  Government 
telegraph  system:  in  1865,  became  Assis- 
tant to  the  Director  of  the  Indo-European 
Telegraph  Department,  and  in  1870  be- 

came himself  the  Director  :  took  the 
additional  name  of  Bateman  :  to  complete 
and  maintain  the  through  telegraphic 
communication,  he  had  to  travel  con- 
stantly  to  Persia,  the  Persian  Gulf,  Turkey, 
Russia  and  India  :  in  1869  he  narrowly 
escaped  drowning  in  the  wreck  of  the 
P.  and  O.  S.S.  Carnatic  :  he  was  made 
K.C.M.G.  Dec.  31,  1885  :  was  on  the 
Councils  of  the  Royal  Geographical  So- 
ciety and  of  the  Society  of  Telegraph 
Engineers:    died  Feb.  i,  1887. 

FIFTH   MARQUIS    OF   (1862-        ) 

Born  July  16,  1862  :  son  of  the  4th 
Marquis  :  educated  at  Eton  and  Balliol 
College,  Oxford  :  Private  Secretary  to  the 
Earl  of  Iddesleigh,  First  Lord  of  the 
Treasury,  1886-7 :  Assistant  Private 
Secretary  to  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exche- 
quer, Lord  Goschen :  M.P.  for  Frome, 
1886-92,  and  1895-6 :  succeeded  his 
father  in  the  peerage,  1896  :  Lord  Lieu- 
tenant of  Somerset  :  Under  Secretary 
of  State  for  India,   1905. 


(1854-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Capt.  Daniel  Bayley, 
Bengal  Cavalry  :  and  grandson  of  W.  B 
Bayley  {q.v.)  :  educated  at  Harrow  and 
Heidelberg :  entered  the  Indian  Civil 
Service,  1877  :  Political  Agent  in  Bikanir  : 
General  Superintendent  for  suppressing 
of  Thagi  and  Dakaiti :  Agent  to  the 
Governor-General,  Central  India  :  C.S.I. 
Resident   at  Hyderabad,   1905. 


I.C.S.  :  son  of  E.  Clive  Bayley  :  born 
Oct.,  1821  :  educated  at  Haileybury : 
went  to  India  in  1842  :  served  in  the 
N.W.P.,  and  the  Panjab  :  Under  Secre- 
tary in  the  Foreign  Department  in  1849  : 
called  to  the  bar  at  the  Middle  Temple  in 
1857  :  in  the  mutiny,  was  Under  Secretary 
to  Sir  J.  P.  Grant  when  temporary  Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of  the  "  Central  "  Provinces  : 
Magte.  of  Allahabad  :  was  for  a  short  time 
Foreign  Secretary  in  1861  :  Home  Secre- 
tary to  the  Government  of  India,  1862- 
72,  and  Member  of  the  Supreme  Council, 
1873-78  :  K. C.S.I,  in  1877  :  and  CLE.  : 
Vice-Chancellor  of  the  Calcutta  University, 
1869-74,    five    times    President    of    the 



Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  and  Vice- 
President  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society  for 
3  years  :  died  April  30,  1884  :  made  con- 
siderable contributions  to  Indian  history, 
numismatics,  antiquities,  and  archaeology 
by  his  papers  for  the  Asiatic  Societies  and 
other  writings. 


(18:{6-        ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Aug.  26,  1836  :  the  young- 
est son  of  W.  Butterworth  B.  (q.v.): 
educated  at  Eton  and  Haileybury  :  arrived 
in  India,  March,  1856  :  held  minor  ap- 
pointments in  Bengal :  was  Commissioner 
of  Patna  during  the  Bihar  famine  of 
1874  :  C.S.I.,  1875  :  Secretary  to  the 
Government  of  Bengal,  1877  :  Additional 
Secretary  to  the  Government  of  India, 
1877  :  Personal  Assistant  to  the  Viceroy 
(Lord  Lytton)  for  famine  affairs,  1877  : 
K.C.S.I.,  1878  :  Home  Secretary,  1878  : 
Chief  Commissioner  of  Assam,  1878-80  : 
Resident  at  Hyderabad,  1881-2  :  C.I.E., 
1881  :  Member  of  the  Supreme  Council, 
1882-7  :  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Bengal 
from  July  to  Dec,  1879, and  from  1887-90  ; 
on  leaving  India  he  became  Secretary  in 
the  Political  Department  at  the  India 
Office,  1890-95  :  Member  of  the  Coimcil 
of  India,   1895. 



I.C.S.  :  son  of  Thomas  Butterworth 
Bayley :  educated  at  Eton  and  Cam- 
bridge :  went  to  India  in  1799  :  served  in 
1803  in  the  "  Governor-General's  Office," 
in  the  brilliant  circle  under  Lord  Welles- 
ley  :  Registrar  of  the  Sadr  Court,  1807  : 
Judge  of  Burdwan  and  other  places  :  in 
1 8 14  Secretary  in  the  Judicial  and  Revenue 
Department,  and  in  1819  Chief  Secretary 
to  the  Government :  temporary  Member 
of{the  Supreme  Council  from  July  to  Dec, 
1822,  and  substantively  from  1825  to  1830  : 
then  he  retired  :  he  officiated  as  Governor- 
General  from  March  to  July,  1828,  between 
Lord  Amherst  and  Lord  W.  Bentinck  : 
President  of  the  Board  of  Trade,  1830  : 
Vice-President  and  Depy.  Governor  of 
Bengal :  in  1833  he  became  a  Director  of 
the  E.  I.  Co.,  and  Chairman  of  the  Court 
in  1840  :  retired  1858  :  he  died  May  29, 
i860.  Kaye  writes  of  his  high  official 
reputation,  adding  that  "  his  unfailing 
kindness  of  heart  and  suavity  of  manner 

endeared  him  to  all  who  had  the  privilege 
of  coming  within  the  reach  of  their  genial 


(1866-  ) 

Educated  at  Wellington  :  joined  io8th 
regt.,  1874 :  Bombay  Staff  Corps,  1879 : 
Staff  College,  1893  :  D.A.A.  and  Q.M.G  : 
Burma  expedition,  1886-87  :  Afghan  war, 
1880-81  :  Soudan,  1885  :  Burma,  1886-87: 
South  Africa,  1 899-1900  :  Colonel,  C.B. 

BEADON,   SIR  CECIL  (1816-1880) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Richard  Beadon,  grandson 
of  Dr.  Beadon,  Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells  : 
born  in  1816 :  educated  at  Eton  and 
Haileybury  :  went  out  to  Bengal  in  1836  : 
Under  Secretary  to  the  Bengal  Government 
in  1843 :  Secretary  to  the  Board  of  Revenue, 
1847  :  Member  of  the  Commission  on  the 
Indian  postal  system  :  Secretary  to  the 
Government  of  Bengal,  1852  :  Home 
Secretary  to  the  Government  of  India, 
1854  :  Foreign  Secretary,  1859  :  Member 
of  the  Supreme  Council  1860-2,  and 
Lieutenant  Governor  of  Bengal, April,  1862, 
to  April,  1867.  During  this  period  the 
mission,  which  met  with  insults,  was  sent 
to  Bhutan  in  1864  :  and  the  Orissa  famine 
of  1866-7  occiured  :  for  the  latter,  Beadon 
was  much  blamed  and,  on  an  official 
inquiry,  his  famine  administration  was 
severely  censured  :  always  sanguine,  he 
had  failed  to  estimate  adequately  the  signs 
of  distress  and  the  local  conditions  :  and 
he  suffered  from  ill-health  :  his  general 
administration  showed  marked  ability : 
K.C.S.I.  in  May,  1866  :  died  July  18,  1880. 

BEALE,    THOMAS    WILLIAM    (  ?    - 


A  clerk  in  the  ofifice  of  the  Board  of 
Revenue,  N.W.P.  :  a  learned  scholar,  who 
assisted  Sir  H.  M.  Elliot  in  his  work  on  the 
Muhammadans  in  India :  he  wrote  the 
Miftah-ul-Tawarikh,  and  an  Oriental 
Biographical  Dictionary  :  died  at  a  great 
age,  at  Agra,  1875. 

BEAMES,  JOHN  (1837-1902) 

I.C.S  :  born  June  21,  1837  :  son  of 
Rev.  Thomas  Beames :  educated  at 
Merchant  Taylors'  School  and  at  Hailey- 
bury, 1856-7 :  went  to  India,  1858  : 
served  in  the  Panjab,  1859-61  :  afterwards. 



in  Lower  Bengal,  Commissioner  of  various 
Divisions  and  Member  of  the  Board  of 
Revenue :  retired,  1893  :  an  Oriental 
scholar:  wrote  in  the  J.A.S.B:  and  in 
the  Indian  Antiquary  :  also  Outlines  of 
Indian  Philology,  1867  :  edited  Sir  H. 
Elliot's  Supplemental  Glossary  of  Indian 
Terms,  1869  :  his  chief  work  was  A  Com- 
parative Grammar  of  the  Aryan  Languages, 
iSyz-g  :  and  a  Bengali  Grammar,  1891  : 
wrote  in  the  Imperial,  and  Asiatic  Quar- 
terly Reviews  :   died  May  42,  1902. 


M.D.  Glasgow,  1836  :  entered  the  Army 
Medical  Department,  1838  ;  served  in 
Ceylon,  1839-51  :  in  the  Burmese  war  of 
1852  :  the  Crimea,  Ionian  Islands,  Madras  : 
vSurgeon-General  in  India  and  P.M.O.  of 
European  troops,  1863-8,  and  again, 
1 871-4  :  was  in  charge  of  Netley  Hospital 
1868-71  :  Honorary  Physician  to  the 
Queen  :  C.B.  1869  :  died  at  Simla,  June 
7,  1874. 


(1854-  ) 

Born  July  II,  1854  :  son  of  Capt.  W.  S. 
Beatson,  of  the  H.E.I.C.S  :  educated  at 
Wellington :  joined  the  Indian  Army, 
1873  :  served  on  N.W.  Frontier,  1878, 
in  Afghanistan,  1878-80  :  Egypt,  1882  : 
N.W.  Frontier,  1897-98  :  South  Africa, 
1901  :  Inspr-General  of  Imperial  Service 
Troops  :    Colonel  and  C.B. 



General :  son  of  Captain  Robert  Beat- 
son,  R.E  :  entered  the  Bengal  Army  in 
1820  :  served,  while  on  furlough,  with  the 
British  Legion  in  Spain,  1835-6  :  at  the 
capture  of  Jigni  in  Bundelkund,  1840  : 
Chirgong,  1841  :  in  the  Sind  compaign, 
1844  :  served  under  Sir  C.  Napier,  1845, 
in  the  Bugti  hills  :  commanded  the  Nizam's 
cavalry  :  took  Rymow  from  the  Rohillas 
in  1848  :  organised  the  Bashi-bazouks  in 
the  Crimean  campaign,  1854-5  :  in  the 
mutiny,  raised  two  regiments  of  cavalry, 
named,  "  Beatson's  Horse  "  :  commanded 
the  Allahabad  Division,  1866,  and  the 
Umbala  Division,  1869  :  died  Feb.  4,  1872. 


General :     son   of   Colonel   G.    Becher  : 

educated  at  Addiscombe :  was  in  the 
Afghan  war,  1839  :  at  Ghazni :  in  the 
Satlaj  campaign,  1845-6 :  at  Mudki, 
Firozshahr,  Sobraon  :  Brevet  -  Major  : 
A.D.C.  to  the  Governor-General  :  in  the 
Panjab  campaign,  1848-9  :  at  the  siege 
and  capture  of  Multan,  and  at  Gujarat  : 
Q.M.G.  in  India,  1852-63  :  severely 
wounded  at  the  siege  of  Delhi,  1857  : 
C.B.,  1858  :  Bengal  Staff  Corps  :  com- 
manded the  Sirhind  Division,  1865-9  • 
Maj-General,  1861  :    died  Oct,  5.  1887. 

BECHER,  JOHN  REID  (1819-1884) 

General :  son  of  Colonel  John  Becher, 
of  the  Bengal  Cavalry  :  bom  18 19  : 
educated  at  Bruce  Castle,  Tunbridge  Wells, 
and  Addiscombe  :  went  to  India  in  the 
Bengal  Engineers  in  1839  :  from  Firozpur 
with  Wild's  Brigade,  to  relieve  Ali  Masjid 
in  Jan.  1842,  and  on  with  General  Pollock's 
advance  to  Kabul :  in  Satlaj  campaign, 
at  Sobraon,  Feb.  10,  1846,  severely 
wounded  :  engaged  in  Rajputana  boundary 
settlements,  1847,  and  on  land  inquiries 
in  the  Panjab  :  Deputy  Secretary  to  the 
Panjab  Board  of  Administration  :  Deputy 
Commissioner  of  Hazara,  1853-9  '•  C.B  : 
in  Sydney  Cotton's  expedition  of  1858 
against  the  Sitana  fanatics  :  Commissioner 
of  the  Derajat,  1862  :  and  of  Peshawar, 
1864  :  retired  in  1866  :  died  July  9,  1884  : 
one  of  the  distinguished  group  of  officers 
employed  in  the  Panjab  under  the  Law- 
rences in  the  early  days  after  its  annexation 
in  1849  :  "  of  all  prominent  Panjab 
officials  there  was  certainly  none  more 
loved  and  respected  than  Becher." 

BECHER,  RICHARD     (  ?  -1782) 

Related  to  Anne  Becher,  mother  of 
W.  M.  Thackeray  the  novelist  :  went  out 
to  Calcutta  as  a  writer  in  the  E.  I,  Co.'s 
service,  1743  :  in  1756  was  Fourth  in  the 
Bengal  Council  and  Chief  of  Dacca  :  when 
Calcutta  was  taken  by  Suraj-ud-daula, 
Becher  with  his  family  escaped  from  the 
city,  with  others  :  returning,  1757,  when 
Calcutta  was  retaken  by  the  English. 
In  1 76 1  Becher  was  dismissed  from  the 
Company's  service  for  having  signed  Clive's 
independent  letter  of  remonstrance  to  the 
Directors  two  years  before.  Six  years 
later,  1767,  when  Clive  was  Governor  of 
Bengal,  Becher  was  re-appointed  to  the 
Bengal  Council,  and  in  1769  was  made 
Resident     at    Murshidabad,    with    local 



control  of  the  revenue  administration  of 
Bengal.  He  deserves  to  be  remembered 
for  his  heroic  efforts,  in  the  face  of  mis- 
representation and  slander,  to  alleviate 
the  horrors  of  the  great  famine  of  1770  in 
Bengal :  noted  for  his  honesty,  during 
his  13  years  of  service  under  the  Company  : 
took  no  private  gifts  or  bribes.  In  1774, 
he  retired  to  England  with  a  modest  for- 
tune, which  he  soon  after  risked  and  lost 
in  trying  to  help  a  friend  :  returned  to 
India  :  was  given  a  subordinate  post  as 
head  of  the  Calcutta  Mint,  1781  ;  died 
Nov.  17,  1782,  at  Calcutta. 

BECK,  THEODORE  (1859-1899) 
Of  a  Quaker  family  :  educated  at  a 
Quaker  school,  at  London  University, 
Scholar  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge : 
President  of  the  Union  Debating  Society  : 
appointed  Principal  of  the  M.A.O.  College, 
Alighar,  when  he  was  only  24  :  he  re- 
organized the  College,  establishing  order 
out  of  chaos,  reformed  the  discipline, 
introduced  improvements,  adjusted  the 
finances,  was  devoted  to  his  work  and  in 
warm  sympathy  with  the  Muhammadans  : 
working  with  Sir  Syad  Ahmad  (q.v.)  until 
his  death,  in  1898,  and  afterwards  with 
the  trustees  of  the  institution  :  died  at 
Simla,   Sep.    2,    1899. 



Son  of  Maj -General  J.  Beckwith  : 
foined  the  71st  regt.  in  India  in  1791,  then 
under  Col.  D.  Baird  {q.v.)  :  was  at  the 
siege  of  Seringapatam  by  Lord  Cornwallis 
in  1792  and  the  taking  of  Pondicherry  by 
Baird  in  1793  :  served  also  in  Ceylon,  at 
Copenhagen,  at  Hanover,  in  Denmark,  the 
Peninsula,  Canada :  Maj-General  and 
K.C.B.,  1814  :  Lt-General,  1830  :  was 
appointed  C.  in  C.  at  Bombay  in  1829:  died 
of  fever  at  Mahableshwar,  Jan.  19,  1831. 


(1830-  ) 

Born  May  11,  1830  :  son  of  R.  B. 
Beddome :  educated  at  Charterhouse : 
joined  the  Madras  Army  :  was  Quarter- 
master and  Interpreter  of  his  regiment, 
42nd  Infantry,  1856  :  Assistant  Conser- 
vator of  Forests,  Madras,  1857  :  Head  of 
the  Madras  Forest  Department,  i860  to 
1882,  when  he  retired  as  Colonel :  Fellow 
of  the  Madras  University,  1880  :  author 
of  The  Flora  Sylvatica  of  the  Madras  Presi- 

dency, (400  trees).  The  Ferns  of  Southern 
India,  (345  plates).  Hand-book  to  the  Ferns 
of  India,  besides  pamphlets  on  new  reptiles 
and  land  shells  discovered  by  him  in 

NARD, D.D.  (1842-        ) 

German  :  born  at  Miinster,  Aug.  18, 
1842  :  entered  the  Society  of  Jesus,  Aug. 
23,  1865  :  arrived  in  India,  Nov.  6,  1879  : 
occupied  various  posts  in  colleges,  etc., 
became  Superior  of  the  Jesuit  Mission, 
Oct.  4,  1882  :  nominated  first  Catholic 
Bishop  of  Poona,  Suffragan  of  Bombay, 
Dec.  22,  1886,  consecrated,  Feb.  27,  1887, 
at  Allahabad  :  still  in  occupation  of  the 

BELL,     REV.     DR.     ANDREW,     D.D. 


"  The  eminent  founder  of  the  Madras 
system  of  education  "  :  son  of  a  barber 
at  St.  Andrew's  :  born  March  27,  1753  '• 
educated  at  St.  Andrew's  School  and 
University  :  ordained,  1784  :  M.D.  :  tutor 
in  Virginia,  1774-9  '•  went  to  India,  1787  : 
in  2  years  he  had  obtained  and  held  simul- 
taneously eight  Army  chaplaincies  :  in 
1789  he  was  Chaplain  of  St.  Mary's, 
Madras,  and  Superintendent  of  the  Madras 
Male  Orphan  Asylum,  and  there  introduced 
a  system  of  mutual  instruction  by  the 
boys,  who  were  thus  alternately  learners 
and  teachers,  one  half  of  the  class  teaching 
the  other  half :  accompanied]Genl.  Braith- 
waite  to  capture  of  Pondicherry,  1793  : 
with  a  pension  from  the  E.I.Co.,he  returned 
to  England  in  1797,  and  laboured  hard 
to  spread  his  system  at  home  and  abroad  : 
it  was  adopted  in  places :  Rector  of 
Swanage,  1801,  Master  of  Sherbinrn 
Hospital,  1809  :  as  Superintendent,  in 
18 1 1,  of  the  National  Society  for  promoting 
the  education  of  the  poor  in  the  principles 
of  the  Established  Church,  he  could 
advance  his  Madras  system,  but  it  could 
not  be  an  entire  system  of  education  :  he 
was  made  LL.D  :  also  a  Prebendary  of 
Westminister  :  gave  ^120,000  to  found  a 
College  at  St.  Andrew's  :  died  Jan.  27, 
1832,  and  was  buried  in  Westminster 
Abbey  :    a  tablet  erected  to  his  memory. 

BELL,  THOMAS  EVANS  (1825-1887) 

Major :  born  Nov.  11,1825  :  son  of  William 
Bell :     educated   at   Wandsworth  :     went 



to  Madras  in  the  E.  I.  Go's  military  service, 
1841  :  joined  the  2nd  Madras  Europeans  : 
appointed  Assistant  Commissioner  at 
Nagpur,  1855,  lost  his  appointment,  i860, 
for  insubordination  to  the  Chief  Commis- 
sioner in  advocating  the  claims  of  the 
dispossessed  ruling  family  :  all  the  measures 
recommended  by  Major  Bell  were,  however, 
approved  and  carried  out  by  Lord  Can- 
ning, and  he  was  appointed  Deputy  Com- 
missioner of  Police  at  Madras,  1861  : 
retired  1863:  devoted  the  remainder  of 
his  life  to  advocating  measures  for  the 
benefit  of  India  and  its  people  :  wrote  The 
Task  of  To-day,  1852  :  The  English  in 
India,  1859  :  The  Empire  in  India,  1864  : 
Remarks  on  the  Mysore  Blue  Book,  1866  : 
The  Mysore  Reversion,  1865  :  Retrospects 
and  Prospects  of  Indian  Policy,  1868  : 
The  Oxus  and  the  Indus,  1869  :  1874:  The 
Great  Parliamentary  Bore,  1869  :  Our 
Great  Vassal  Empire,  1870,  The  Bengal 
Reversion,  1872  :  Last  Counsels  of  an 
Unknown  Counsellor,  1877  :  Memoirs  of 
General  John  Briggs,  1886 :  died  Sep. 
12,  1887. 

BELLE W,    HENRY    WALTER    (1834- 

Son  of  Capt.  H.  W.  Bellew,  of  the 
Bengal  Army :  born  Aug.  30,  1834  : 
educated  at  St.  George's  Hospital,  London 
M.D.  :  in  the  Crimean  war :  went  to 
Tndia  in  the  Bengal  Medical  service,  1856  : 
with  Sir  H.  B.  Lumsden's  {q.v.)  mission  to 
Kandahar  in  1857-8  :  in  the  Umbeyla 
campaign  :  Civil  Surgeon  of  Peshawar  : 
interpreter  at  the  Umbala  darbar  of  1869 
with  the  Amir  Shir  Ali :  was  on  Sir  R. 
Pollock's  mission  to  Seistan,  1871,  and 
Sir  T.  D.  Forsyth's  mission  to  Kashgar 
and  Yarkand,  1873-4  :  C.S.L  in  1873  : 
Chief  Political  officer  at  Kabul  in  the  second 
Afghan  war :  retired  as  Surgeon- 
General,  1886  :  died  July  26,  1892  :  he 
had  a  faculty  for  learning  Oriental  lan- 
guages, and  wrote  about  them  as  well  as 
about  medical  subjects  and  the  countries 
which  he  had  visited  and  their  inhabitants. 

MONTESQUIEU    (1823-1874) 

Son  of  Capt.  R.  Higgins  :  born  Aug. 
3,  1823  :  educated  at  Lancaster,  and  St. 
Mary's  Hall,  Oxford  :  took  his  mother's 
family  name  in  1844  :  ordained  in  1848  : 
went   to   Calcutta   in    1851    and   became 

Chaplain  of  St.  John's  Church  for  4  years  : 
edited  there  the  Bengal  Hurkaru :  re- 
turning to  England  in  1855,  he  became 
a  popular  preacher  in  London,  but  in  1868 
was  a  convert  to  Roman  Catholicism,  and 
supported  himself  by  public  readings  and 
literary  work  :  he  had  great  success  as  a 
master  of  elocution  and  from  his  handsome 
appearance  :  he  died  June  19,  1874. 

BELLI,  JOHN  (  ?  -  ?  ) 
Born  in  England,  of  a  noble  Italian 
family,  probably  of  Viterbo,  his  mother 
being  a  lady  of  Spanish  origin  named 
Bivar  :  entered  the  E.  I.  Co's.  service  and 
became  Private  Secretary  to  Warren 
Hastings,  about  1770-5  =  he  married  a 
sister  of  Sir  Charles  Cockerell;  his  daugh- 
ters married  Dr.  Howley,  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury;  E.  Horsley  Palmer,  M.P. 
and  Sir  C.  E.  Carrington  (q.v.) 

OF  (1717-?1770) 
Son  of  Mansa  Ram  :  and  father  of  Chait 
Singh  (q.v.)  :  all  of  the  Dhuinhar  caste  : 
succeeded  his  father,  1740  :  died 
Aug.  19  1770,  being  succeeded  by  Chait 
Singh  :  Balwant  was  the  real  founder  and 
consoUdator  of  the  Benares  Raj. 


(      ?     -1810) 

Son  of  Balwant  Singh,  the  Raja  of 
Benares,  who  died  in  1770,  when  Chait 
Singh  became  Raja  :  in  1775  was  declared 
independent  of  Oudh  (of  which  he  had 
been  a  vassal)  and  made  tributary  to  the 
English  Govermnent  on  a  fixed  annual 
payment  :  in  1778,  Warren  Hastings 
demanded  from  him,  besides  the  annual 
tribute,  five  lakhs  of  rupees,  which  were 
recovered  from  him  with  the  help  of 
troops.  Similar  demands  were  made  from 
him  in  1779  and  1780  :  in  the  latter  year, 
a  contingent  of  men  was  demanded, 
according  to  his  tenure  as  Raja,  for  the 
public  service  :  he  evaded,  and  did  not 
furnish  a  single  man  :  a  fine  of  50  lakhs  was 
imposed,;  and  Warren  Hastings  personally 
went  to  Benares,  to  levy  the  fine  on  Chait 
Singh,  who  received  him  submissively. 
Chait  Singh  was  made,  Aug.  16,  1781,  a 
prisoner  in  his  own  palace  at  feenares,  but 
his  people  rose,  attacked  and  killed  the 
guards.  In  the  confusion,  Chait  Singh 
escaped.     Hastings  withdrew  to  Chunar  : 



Major  Popham  advanced  in  force,  and 
defeated  Chait  Singh's  forces  at  Benares, 
Latifpur  and  Bijaighar  :  the  tribute  was 
doubled,  when  a  nephew  of  Chait  Singh 
was  made  Raja.  Chait  Singh,  with  a  few 
followers,  took  refuge  in  Gwalior  and  lived 
there  until  his  death  on  March  29,  1810. 

DUR   of    (1822-1889) 

Born  1822:  nephew  and  adopted  son 
of  Raja  Udit  Singh  of  Benares,  whom 
he  succeeded  in  1835  :  belonged  to 
the  Bhuinhar  family,  from  which  came 
Balwant  Singh  and  Chait  Singh  :  he 
rendered  conspicuous  service  during  the 
mutiny  and  largely  assisted  in  maintaining 
order  in  the  city  and  neighbouring  country : 
made  Maharaja  Bahadur  in  1859  :  G. C.S.I, 
in  1877  :  received  the  title  of  "  His 
Highness  "  in  1889  as  a  personal  distinc- 
tion :  and  a  salute  of  15  guns  :  had  no  son, 
and  was  succeeded  in  his  immense  estates 
by  his  nephew,  the  present  Maharaja  : 
was  a  great  patron  of  literature,  several 
poets  resided  at  his  court  and  wrote  works 
under  the  Maharaja's  name  :  died  June 
13,  1889. 


(1855-  ) 

Born  Nov.  26,  1855  :  succeeded  as 
nephew  and  adopted  son  of  Maharaja  Isri 
Prasad  {q.v.),  on  June  13,  1889  :  received 
the  title  of  His  Highness  as  a  personal  dis- 
tinctionin  Sep.  1889  :  G.C.I.E.,  Jan.  1898  : 
has  a  salute  of  13  guns. 

BENDALL,  CECIL  (1856- 

Born  July  i,  1856  :  ediicated  at  City 
of  London  School,  Trinity  and  Caius 
Colleges,  Cambridge  :  first  class.  Classical 
Tripos,  and  first  class  Indian  Languages 
Tripos:  Fellow,  Caius  College,  1879-85: 
at  the  British  Museum,  in  the  Department 
of  Oriental  MSS.  and  printed  books, 
1882-98  :  Curator  of  Oriental  Literature 
in  the  Cambridge  University  Library,i892  : 
Professor  of  Sanskrit  at  University  College, 
London,  1885-1903,  and  at  Cambridge 
since  1903  (previously  Sanskrit  lecturer 
there) :  travelled  in  India  and  Nipal,  1884-5 
and  1898-9  :  on  the  Council  of  the  R.  A  .S., 
1901 :  published  A  Journey  of  Literary 
and  AfchcBological  Research  in  Nipal  and 

Northern  India,  1886  :  and  Catalogues  of 
Buddhist  Sanskrit  MSS  at  Cambridge,  and 
of  .Sanskrit  Pali  books,  and  MSS,  in  the 
British  Museum,  besides  other  works  on 

BENFEY,    THEODOR    (1809-1881) 

Born  Jan.  28,  1809  :  studied  from  1824 
at  Gottingen  :  Doctor  of  Philosophy,  1828  : 
also  studied  at  Munich  :  taught  at  Frank- 
fort, 1830-4  :  made  Privat  Docent,  1834  : 
ordinary  Professor  of  the  philosophical 
faculty,  1862  :  laboured  at  classical 
philology,  Sanskrit  language  and  litera- 
ture, and  the  science  of  language  :  left  his 
mark  on  Oriental  research  :  in  the  front 
rank  as  a  Vedic  scholar  and  Sanskrit 
grammarian :  studied  the  early  fable 
literature  of  India  and  other  countries  : 
edited  the  Sama  Veda,  1848  :  wrote  a 
Sanskrit-English  Dictionary,  1866,  and 
a  Grammar  of  the  Vedic  language  :  Fellow 
of  the  Society  of  Letters,  Gottingen  : 
F.R.A.S.  of  Great  Britain,  and  of  other 
learned  societies :  wrote  Vedica  und 
Linguistica,  1880  :  Vedica  und  Verwandtes, 
1880  :    died  June  30,  1881. 

BENFIELD,  PAUL  (     ?    -1810) 

In  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  Civil  Service  :  went  to 
India  in  1764  :  in  Madras  he  made  money 
by  trade,  lending,  and  contracts,  and  had 
large  money  dealings  with  the  Nawab  of 
the  Carnatic :  one  of  these  being  un- 
favourably regarded  by  the  Coiurt  of 
Directors  in  1777,  he  resigned  the  service 
and  retired  to  England,  1779  :  but,  having 
demanded  an  inquiry  and  explained,  he 
was  reinstated  and  returned  to  Madras, 
finally  retiring  in  1793  :  lost  his  fortune  in 
speculations  and  died  in  want,  18 10  :  M.P. 
for  Cricklade  in  1780. 


Born  Feb.  15,  1831  :  son  of  a  Calcutta 
merchant :  educated  at  the  Education 
Society's  school  (now  Elphinstone  High 
School)  in  Bombay :  employed  in  the 
Bombay  branch  of  the  Bank  of  Ceylon  and 
subsequently  in  the  Commercial  Bank  of 
India  :  went,  in  1853,  to  the  Mercantile 
Bank  and,  in  1858,  became  Assistant  to 
Muncherji  Framji  Cama  :  was  well  read 
in  Gujarati  and  English  and  brought  out 
several  Gujarati  periodicals.  In  1868,  he 
visited     Europe.      He    assisted     Naoroji 



Furdunji  {q.v.)  in  advocating  social  and 
political  reforms  :  they  were  joint  Honor- 
ary Secretaries  to  the  Parsi  Law  Associa- 
tion from  1855,  which  obtained  certain 
legislative  measures  for  the  Parsis :  in 
1 871  he  was  consulted  by  the  Governor 
of  Bombay  on  the  new  Municipal  Act, 
became  a  Member  of  the  Bombay  Cor- 
poration, and,  in  1876,  a  Member  of  the 
Bombay  Legislative  Council ;  was  a 
Fellow  of  the  Bombay  University  :  owing 
to  his  exertions,  the  Indian  Factory  Act  of 
1881  became  law  :  in  1881  he  was  made 
CLE.  and  Sheriff  of  Bombay  :  in  1885, 
was  a  member  of  the  Abkari  Commission  : 
died  April  4,  1893. 

DISH  (1774-18:{9) 

Governor-General  :   son  of  the  3rd  Duke 
of  Portland,  born  Sep.  14,  1774  :    entered 
the  Army  1791,  saw  service  in  the  Nether- 
lands, in  Italy,  with  the  Austrian  forces  : 
Governor  of  Madras,  from  Aug.,  1803,  to 
Sep.,  1 807,  whenjon  account  of  the  mutiny  of 
sepoys  against  their  officers  at  Vellore,  for 
which  he  was  held  responsible,  the  Court  of 
Directors  recalled  him:  changes  affecting  the 
sepoys  had  been  introduced  by  the  C.  in  C, 
with  the  support  of  the  Governor.     He 
was  employed  in  Portugal  and  commanded 
a  Brigade  at  Corunna  :    as  Lt-General  he 
was  C.  in  C.  in  Sicily,  181 1,  served  in  Spain, 
and  led  an  expedition  against  Genoa,  1814. 
After  13   years   without  employment,  he 
was'Governorof  Bengal  from  July,  1828,  was 
C.   in  C.   from  May,  1833,   and  the   first 
Governor-General  of  India  from  Nov.,  1834, 
to  March,   1835  :  it  devolved  on  him  to 
insist   on   economies   to  restore  financial 
equilibrium,  to  reform  the  land  revenue 
settlement  in  the  N.W.P.,  to  establish  a 
Board   of    Revenue    in    the    N.W.P.    and 
reorganize  the    judicial  courts,    to  devote 
funds  to  education  through  the  medium 
of  English,  and  to  increase  the  employment 
of  educated  natives  in  higher  offices.     He 
also  by  Regulation  abolished  the  practice 
of    suttee,    and    suppressed    the    Thags. 
He     took    over    the    administration     of 
Mysore.     He  met  Ranjit  Singh,  ruler  of 
the  Panjab,  on  the  Satlaj.     In  general  he 
reformed  the  administration  in  a  liberal 
spirit,  and  established  the  principle  that, 
in  the  Government  of  India,the  interests 
of  the  people  should  have  the  first  claim. 
His  memory  is  still  cherished  by  the  natives. 

The  eloquent  inscription  on  his  statue  in 
Calcutta  was  written  by  Macaulay  iq.v.) 
(Legal  Member  of  Council  from  Nov., 
1834.)  Bentinckwas  greatly  regretted  on 
his  retirement.  He  became  M.P.  for 
Glasgow  in  1837  :  refused  a  peerage,  and 
died  June  17,  1839. 

BENTLEY,   JOHN   (     ? 

Member  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal : 
wrote  Historical  View  of  Hindu  As- 
tronomy, 1823  :  his  earlier  treatise,  on 
the  Antiquity  of  the  Suryasiddhanta,  1799, 
threw  doubts  on  the  antiquity  of  Indian 
astronomy,  and  called  forth  a  severe 
critique  in  the  Edinburgh  Review,  to  which 
Bentley  replied  in  the  Asiatic  Researches  : 
one  of  the  greatest  mathematicians  of  his 
time  in  India :  he  also  wrote,  on  the 
Principal  Eras  and  Dates  of  the  Ancient 


Artist :  resided  for  some  time,  prior  to 
1856,  in  India  :  conspicuous  for  original 
and  pleasing  delineations  of  native  life, 
landscape  and  buildings  in  India,  evi- 
dently drawn  on  the  spot :  chiefly  known 
as  a  draughtsman  on  wood  of  Eastern 
subjects,  principally  Indian  and  Chinese  : 
exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  up  to 
1883  :  illustrated  Capt.  M.  Rafter's  Our 
Indian  Army,  and  Capper's  Three  Presi- 
dencies of  India  :  nearly  all  his  drawings 
on  wood  are  in  the  periodicals  and  journals 
of  the  'sixties,  such  as  the  Illustrated 
London  News,  and,  to  about  1876,  the 
publications  of  the  ReHgious  Tract  Society: 
he  illustrated  also  The  Indian  Nabob  of 
100  years  ago,  by  G.  E.  Sargent  in  The 
Leisure  Hour  for  1858,  a  story  of  con- 
siderable merit  of  the  British  conquest 
and  settlement  of  Bengal :  he  painted  a 
series  of  dissolving  views  of  Indian  life, 
exhibited  in  London  before  1862 :  his 
signature  on  drawings  is  usually  J.B. 
but  occasionally  J.A.B. 


OF  (     ?     -1816) 

Raja  of  Nagpur,  or  Berar :  succeeded 
his  father,  Madhoji  Bhonsla,  as  Raja  in 
1788,  took  part  in  the  victory  of  the 
Mahrattas  over  Nizam  Ali  of  Hyderabad 
at  Kurdla  in  March,  1795.  After  the 
treaty  of  Bassein  (Dec.  1802),  he  joined 



in  the  Mahratta  war  against  the  British, 
and  was  beaten  at  Assaye  on  Sep.  23,  1803, 
and  again  at  Argaum  on  Nov.  28,  1803  : 
he  had  then  to  cede  Cuttack  and  Berar  to 
the  English,  so  that  only  Nagpur  remained 
to  him  :  his  demand  for  their  restoration 
was  refused  :   he  died  in  1816. 

RAJA  OF  (1808P-1853) 

Raja  of  Nagpur  :  grandson  of  Raghoji 
Bhonsla  II  (q.v.),  adopted  by  his  widow 
and  made  Raja  as  a  child  of  9,  after  the 
flight  of  Appa  Sahib  {q.v.).  When  he  died 
in  1853,  leaving  no  heir  or  relation  with 
any  claim,  Nagpur  was  incorporated  into 
British  territory. 

EDWARD  (1815-1857) 

Born  Aug.  3,  1815  :  son  of  Thomas 
Beresford  :  went  to  India,  1834-5  :  ap- 
pointed first  manager  of  the  Cawnpur 
Bank,  about  1843  :  transferred,  1849,  to 
be  the  head  manager  of  the  Delhi  Bank  : 
massacred  with  his  wife  and  five  daughters, 
on  May  11,  1857,  at  the  Bank-house  at 
Delhi,  by  the  mutineers  from  Meerut  : 
Beresford  had  declined  the  offer  of  escaping 
with  his  family,  refusing  to  abandon  his 
charge  of  the  Bank  :  he  and  his  family 
defended  themselves  on  the  roof  of  an  out- 
house, but  were  overpowered  :  a  tablet 
was  placed  to  their  memory  in  the  Church 
at  Delhi :  he  was  a  learned  Oriental 
scholar,  keen  archaeologist  and  photo- 
grapher :  author  of  The  Handbook  of 

LIE DE  LA  POER  (1847-1900) 

Third  son  of  the  fourth  Marquis  of 
Waterford :  born  July  20,  1847 :  edu- 
cated at  Eton  :  entered  the  9th  Lancers 
in  1867 :  A.D.C.  to  Viceroys  of  India, 
1875  to  1881,  and  Military  Secretary  to  the 
Viceroys  from  1881  to  1894.  He  saw 
service  in  the  Jowaki  expedition,  1877-8  ; 
in  the  Zulu  war,  1879,  where  he  gained 
the  Victoria  Cross  ;  in  the  Afghan  war, 
1880,  and  was  in  Burma,  1886 :  Lt- 
Colonel  in  1890 :  K.C.I. E.,  1894.  On 
Dec.  30,  1893,  he  was  entertained  at  a  fare- 
well dinner  at  the  Town  Hall,  Calcutta,  by 
180  friends  :  it  was  then  said  of  him  that 
he  "  had  raised  the  office  [of  Military  Sec- 
retary]  to  a  science,  and  himself  from  an 

official  into  an  institution,  and  acquired 
a  reputation  absolutely  unique  "  :  retired 
from  India  in  1894  :  died  in  England, 
Dec.  28,  1900.  He  was  invaluable  as 
A.D.C.  and  Military  Secretary  to  successive 
Viceroys  :  popular  and  active  :  a  keen 
sportsman  and  successful  rider  of  steeple- 
chases :  and  polo-player  :  and  for  years 
kept  a  stud  of  racehorses  with  which  he 
won  the  Viceroy's  Cup  six  times  and  the 
other  principal  races  at  race-meetings  in 
India.  In  England,  also,  he  had  a  racing 
stable,  and  was  one  of  the  first  to  have 
American  horses  and  jockeys. 

JULIUS  (1764-1844) 

King  of  Sweden  and  Norway,  as  Charles 
XIV  :  born  of  humble  parents  at  Pau  in 
Bearne,  1764  :  he  enlisted  in  the  French 
army  in  1780,  and  was,  when  a  serjeant, 
taken  prisoner  at  the  siege  of  Cuddalore  in 
1783  :  became  General  in  1793,  served  in 
Napoleon's  campaigns  :  and  became,  as 
Charles  XIV,  King  of  Sweden  and  Norway 
in  1818  :   died  March  8,  1844. 


I.C.S.  :  son  of  Dr.  J.  F.  Bernard,  of 
Clifton,  and  nephew  of  the  first  Lord 
Lawrence  :  born  in  1837  :  educated  at 
Rugby,  Addiscombe  and  Haileybury  :  be- 
gan his  service  in  the  Pan  jab  in  1858  :  in 
the  Central  Provinces  till  1871  :  from 
1871  to  1875  was  Secretary  to  the  Bengal 
Government,  member  of  the  Bengal 
Legislative  Council,  famine  Secretary  dur- 
ing the  Bihar  famine  of  1874  "•  C.S.I. ,  1875  : 
Secretary  to  Sir  R.  Temple  on  his  famine 
mission  to  Madras  and  Bombay  in  1877  : 
Home  Secretary  to  the  Government  of 
India,  1878-80  :  Chief  Commissioner  of 
Burma,  1880-1888  :  K.C.S.I.,  1886  :  on 
retirement  from  India  was  appointed 
Secretary  in  the  Revenue  and  Statistics 
Department,  India  Office :  retired  in 
1901.  He  died  at  Chamouni  Sep.  19. 
1901.  In  1893  he  edited  the  autobio- 
graphical Memoirs  of  Sir  George  Campbell. 
iq.v.)  Bernard  was  remarkable  for  his 
personal  activity  and  indefatigable  energy. 
No  one  has  worked  harder  throughout  an 
arduous  career.  An  officer  of  the  highest 
principles  in  public  and  private  life,  he 
gained  universal  esteem  and  affection, 
even  from  those  who   differed  from  his 



BERNOULLI,  JEAN  (1744-1807) 

Born  at  Basle,  Nov.  4,  1744  :  son  of  the 
elder  Jean  Bernoulli :  belonged  to  a 
family  celebrated  as  mathematicians : 
J  ean  the  younger  was  a  great  astronomer  : 
from  1763  was  in  this  capacity  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  at 
Berlin  :  became  Director  of  the  Mathe- 
matical Class  at  the  Academy :  wrote 
also  on  geographical  subjects  :  notably 
his  Description  historigue  et  geographique 
de  VInde,  1786,  consisting  of  his  French 
translation  of  Pere  Joseph  Tieffenthaler's 
Geographic  de  Vindoustan  (originally  in 
Latin),  Recherches  historiques  et  chrono- 
logiques  sur  VInde,  by  Anquetil  du  Perron, 
with  the  addition  of  maps  by  James 
Rennell :   died  at  Berlin,  July  13,  1807. 

BESANT,  ANNIE  (1847- 

Born  Oct.  i,  1847  :  daughter  of  William 
Page  Wood  :  educated  privately  in  Eng- 
land, Germany  and  France :  married 
Rev.  Frank  Besant,  1867,  but  legally 
separated  from  him,  1872  :  joined  the 
National  Secular  Society,  1874  '•  worked 
with  Charles  Bradlaugh  M.P.  in  Labour 
and  Socialist  movements :  co-editor  of 
the  National  Reformer,  member  of  the 
Fabian  Society,  and  Social  Democratic 
Federation  :  was  a  member  of  the  London 
School  Board,  1887-90 :  joined  the 
Theosophical  Society,  1880  :  and  became 
a  devoted  pupil  of  Madame  Blavatsky  : 
founded  the  Central  Hindu  College  at 
Benares,  1898  :  author  of  many  books  and 
pamphlets,  including  Karma,  Four  Great 
Religions,  Dharma,  Esoteric  Christianity, 
The  Religious  Problem  in  India,  etc  :  joint- 
editor  of  the  Theosophical  Review. 

BEST.  SAMUEL  (1808  ?-l85l) 

Captain,  Madras  Engineers :  entered 
the  service  in  1826 :  Secretary  to  the 
Board  of  Revenue  in  the  P.W.D.,  1842  : 
planned  the  Singapore  fortifications,  and 
was  made  Superintendent  of  roads  in 
Madras,  1845  :  under  him  road-making 
was  very  well  managed  under  fixed  rules  : 
he  executed  many  important  works  in  the 
Madras  Presidency  :  such  as  the  Southern 
Trunk  Road  and  the  Goolcheroo  Pass  : 
and  made  valuable  contributions  to  the 
Madras  Literary  Transactions  and  the 
Madras  Engineering  papers  :  died  of 
jungle  fever  at  Chitore  on  his  return  from 
the  hills,  Oct.  5,  1851. 


BARONET  .(1787-1851) 

Son  of  Major  M.  E.  Lindesay  :  joined 
the  Madras  Artillery  in  1810  :  was  six  feet 
eight  in  height :  was  in  Sir  John  Mal- 
colm's mission  to  Persia  in  18 10,  stayed 
there  some  years  to  drill  the  Persian  Army,, 
fighting  with  it  against  the  Russians : 
returned  to  England  in  1821  and  left  the 
E.I.  Co.'s  service  :  assumed  the  name  of 
Bethune :  again  out  to  Persia  in  1834, 
helped  to  quell  a  rebellion,  was  made  a 
Baronet  at  the  Shah's  request :  in  1836-9 
was  again  in  Persia,  and  died  at  Tabriz 
in  1851. 

WATER  (1801-1851) 

Son  of  Lt-Colonel  J.  Drinkwater 
Bethune  :  educated  at  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge  :  called  to  the  bar,  1827  :  was 
Counsel  to  the  Home  Office  for  many 
years  :  became  Legal  Member  of  the  Su- 
preme Council  of  the  Government  of 
India  in  April,  1848.  Besides  his  ordinary'- 
work  in  charge  of  legislation  and  as  Mem- 
ber of  Council,  Bethune  was  President  of 
the  Council  of  Education  :  he  established 
the  Bethune  School,  which  still  exists,  for 
the  Education  of  native  girls ;  died  at 
Calcutta  Aug.  12,  1851. 


PAL  (1837-         ) 

Orientalist  and  social  reformer  :  bora 
July  6,  1837  :  educated  at  Ratnagiri  and 
Elphinstone  College,  Bombay :  M.A., 
1866  :  Dakhshina  Fellow  there  1859,  and 
later  in  the  Dekkan  College,  Poona,  till 
1864  :  in  the  Bombay  Education  Depart- 
ment, 1864-93  :  Head-master  of  Hydera- 
bad (Sind)  and  Ratnagiri  High  Schools^ 
1864-9  :  acting  Professor  of  Sanskrit  and 
Oriental  Languages  in  Elphinstone  College^ 
Assistant  Professor  many  years,  till  1881  : 
Professor  of  Sanskrit  at  Dekkan  College^ 
Poona,  1882-93  :  Fellow  of  Bombay 
University  from  1866  ;  Syndic,  1873-81  ; 
Vice-Chancellor,  1893-5  :  Hon.  LL.D., 
1904  :  Member  of  the  Governor-General's 
Legislative  Council,  1903-4,  when  the 
Universities  Act  was  passed  :  Member  of 
Bombay  Legislative  Council,  1904-5  t 
Fellow  of  Calcutta  University,  1887  :. 
Member  of  learned  Societies,  e.g.  R.A.S. 
London,  1874  ;  R.A.S.  Bombay,  1865  ; 
German  Oriental  Society,  1887  ;  Americaa 



Oriental  Society,  1887  ;  Asiatic  Society 
of  Italy,  1887  ;  of  Imperial  Academy  of 
Science,  St.  Petersburg,  1888  :  Foreign 
member  of  the  French  Institute,  1895  : 
also  of  the  International  Congress  of 
Orientalists,  London,  1874 ;  and  of 
Vienna,  1886,  which  he  attended : 
CLE.,  1887  :  retired  from  service,  1893  : 
Hon.  Phil.  Dr.  Gottingen  University  : 
has  contributed  largely  to  the  Journals 
and  Transactions  of  learned  Societies, 
especially  in  Bombay,  on  philological  and 
antiquarian  subjects  :  also  to  the  Indian 
Antiquary  :  first  lecturer  on  the  Wilson 
Lectureship,  Bombay  University  :  re- 
ported on  his  searches  for  Sanskrit  MSS. 
in  the  Bombay  Presidency  :  edited  the 
text  of  the  Sanskrit  Malati-Madhava  : 
and  has  written  Sanskrit  educational 
works :  is  a  leader  of  the  enlightened 
religious  movement  of  the  Prathna  Samaj 
in  W.  India  :  as  a  social  reformer  has 
practically  supported  the  re-marriage  of 
widows,  and  in  politics  is  a  moderate 


Motiram  (his  early  name)  was  born  in 
the  village  of  Maithilalpur  in  Cawnpur, 
about  6  miles  from  the  residence  of  Nana 
Sahib  (q.v.)  rat  8,  he  learnt  the  elements 
of  Sanskrit,  and  completed  his  study  on 
Panini  (grammar)  at  17  :  renounced  the 
world,  went  on  pilgrimage,  and  wandered 
in  search  of  knowledge  :  studied  Vedanta 
philosophy  at  Ujain,  became  a  Sanyasi 
(devotee)  at  27,  assuming  the  name  of 
Bhaskarananda,  (the  sun-enchanted).  For 
mental  discipline,  he  kept  silence  for 
several  months,  and  often  roamed  about 
the  banks  of  the  Ganges  with  head  un- 
covered in  the  sun  for  hours  together  : 
lived  for  several  years  at  Hardwar  absorbed 
in  the  study  of  Bhagavat  Gita  and  the 
Upanishads  :  migrated  to  Benares  and 
lived  a  life  of  great  austerity,  devotion, 
contemplation  and  study,  till  he  died  in 
July,  1899  :  was  a  bright -looking  ascetic, 
always  cheerful  and  of  intense  spiritual 
energy  :  European  savants  and  Princes, 
going  to  Benares,  used  to  visit  him  :  three 
marble  statues  have  been  raised  in  his 

DRA  KRISHNA  (1852-        ) 
Educated  at  Elphinstone  High  School 
and     Grant     Medical     College,  Bombay: 

Chief  Medical  Officer  in  the  Baroda  State, 
1875-85  :  President  of  the  Bombay 
Municipal  Corporation  :  author  of  several 
treatises  :  made  a  Knight  Bachelor,  Feb. 
7,  1900. 

VITAL  (1821-187-J) 

A  Sarasvat  Gond  Brahman,  and  son  of 
a  small  farmer  of  Mandra,  in  Goa  :  edu- 
cated in  the  Native  Education  Society's 
School  in  Bombay,  and  became  a 
teacher  in  the  Elphinstone  School :  joined, 
1845,  the  Grant  Medical  College  as  a  stu- 
dent, and  graduated  in  1850  :  as  a  practi- 
tioner, achieved  great  popularity  and 
success  :  made  original  researches  in  the 
use  of  Indian  drugs,  with  a  special  view  to 
discovering  a  cure  for  leprosy  in  its  earlier 
stages,  and  contributed  some  valuable 
papers  to  the  A  nfiquary  :  was  a  member 
of  the  chief  educational  and  learned 
Societies  in  Bombay  :  a  Fellow  of  the 
University,  a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  the 
first  native  Sheriff  of  Bombay  in  1869  and 
1 871  :  was  also  Dr.  :  died  of  paralysis  in 

BHIDE,     GOPALRAO     HARI     (1843- 

A  native  of  Mahapada  in  the  Presidency 
of  Bombay  :  son  of  a  learned  Brahman 
of  the  old  type,  who,  too  poor  to  maintain 
his  family,  migrated  to  Kalyan  :  educated 
at  Poona  :  entered  the  railway  service  as  a 
signaller,  employed  in  the  Berars  and 
afterwards  at  Nagpur  :  became  a  clerk  in 
the  Magistrate's  office  and  read  law  :  in 
1869  became  a  Pleader  and  obtained  a 
lucrative  practice  :  devoted  himself  to 
social  reforms,  particularly  female  educa- 
tion, the  re -marriage  of  widows,  and 
improvement  of  modes  of  agriculture  : 
through  his  advice  the  first  proprietary 
cotton  mill  was  established  at  Nagpiu:  : 
died  Jan.   4,   1896. 

BEGAM  OF  (1838-1901) 
Born  July  3,  1838  :  proclaimed  ruler  of 
Bhopal,  Jan.  10,  1847,  her  mother, 
Sikandar  Begam  (q.v.)  being  Regent  : 
abdicated  May  i,  i860,  in  favour  of  her 
mother,  on  whose  death,  Oct.  30,  1868,  she 
succeeded  to  the  government  of  the 
State :  she  married,  first  Bakshi  Bahi 
Muhammad  Khan,  (who  died  1867),  and 
had    one    daughter,    the    present    Nawab 



Sultan  Jehan  Begam  :  and  second  in  1871, 
her  Prime  Minister,  Nawab  Maulvi  Mu- 
hammad Sadik  Hussein,  of  a  noble  Bokhara 
family  :  she  was  made  G.C.S.I,  in  1872, 
and  administered  her  State  with  ability, 
benevolence,  and  loyalty  to  the  Govern- 
ment of  India  :  Member  of  the  Order  of 
the  Crown  of  India  :    died  June  16,  1901. 

BEGAM  OF  (1816-1868) 

Daughter  of  Nuzzur  Mahomed  Khan, 
the  Nawab  of  Bhopal  and  the  Kudsia 
Begam  :  born  in  1816  :  married,  April 
18,  1835,  her  cousin  the  Nawab  Jehangir 
Muhammad  Khan  :  after  his  death,  on 
Dec.  9,  1844,  she  was  appointed  Regent, 
in  Feb.  1847,  and  behaved  with  great 
loyalty  to  the  British  Government  in  the 
mutiny.  In  1859  she  was  proclaimed 
Ruler,  her  daughter.  Shah  Jehan,  resigning 
her  rights  during  the  mother's  life.  Sikan- 
dar  Begam  ruled  with  great  vigour, 
ability  and  loyalty  to  the  British  Govern- 
ment :  she  received  rewards  after  the 
mutiny,  was  made  K.C.S.I.  in  1861  : 
G.C.S.I.  in  1866  :  made  the  pilgrimage  to 
Mecca  in  1863  :   died  Oct.  30,  1868. 

MERWANJI  (1861-  ) 
Son  of  a  distinguished  Parsi  merchant : 
educated  at  the  Elphinstone  College  and 
Bombay  University :  began  life  as  a 
journalist :  State  agent  in  Bombay  for 
the  Bhaunagar  Raja,  1873  :  M.P.  for 
Bethnal  Green  since  1895  :  author  of 
History  of  the  Constitution  of  the  East  India 
Company,  a  Gujarati  translation  of //".Af.'s 
Life  in  the  Highlands.     K.C.I.E. 


BARONET  (1727-1792) 
Entered  the  Navy,  1739  :  served  in  the 
W.  Indies,  the  Mediterranean,  the  Channel, 
again  the  W.  Indies  and  Channel : 
knighted,  1773  =  Baronet,  May,  1778  : 
in  the  battle  of  Ushant,  July,  1778  :  to 
the  E.  Indies  as  Commodore,  1782-4  :  at 
the  action  off  Cuddalore,  June,  1783  : 
C.  in  C.  at  the  Leeward  Islands  :  Vice- 
Admiral,  1790 :  Port  Admiral  at  Ply- 
mouth  till  his  death,  Feb.  25,  1792  :  M.P. 
for  Rochester. 

BICKNELL,     HERMAN     (1830-1876) 
Son  of  E.  Bicknell :  born  April  2,  1830  : 
educated   at   Paris,   Hanover,    University 

College,  St.  Bartholomew's :  took  his 
medical  degree  in  1855  :  gazetted  Assis- 
tant Surgeon  :  first  to  Hongkong,  then  to 
Mianmir  near  Lahore  in  1856  :  was  Staff 
Assistant  Surgeon :  served  through  the 
mutiny  and  travelled  widely,  exploring  in 
Tibet  and  the  Himalayas  :  in  1861,  re- 
signed his  commission.  In  1862,  as  an 
English  Muhammadan  gentleman  he 
resided  in  Cairo,  and,  undisguised,  per- 
formed a  pilgrimage  to  Mecca :  he  travelled 
also  in  Persia,  to  perfect  his  translation 
of  Hafiz  :  visited  the  Kum  mosque  in 
Persia,  1869  :  eminent  as  a  linguist  and 
traveller  :    died  March  14,  1875. 


Colonel :  born  July  25,  1840  :  son  of 
Robert  Biddulph,  of  Ledbury  :  educated 
at  Westminster :  entered  the  Bengal 
Cavalry  and  arrived  in  India,  1858  : 
served  in  the  mutiny  :  joined  the  Indian 
Staff  Corps  :  A.D.C.  to  Lord  Northbrook 
when  Viceroy,  1872-6  :  member  of  the 
mission  to  Yarkand,  1873-4  :  employed 
on  a  secret  mission  to  countries  beyond 
Gilgit,  1877  :  acting  A.G.G.  Beluchistan, 
May-Nov.,  1882  :  Political  Agent,  Bhopa- 
war,  1882  :  Haraoti  and  Tonk,  1886  : 
Resident  and  Commissioner,  Ajmir,  1890  : 
Officiating  Agent,  Beluchistan,  1891  : 
acting  Resident  at  Gwalior,  1892  :  Resi- 
dent at  Baroda,  1893  :  reverted  to  mili- 
tary duty,  1895  :  author  of  Tribes  of 
the  Hindu  Kush,  1880  :  The  Nineteenth 
and  their  Times,  1899  :  Stringer  Lawrence, 

SHRAPNEL  (1823-1904) 
Son  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Shrapnel 
Biddulph,  of  Amroth  Castle,  Pembroke- 
shire :  born  in  1823  :  educated  at  Wool- 
wich :  entered  the  Royal  Artillery  in 
1843  :  Captain,  1850 :  Brevet-Major, 
1854 :  Maj-General,  1877 :  General, 
1886  :  he  served  throughout  the  Crimean 
campaign :  in  India  he  was  Deputy 
Adjutant  General  of  Artillery,  1868-73, 
and  commanded  the  Rohilkund  District 
in  1876  :  in  the  Afghan  war  of  1878-80, 
he  commanded  the  Quetta  Field  Force, 
and  a  Division  of  the  Kandahar  Field 
Force  :  was  present  at  the  occupation 
of  Kandahar,  and  the  engagement  at 
Khushk-i-Nakhand,  and,  later,  com- 
manded the  Thal-Chotiali  Field  Force  : 
C.B.,   1873  :    K.C.B.  in  1879  :    President 



of  the  Ordnance  Committee,  1886-9  = 
retired  in  1900  :  G.C.B.  :  from  1879  till 
his  death  he  held  appointments  about 
the  Court,  and  was  Gentleman  Usher  of 
the  Black  Rod  from  1896  :  died  July  23, 

BIDIE,  GEORGE  (1830-  ) 
Educated  at  Aberdeen  Grammar  School 
and  University :  entered  the  Madras 
Medical  Service,  1856  :  served  in  the 
mutiny :  Professor  of  Botany,  Madras 
Medical  College  :  Superintendent  of  Luna- 
tic Asylum,  1866-70  :  Secretary  of  head 
ofi&ce  of  Medical  Department,  1870-3  : 
in  charge  of  the  Government  Central 
Museum,  1872-85  :  Siurgeon  -  General 
of  Madras,  1886-90  :  discovered  a  pre- 
ventive for  insect  pest  in  coffee  planta- 
tions :  author  of  several  works,  including 
Handbook  of  Practical  Pharmacy,  Nilgiri 
Parasitical  Plants,  etc.  :    C.I.E.,  1883. 

AMBROSE  (1813-1894) 

Born  1 813  at  Besancon  :  educated 
there,  and  studied  for  two  years  at  the 
Seminary  of  Foreign  Missions,  Paris  : 
in  1837,  sent  by  the  Roman  Church  as 
missionary  to  Malacca :  removed  to 
Burma,  and  in  1856  was  consecrated 
Bishop  of  Ramatha  and  Administrator 
of  Pegu  and  Ava  (soon  after  the  annexation 
of  Lower  Burma)  :  from  1870  was  Vicar- 
Apostolic  of  Southern  Burma  :  his  resi- 
dence for  50  years  in  that  country  was 
marked  by  many  labours,  not  only  that 
of  organizing  the  Roman  Catholic  mission 
there,  but  also  by  his  work  in  the  promo- 
tion of  native  education,  and  the  service 
he  rendered  to  Buddhistic  literature : 
he  died  at  Rangoon,  March  16,  1894  :  a 
noted  Pali  scholar,  and  the  great  authority 
on  Burmese  Buddhism  :  his  most  impor- 
tant work,  the  Life  of  Gautama,  first 
published  in  1858,  went  through  three 
editions  :  it  is  based  entirely  on  native 
Burmese  MSS.,  and  is  one  of  the  standard 
works  of  the  19th  century  :  wrote  also  a 
Memoir  on  the  Phoongis,  or  Religious 
Buddhists,  1865. 



I.C.S.  :      educated     at     Canis     College, 

Cambridge  :   Scholar  :   entered  the  Bengal 

Civil   Service   by   competition  :     went   to 

India,    1859  :     served  in   Lower   Bengal  : 

District  Judge  at  several  places  :  wrote 
Leviora  :  being  the  rhymes  of  a  successful 
competitor,  1888  :  died  in  Melbourne  while 
his  book  was  still  in  the  Press  in  Calcutta. 

BILGRAMI,    SAYYID   ALI   (1851-        ) 

Son  of  Sayyid  Zainuddin  Husain  Khan 
Bahadm:,  of  the  Bengal  Provincial  Ser- 
vice, a  member  of  the  well-known  [family 
of  Sayyids  of  Bilgram  who  emigrated  to 
India  from  Wasit  in  Mesopotamia  :  born 
Nov.  10,  185 1  :  educated  at  Canning 
College,  Lucknow  ;  Patna  College,  Banki- 
pur,  and  Thomason  Civil  Engineering 
College,  Rurki :  M.A.,  and  B.L.  :  in 
1876,  visited  Europe  and  England  in  the 
suite  of  Sir  Salar  Jang  I.  (q.v.)  :  joined 
the  Royal  School  of  Mines,  passed  the 
Examination  for  the  Associateship  in  two 
years,  and  obtained  the  Murchison  Medal 
in  Geology.  On  return  to  India,  in  1879, 
he  entered  the  service  of  the  Nizam  of 
Hyderabad :  became  Secretary  in  the 
Departments  of  Public  Works,  Railways 
and  Mines  for  nearly  ten  years  :  retired 
in  1901  to  settle  in  England  :  was  Exam- 
iner in  Sanskrit  to  the  University  of 
Madras  from  1890-2  :  received  the  title 
of  Shams-al-ulama  for  Arabic  learning  in 
1891  :  Gold  Medallist,  Calcutta  University  : 
in  1902  was  appointed  Lecturer  in  Mahratti 
to  the  University  of  Cambridge :  has 
published  Civilization  of  the  Arabs,  trans- 
lated from  the  French  of  Dr.  Gustav  Le 
Bon  :  Manual  of  Medical  Jurisprudence, 
Monograph  on  the  Book  of  Kalila  and 
Damna,  Notes  on  the  Educational  Value 
of  Persian  as  compared  with  Sanskrit,  A 
Guide  to  the  Cave  Temples  of  Ellora,  The 
Geology  and  Economic  Minerals  of  Hydera- 
bad, etc  :  appointed,  1902,  by  the  India 
Ofi&ce,  to  catalogue  the  collections  of 
Arabic  and  Persian  MSS.,  known  as  the 
Delhi  MSS.,  a  work  of  some  magnitude. 

WELL  (1803-1876) 
Son  of  the  R.  C.  Birch  of  the  Indian  Civil 
Service,  who  was  a  grandson  of  J.  Z. 
Hoi  well  {q.v.)  :  born  in  1803  :  entered 
the  Indian  Army,  1821  :  held  several 
Staff  appointments  :  was  Judge-Advocate 
General  in  Bengal,  1841  :  in  the  Sikh 
wars  of  1845-6,  and  1848-9  :  had  a 
Brigade  after  Chilianwala  :  distinguished 
himself  at  Gujarat :  C.B.,  1849  :  under 
Sir  Colin  Campbell  on  the  frontier  in 
1850  :    Secretary  to  the  Govt,  of  India  in 



the  Military  Dept.,  from  1852  for  several 
years,  including  the  mutiny  :  K.C.B.  in 
i860  :  retired  1861  :  Lt-General :  died 
Feb.  25,  1875. 


(1838-  ) 
Born,  1838  :  entered  the  Indian  Army, 
1856 :  Maj-General,  1895  :  General, 
1899  :  served  in  the  mutiny  :  in  Afghan 
war,  1878-80  :  at  Ahmad  Kheyl :  Brevet 
Lt-Colonel :  in  Burma,  1892-3  :  in  the 
N.W.  Frontier  campaign,  1897-8  :  com- 
manded the  Oudh  district,  1895-6  :  the 
Panjab  Frontier  Force,  1897-8  :  C.B., 
1890  :    K.C.I.E.,  1899. 

BIRD,  JAMES  (     ?    -      ?  ) 

Belonged  to  the  Bombay  Medical 
Establishment  :  member  of  the  Medical 
Board  :  Secretary  to  the  Bombay  Asiatic 
Society,  1844-7  :  wrote  on  various  sub- 
jects, historical  and  arch^ological,  con- 
nected with  India  :  author  of  an  Analysis 
of  the  Mirat-i-Ahmadi,  A  History  of  the 
Province  of  Gujarat,  translated  from  the 

BIRD,  LOUIS  SAUNDERS  (1792-1874) 
Lt-General :  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s 
Bengal  Army  in  1808  :  at  the  capture  of 
the  Mauritius,  1810  :  under  Ochterlony 
in  the  Nipal  war,  1816  :  in  Oudh  in  1816- 
7  :  in  the  Pindari  war,  18 17-9  :  in 
Bundelkund,  1821  :  in  Hariana,  1824-5  : 
against  the  Kols,  1832-3  :  in  the  Satlaj 
campaign  of  1845-6  :  in  the  battles  of 
Mudki,  Firozshahr,  Badiwal,  Aliwal : 
Brevet  Lt-Colonel  :  commanded  a  Brigade 
in  the  suppression  of  the  Sonthal  insur- 
rection in  1855-6:    died  April  14,  1874. 

BIRD,  MARY  (1789-1834) 
Born,  May  29,  1789,  daughter  of  Robert 
Bird,  of  Taplow  :  went  to  India,  1823,  to 
her  brother  R.M.  Bird  {q.v.)  at  Gorakhpur  : 
helped  the  Mission  there,  and  learnt 
Hindustani  :  removed  to  Calcutta,  1830, 
and  carried  on  mission  and  education 
work  there,  in  the  native  zenanas,  and  by 
opening  Bible  classes,  Sunday  and  Girls' 
Schools  :  published  works  translated  into 
Hindustani  :  died  of  cholera  on  her 
birthday.  May  29,  1834. 

BIRD,     ROBERT    MERTTINS     (1788- 
I.C.S.  :     arrived   in   India   Nov.    1808  : 
at  first  held  subordinate  judicial  appoint- 

ments, but  in  1829  became  Commissioner 
of  Revenue  in  the  Gorakhpur  Division  of 
the  N.W.P. :  in  1832  was  made  Member  of 
the  new  Board  of  Revenue,  N.W. P.,  and 
from  1833-41  was  in  charge  of  the  settle- 
ment of  the  land  revenue  of  that  Province  : 
the  work  was  most  thoroughly  done  and 
established  Bird's  reputation  for  all  time 
as  a  revenue  officer  :  his  report  was  elabor- 
ate, embracing  other  topics  besides  the 
assessment  of  the  revenue :  retired  in 
1842,  and  gave  much  attention  to  the 
Church  Missionary  Society :  died  Aug. 
22,  1853. 


(     ?     -1857) 

I.C.S.  :  arrived  in  India,  1803  :  Judge 
and  Magistrate  of  Benares,  1814  :  Com- 
missioner there,  1826 :  Member  of  the 
Board  of  Revenue,  1829  :  Provisional 
Member  of  Council,  1837,  and  Extra 
Member  of  the  Board  of  Customs,  Salt  and 
Opium,  1837  :  Member  of  the  Supreme 
Council,  1838  :  President  of  the  Council 
of  Education,  1842  :  President  of  the 
Council,  1842,  and  Deputy-Governor  of 
Bengal,  1840,  and  1842  ;  as  Senior  Member 
of  Council  officiated  as  Governor-General, 
June  15  to  July  23,  1844  :  retired,  1844  : 
died  June  i,  1857. 


General;  born  March  12,  1807  :  son 
and  grandson  of  E.  I.  Go's  agents  at 
Plymouth  :  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  Military 
service  as  Ensign  1825  :  Capt.  1837  :  Maj- 
General,  1868  :  Lt-General,  1876  :  Adju- 
tant and  Interpreter  of  the  3rd  Bombay 
N.I.  at  Bombay,  and  Fort-Adjutant  at 
Asirghar  :  commissariat  officer  at  Mhow, 
1839,  other  stations,  and  Aden,  1847  : 
Assistant  Commissary  General  at  Bombay 
and  Executive  Commissariat  officer  there 
during  the  Persian  war,  1856-7  :  rendered 
also  invaluable  service  during  the  mutiny, 
organizing  the  bullock  train  between 
Bombay,  Wassind  and  Mhow,  on  which 
Sir  H.  Rose's  operations  depended  :  con- 
sulted constantly  by  Lord  Elphinstone, 
Governor  of  Bombay,  and  highly  esteemed 
by  the  native  community,  who  called  him 
Birdwood  Maharaja  :  he  always  accom- 
panied the  Commissioner  of  Police,  C. 
Forjett,  [q.v.)  in  interviews  with  their 
leaders  :    was  Commissary-General,  Bom- 



bay  Army  :  recommended  for  the  C.B. 
by  Lord  Elphinstone,  who  constantly 
testified  to  his  merits  as  a  first-class  com- 
missariat ofiicer :  he  became  General 
in  1877  and  retired  after  52  years'  service, 
45  actually  spent  in  India  :  died  July  4, 

TOPHER MOLESWORTH  (1831-       ) 

Born  at  Belgaum,  Dec.  8,  1832,  son 
of  General  Christopher  Birdwood,  of 
the  Indian  Army  (q.v.)  :  educated  at 
Plymouth  Grammar  School,  Dollar 
Academy  and  Edinburgh  University 
(M.D.):  entered  Bombay  Medical  Service 
1854  :  served  in  Persian  war,  1856-7,  and 
on  return  to  Bombay  took  a  prominent 
part  in  the  life  of  the  city,  influencing,  by 
his  great  popularity  with  the  leaders  of 
native  thought,  the  endowments  which 
were  made  to  the  newly  established 
University  :  the  construction  of  some  of 
the  public  buildings  :  and  the  carrying  out 
of  improvements  which  have  earned  for 
the  town  and  island  the  title  of  "  Bombay 
the  Beautiful."  He  was  for  a  time  Pro- 
fessor of  Anatomy  and  Physiology,  and 
of  Materia  Medica  and  Botany  at  Grant 
Medical  College  :  also  Curator  of  the 
Government  Central  Museum :  Hony. 
Secy.  Bombay  Branch  of  the  Royal  Asiatic 
Society  and  of  the  Agri-Horticultural 
Society :  Registrar  of  the  University  : 
one  of  the  founders  of  the  Victoria  and 
Albert  Museum  and  the  designer  of  the 
Victoria  gardens  at  Byculla  :  Sheriff  of 
Bombay,  1846  :  returning  to  England  on 
account  of  ill-health,  he  joined  the  staff 
of  the  India  Office,  and  was  Special 
Assistant  there  in  the  Revenue  and 
Statistical  Department  from  1878  to  1899, 
when  he  retired  after  two  extensions  of 
service  beyond  the  ordinary  age  limit. 
He  held  a  leading  position  in  all  the 
principal  International  Exhibitions  from 
1857  to  1 901  :  founded  Primrose  Day  : 
author  of  Economic  Vegetable  Products 
of  the  Bombay  Presidency,  1888  ;  The 
Industrial  Arts  of  India,  1888  ;  Report  on 
the  Old  Records  of  the  India  Office,  1891  : 
First  Letter  Book  of  the  East  India  Company, 
1895  :  of  papers  on  The  Genus  Boswellia 
(Frankincense  Trees)  :  on  Incense,  and 
other  articles  in  Encyc.  Brit :  and  of  erudite 
prefaces  and  introductions  to  various  well- 
known  works,  such  as  Count  d'  Alviella's 
Migrations    des    Symboles,    besides    many 

official  reports  on  economic  products,  etc.  : 
a  prolific  contributor  to  leading  journals 
and  reviews,  including  the  limes,  the 
Athenceum,  the  Quarterly  Review,  and  the 
Journal  of  the  Society  of  Arts,  the  latter 
containing  a  great  number  of  his  speeches 
and  essays  in  connexion  with  the  work  of 
the  Society.  C.S.I.,  1877  ;  K.C.I.E.,  1877  : 
LL.D.  (Cambridge)  1886  :  Knight  of 
Grace  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem. 


(1837-  ) 

I.C.S :  born  May  29,  1837  :  son  of 
General  Christopher  Birdwood  :  educated 
at  Exeter,  Edinburgh  University,  and 
Peterhouse,  Cambridge :  wrangler  in 
1858  :  Fellow  :  went  to  Bombay  in  the 
Civil  Service,  1859  :  Under  Secretary  to 
the  Bombay  Government,  Judicial  and 
Political  Departments,  1863  :  Registrar 
of  the  High  Court,  Bombay :  District 
Judge  ;  Judicial  Commissioner  in  Sind, 
1881  :  Judge  of  the  Bombay  High  Court, 
officiating,  and  permanently  from  1885  : 
Member  of  Council,  Bombay,  1892-7  : 
C.S.I.,  1893  :    edited  legal  works. 

BIRRELL,    JAVRIL    (1800-1878) 

General  :  born  Sep.  15,  1800  :  entered 
the  E.  I.  Go's  service  in  1816  :  in  the  first 
Burmese  war,  1825-6  :  in  the  Afghan  war 
of  1839-40  :  at  Ghazni,  and  in  the  Waziri 
valley  :  in  the  Satlaj  campaign  of  1845-6, 
at  Firozshahr  and  Sobraon :  General, 
1876  :    died  Oct.  27,  1878. 

SMITH  (1843-      ) 

Colonel :  born  Nov.  13, 1843  :  son  of  Rev. 
James  Bisset,D.D. :  educated  at  Woolwich  : 
joined  the  Royal  Engineers  :  to  India, 
1866  :  entered  the  Railway  Branch,  held 
a  number  of  subordinate  appointments 
connected  with  railway  construction  and 
management  :  served  in  the  Afghan  war, 
1878-80  :  Manager  of  the  Rajputana- 
Malwa  Railway,  1875-84  :  Agent  of  the 
Bombay,  Baroda  and  Central  India 
Railway,  1884-93  :  C.I.E.,  1888  :  Secre- 
tary to  the  Government  of  India,  P.W.D., 
1893-7,  and  Director-General  of  Railways  : 
K.C.I.E.,  1897  :  Government  Director 
of  Indian  Railway  Companies  at  the  India 
Office,  1897-01  :  retired  from  the  India 
Office,  1901  :  Chairman  of  the  S.  Mahratta 
Railway  Co. 



BISUDHWANANDA,     SWAMI     (1820- 

Bansidhar  (his  original  name)  was  a  son 
of  a  Kanauj  Brahman  of  Cawnpur,  born 
near  Hyderabad,  (in  the  Dekkan) : 
learnt  some  Persian  and  Urdu  under  a 
Maulvi :  entered  the  Nizam's  service,  was 
an  excellent  horseman,  and  a  great 
favourite,  but,  failing  to  obtain  justice 
in  a  quarrel  over  a  horse,  he  set  fire  to  all 
his  earthly  possessions,  besmeared  his 
body  with  the  ashes,  and  left  Hyderabad, 
visited  places  of  pilgrimage  and  sacred 
shrines,  observed  the  strictest  discipline 
of  a  monk,  took  to  studying  Sanskrit, 
and  in  a  few  years  became  an  accomplished 
grammarian  (Panini  School)  :  spent  three 
years  at  Hardwar  in  study  and  meditation  : 
removed  to  Benares,  and  took  up  his  abode 
at  a  ghat;  read  all  the  Darsans  (Hindu 
philosophy)  ;  became  a  Sanyasi  (devotee) ; 
assumed  a  new  name,  Bisudhwananda, 
("unalloyed  peace"),  and  occupied  the 
seat  of  Gaurswami  at  Ahlia  Bai's  Brah- 
mapuri,  till  his  death  in  April,  1899  :  of 
high  stature,  strong  will,  great  piety,  and 
profound  learning,  he  commanded  great 
respect  among  all  classes  :  princes  and 
people  sought  his  advice  :  he  was  a  great 
admirer  of  British  rule  in  India. 

BITTLESTON,  SIR  ADAM  (1817-1892) 

Educated  at  Merchant  Taylors'  school : 
called  to  the  bar  from  the  Inner  Temple, 
1841  :  Puisne  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court, 
Madras,  1858-62  :  knighted  :  and  of  the 
High  Court,  Madras,  1862-70,  when  he 
retired  :    died  Jan.  18,  1892. 


Political :  joined  the  Madras  Army  in 
1782  :  served  against  the  Poligars  in  1784, 
and  in  the  defeat  of  Tippoo,  1892  :  was 
Interpreter  of  Mahratti  at  Tanjore  in  1787 
under  the  Resident,  and  was  himself 
Resident,  1801-23  •  remodelled  the  admin- 
istration there  and  in  Pudukota  :  was 
sent  on  missions  to  Travancore  :  Maj- 
General :  knighted  1838  :  died  Oct.  16, 

BLACKER,    VALENTINE    (1778-1823) 

Soldier,  historian  :  born  Oct.  19,  1778  : 
entered  the  Madras  Army,  1798  :  in  the  My- 
sore campaign  :  at  Malavilli  :  in  the  Niz- 
am's country  :  was  Q.M.G.  1810  :  was  under 

Sir  Thomas  Hislop  at  Mahidpurin  1817  and 
in  the  Dekkan  :  Lt-Colonel  and  Surveyor- 
General  of  India  :  C.B.  in  1818  :  died  at 
Calcutta,  1823  :  wrote  a  military  memoir 
of  the  Mahratta  war  of  1817-19. 

BLACKLOCK,  AMBROSE  (1816-1873) 
Doctor  :  son  of  a  medical  officer  of  the 
Navy  ;  born  in  1816  :  educated  at  Edin- 
burgh :  joined  the  medical  service  in 
Madras  in  1840  :  Professor  of  Surgery,  and 
Surgeon,  General  Hospital,  Madras,  1851  : 
in  1858  Professor  of  Medicine,  and  Physi- 
cian there  :  in  1870  Deputy  Inspector- 
General  :    died  at  Chitore  Feb.  11,  1873 



M  ajor  :  son  of  M  ajor  William  Blackwood 
of  the  Bengal  Army  :  born  1838  :  educated 
at  the  Edinburgh  Academy,  and  Addis- 
combe  :  joined  the  Bengal  Artillery  : 
Lieut.,  1857  :  in  the  mutiny  served  with 
the  Rohilkund  movable  column :  com- 
manded the  Artillery  in  the  Lushai 
expedition  of  187 1-2  under  General 
Bourchier  {q.v.)  :  at  Tipai  Mukh  and  other 
actions  :  Brevet  Major  :  commanded  the 
Artillery  under  General  Burrows  at 
Maiwand  on  July  27,  1880  :  fell  in  battle  : 
his  little  band  of  men  was  the  last  which 
made  any  stand  against  Ayub  Khan's 


Son  of  Sir  John  Blackwood,  5ar/.  :  born 
Dec.  28,  1770  :  entered  the  Navy,  1781  : 
was  employed  on  various  stations  in 
several  ships  :  continually  engaged  :  was 
at  Trafalgar,  1805,  and  at  the  blockade 
of  Toulon,  1810  :  Baronet,  1814  :  K.C.B. 
1819  :  was  C.  in  C.  on  the  East  Indian 
station,  1819-22  :  Vice-Admiral,  1821, 
and  commanded  at  the  Nore,  1827-30  : 
died  Dec.  17,  1832. 

BLAIR,     JAMES     (1828-1905) 

Born  Jan.  27,  1828  :  son  of  Captain 
E.  M.  Blair  of  the  Bengal  Cavalry  :  entered 
the  Army  in  1844  :  in  the  mutiny  of 
1857-9  :  fought  at  Nimbhara  and  Ziran  : 
was  at  the  sieges  of  Neemuch  and  Kotah, 
and  in  the  pursuit  of  Tantia  Topi :  gained 
the  V.C.  for  gallant  and  daring  conduct  on 
two  occasions.on  Aug.  12, 1857  at  Neemuch 
and  Oct.  23,  1857,  at  Jeerum  :  Political 
Resident     and     Brig-General     at     Aden, 




1882-5  :    Lt-General,  1889  :    C.B.,    1889  : 
General,  1894  :    died  Jan.  1905. 

BLAIR,  SIR  ROBERT   (     ?    -    ?     ) 

Joined  the'  E.  I.  Go's  ist  European 
Infantry  in  Bengal,  1773  :  with  General 
Goddard's  force  from  Bengal  to  Bombay, 
1778-81:  A.D.C.  to  Col.  W.  Blair  command- 
manding  in  the  Doab,  1786-8  :  took  the 
fortress  of  Sasni,  1802  :  in  the  Mahratta 
war,  under  Lake,  at  Alighar,  Delhi,  Agra, 
1803  :  commanded  at  Cuttack,  1808  : 
Maj -General,  1810 :  commanded  Fort 
William  and  neighbouring  districts,  1812  : 
retired,  1817  :  K.C.B.,  1815  :  Lt-General, 

BLAKISTON,  JOHN  (1788-1867) 

Son  of  Sir  Mathew  Blakiston,  Bart.  : 
bom  1788  :  educated  at  Winchester : 
joined  the  Madras  Engineers  and  the  27th 
regt.  :  as  Major,  present  at  Assaye,  Bour- 
bon, the  Mauritius,  and  in  the  Peninsula 
campaign :  the  sole  survivor  of  the 
regiment  massacred  in  the  mutiny  of 
Vellore,  1806  :  and  returned  with  (Sir 
R.R.)  Gillespie,  who  came  to  the  rescue  : 
wrote  Twelve  Years  Military  Adventures, 
1829  :  and  Twenty  Years  in  Retirement, 
1836  :    died  1867. 

BLAND,   NATHANIEL  (1803-1865) 

Born  Feb.  3,  1803  :  son  of  Nathaniel 
Bland  (formerly  called  Crumpe)  who  took 
his  mother's  name  :  educated  at  Eton, 
1818,  and  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  1821-5  : 
was  a  distinguished  Persian  scholar  :  sent 
contributions  to  the  R.A.S.J.,  1843-53  ' 
on  Persian  chess  :  on  the  Pote  collection 
of  Oriental  MSS.  in  the  Eton  College 
Library,  etc  :  took  to  gambling,  had  to 
sell  his  estate,  and  took  his  own  life,  Aug. 
10,  1865. 

BLANEY,    THOMAS    (1823-1903) 

Doctor :  born  in  Ireland ;  went  to 
India,  1836,  as  apprentice  in  the  subor- 
dinate medical  service  of  the  E.  I.  Co.  at 
Bombay  :  studied  at  the  Grant  Medical 
College :  in  Government  service  until 
i860  :  took  up  private  practice  at  Bom- 
bay :  made  a  large  fortune,  which  he 
spent  chiefly  in  charity:  became  J. P., 
Town  Councillor  :  Member  of  the  Munici- 
pal Corporation :  was  connected  with 
civil  administration  for  30  years  :    twice 

President  of  the  Municipal  body  :  carried 
schemes  for  abundant  water-supply  from 
V  ihar  and  Tansa  lakes  :  twice  Sheriff  of 
Bombay :  for  many  years  Chairman  of  joint 
Government  and  Municipal  Committee  for 
education  :  Coroner  of  Bombay,  1876-93  : 
CLE. :  a  fine  statue  of  him  erected  in 
Bombay  by  his  fellow  citizens  :  died  there 
April  I,  1903 :  Member  of  the  Royal 
Asiatic  Society,  Bombay,  and  a  frequent 
contributor  to  the  columns  of  the  Bombay 


Son  of  W.  Blanford  :  born  June  3, 1834  : 
educated  at  Brighton,  Brussels,  and  the 
Royal  School  of  Mines :  entered  the 
Geological  Survey  of  India  in  1855  :  trans- 
ferred to  the  Education  Department  in 
Bengal,  1862  ;  Professor  at  the  Presidency 
College,  1872  :  became  Meteorological 
Reporter ,first  to  the  Government  of  Bengal 
and  later  to  the  Government  of  India : 
Hony.  Secretary  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of 
Bengal,  1863-8  :  F.G.S.  1862  :  F.R.S.  1880  : 
retired  in  1880  :  died  Jan.  23,  1893.  The 
excellence  of  his  work  in  geology  and 
meteorology,  as  displayed  in  his  official 
duties,  and  his  contributions  to  scientific 
publications,    is    acknowledged. 



Born  Oct.  7,  1832  :  son  of  William, 
Blanford  :  educated  at  the  Royal  School' 
of  Mines  (Scholar,)  and  Mining  Academy,. 
Freiburg :  in  the  Geological  Survey  of 
India,  1855-82  :  Geologist  of  the  Abyssin- 
ian Expedition  up  to  Magdala,  1868  : 
on  the  Persian  Boundary  Commission,. 
1872  :  President  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of 
Bengal,  1878-9  :  of  the  Geological  Society,. 
1888-90  :  received  its  Wollaston  medal, 
1883:  Treasurer  of  the  Society  :  Vice-Presi- 
dent of  the  Royal  Society,  1892-3, 1901-3  : 
published  works  on  the  Geology  and 
Zoology  of  Abyssinia  and  Persia ;  a 
manual  of  Geology  on  India,  1879  : 
President  of  the  Geological  section  of  the 
British  Association  meeting  in  Canada,  1884: 
edited  The  Fauna  of  British  India :  was 
author  of  the  Mammalia,  1888-91,  and  of 
the  Birds,  1895,  1898  :  CLE.,  1904  : 
LL.D.  Montreal,  and  F.R.S. ,  1874:  on  its. 
Council  and  Vice-President  :  died  June- 
23.  1905- 




Born  at  Ekaterinoslav :  daughter  of 
Colonel  Peter  Hahn,  of  a  noble  family  of 
Mechlenburg,  settled  in  Russia  :  married 
at  17  a  husband  of  60,  but  they  soon 
separated :  she  travelled  widely,  in 
Europe,  America  and  Asia,  round  the 
Cape  to  Bombay  :  after  an  unsuccessful 
attempt  to  enter  Tibet,  vid  Nipal,  she 
entered  it  in' disguise  in  1855,  vid  Kashmir, 
was  lost  in  the  desert  and  brought  back  to 
the  frontier  :  after  numerous  adventures 
and  further  travels  in  India,  she  was  in 
the  United  States  in  1873  and  for  6  years 
in  N.  York,  becoming  a  naturalized 
American :  she  studied  spiritualism, 
and  in  1875  founded,  with  Colonel  Olcott, 
the  Theosophical  Society :  wrote 
books  and  pamphlets  in  support  of  her 
theories  :  settled  in  London,  1887  : 
"brought  out  a  magazine,  Lucifer,  the 
Light-bringer  :  wrote  The  Secret  Doctrine, 
.the  Synthesis  of  Science,  Religion  and 
Philosophy,  1888,  and  The  Key  of  Philo- 
sophy, 1889  :  died  in  London,  May  8,  1891. 


(1840-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Rev.  James  Bliss  :  born 
1840  :  educated  at  Merton,  Oxford,  B.A. 
joined  the  Madras  Civil  Service,  1863  : 
after  holding  subordinate  appointments, 
was  Commissioner  of  Salt  Revenue  and 
Abkari  Revenue,  1878  :  on  special  duty 
on  these  subjects  :  Fellow  of  the  Madras 
University,  1882  :  Member  of  the  Finance 
Committee,  1886  :  Member  of  the  Board 
•of  Revenue,  1887  :  first  Member,  1889  : 
CLE.,  1889  :  Member  of  the  Governor- 
General's  Legislative  Council,  1890-2  : 
Member  of  Council,  Madras,  1893-8  : 
K.C.I.E.,  1897  :  retired,  1898  :  Member  of 
the  London  County  Council  for  the  Hol- 
born  Division,  1901. 


Linguistic  scholar  :  born  at  Dresden 
Jan.  8, 1838,  the  son  of  a  printer  :  educated 
there,  at  Leipzig,  and  Paris :  entered 
the  English  Army  in  1858  to  get  out  to 
India,  left  the  Army,  and  joined  the 
P.  and  O.  Co.'s  service  as  interpreter  : 
in  i860  was  made  Assistant  Professor  of 
Urdu  and  Persian  at  the  Calcutta  Madrasa  : 
graduated  at  the  Calcutta  University, 
1 861  :     after    3    years    at    the    Doveton 

College,  removed  to  the  Madrasa,  1865, 
and  became  its  President  until  his  death  : 
he  was  philological  Secretary  to  the 
Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  and  contributed 
many  learned  papers :  translated 
Abul-Fazl's  Ain-i-Akbari,  the  first  volume, 
and  wrote  The  Prosody  of  the  Persians  : 
he  had  a  profound  knowledge  of  Persian 
and  Arabic:  died  July  13,  1878. 


Son  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Henry  Peckwell,  an 
eminent  preacher  :  he  took  his  mother's 
name  of  Blosset  :  educated  at  Oxford  : 
was  Recorder  of  Cambridge  :  was  appointed 
Chief  Justice  of  Bengal  in  1821  :  died 
Feb.  I,  1823.  There  are  a  monument  and 
hatchment  to  his  memory  at  St.  John's 
Church,  Calcutta. 

BLUNT,    CHARLES    HARRIS    (1824- 

Maj-General :  entered  the  Army,  1842  : 
was  in  the  Bengal  Horse  Artillery  :  was 
in  the  Satlaj  campaign,  1846,  at  Sobraon  : 
also  in  the  Panjab  campaign :  in  the 
mutiny,  raised  "  Blunt's  Horse,"  was  at 
the  siege  of  Delhi,  battle  of  Najafghar, 
action  at  Agra,  (Lord  Clyde's)  relief  of 
Lucknow,  where  he  was  the  hero  of  a  very 
dashing  performance  with  the  guns  at  the 
Sikandarbagh,  at  the  action  of  Shamsabad, 
the  capture  of  the  fort  and  town  of  Kalpi  : 
Brevets  of  Major  and  Colonel :  C.B  :  Lord 
Roberts  refers  to  his  splendid  courage  in 
leading  his  guns  in  the  advance  on  Luck- 
now  :  his  troops  suffered  severely  at  Delhi 
and  Agra,  "  seldom,  if  ever,  has  a  battery 
and  its  commander  had  a  grander  record 
to  show  "  :    died.  Aug  15,  1900. 

BARONET  (1731-1802) 
Of  Cleery,  Hants  :  born  1731  :  son  of 
Sir  Henry  Blunt,  second  Baronet,  whom 
he  succeeded  in  1759  :  lived  in  Great 
Ormonde  St.  till  about  1767  :  at  Odiham, 
Hants,  till  about  1775  :  at  Blunt  House, 
Croydon,  to  about  1780  :  went  out  as  a 
writer  in  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  service  to  India, 
20  years  before  his  death  :  obtained  a 
lucrative  appointment  in  the  bullock 
contract,  besides  a  share  in  the  Post- 
office  :  formed  honourable  and  advantage- 
ous connexions  :  died  Sep,  27,  1802,  at 
Pulta,  near  Calcutta,  leaving  £100,000, 
three-fourths    of    it.   to    his    eldest    son. 



C.  R.  Blunt,  fourth  Baronet  (born  1778  : 
M.P.  for  Lewes,  1832)  :  his  portrait  by- 
Barclay  is  in  the  possession  of  his  grandson, 
the  present  Baronet  :  letters  from  him 
are  among  the  Hastings  papers  in  the 
British  Museum :  one  of  his  daughters 
married  vSir  C.  Imhoff,  stepson  of  Warren 
Hastings  :  he  built  a  mausoleum  for  the 
sepulture  of  his  race-horses,  which  was 
still  to  be  seen  in  India  about  1845  :  many 
pictures  of  his  horses  are  preserved. 

BLYTH,    EDWARD    (1810-1873) 

Born  Dec.  23,  1810  :  was  a  druggist  at 
Tooting,  but  Natural  History  was  the 
absorbing  study  of  his  life  :  in  184 1  he  was 
appointed  Curator  of  the  Museum  of  the 
Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal :  retired  in  1862  : 
wrote  a  great  number  of  reports  and  papers 
on  Zoology,  especially  on  birds  and 
mammals,  in  the  Society's  journals  and 
in  newspapers  :  he  was  said  to  have  been 
the  founder  of  the  science  of  Zoology  in 
India  :  his  work  was  highly  estimated 
by  Darwin  and  Gould  :  died  Dec.  27,  1873- 

BODEN,   JOSEPH   (  ?  -1811) 

Entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  Bombay  Native 
Army  in  1781  :  Lt-Colonel  1806  :  held 
appointments  on  the  Staff  in  Bombay  : 
was  Member  of  the  Military  Board  :  re- 
tired in  1807  and  died  Nov.  21,  181 1. 
Though  not  a  Sanskrit  scholar,  and  not  a 
writer,  he  left  a  large  sum  of  money  to 
found,  after  his  daughter's  death,  a  pro- 
fessorship of  Sanskrit  at  Oxford.  H.  H. 
Wilson  (q.v.)  was  the  first  professor 
appointed,  in  1832. 

BOGLE,  SIR  ARCHIBALD  (1805-1870) 

Entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  military  service, 
1823  :  was  D.A.G.  at  Dinapur,  1827  : 
commanded  the  Arakan  battalion  and 
police  corps,  1828  :  Commissioner  in 
Arakan,  1837  :  afterwards  in  Tenasserim 
and  Martaban :  knighted,  1853  :  Maj- 
General,  1862  :    died  June  12,  1870. 

BOGLE,  GEORGE  (1746-1781) 

Son  of  George  Bogle :  born  Nov.  26, 
1746  :  educated  at  Haddington,  Glasgow, 
Edinburgh  University,  Enfield :  entered 
the  E.  I.  Co.'s  service  in  1769  :  was 
appointed  by  Warren  Hastings  on  May 
13,  1774,  to  lead  an  embassy  to  the  Teshu 
Lama  of  Tibet,  for  the  purpose  of  opening 
up  trade  and  friendly  relations  with  that 

country  :  he  proceeded  by  Tassisudon  in 
Bhutan,  through  Phari,  to  Desherigpay 
(north  of  the  Tsanpu  River),  saw  the  Teshu 
Lama,  accompanied  him  to  Teshu  Lumbo, 
and  returned  thence  to  India,  1775  :  in 
1779  he  was  appointed  Collector  of  Rang- 
pur  and  established  a  fair,  to  encovurage 
trade  with  Bhutan  and  Tibet.  A  second 
embassy  of  Bogle  to  Tibet  was  contem- 
plated, but  was  postponed,  the  Teshu 
Lama  going  to  Pekin  :  Bogle  proposed 
meeting  him  at  Pekin,  but  died  at  Calcutta 
on  April  3,  1781  :  the  journal  of  his 
embassy  has  been  published. 

BOHTLINGK,  OTTO  VON  (1815-1904) 

Born  May  30,  1815,  at  St.  Petersburg  : 
studied  there  and  at  Dorpat,  Berlin, 
Bonn  :  returned  to  St.  Petersburg,  1842. 
At  first,  his  scholarship  was  directed  to 
the  study  of  Arabic  and  Persian,  but  he 
became  celebrated  as  a  worker  in  Sanskrit. 
In  1840,  he  published  Grammaire  Sanskrile 
(Panini's),  1843:  Dissertation  sur  Vaccent 
Sanskrit :  edition  and  German  translation 
of  Sakuntala  de  Kalidasa  :  Chrestomathie 
Sanskrite,  1877.  The  great  work  of  his 
life  was  his  Sanskrit  Dictionary,  7  vols, 
brought  out  with  the  collaboration  of 
Professors  Roth  and  Weber,  1852-75  : 
died  at  Leipzig  in  1904. 


Lt. -Colonel :  was  a  volunteer  in  the 
36th  regt.,  1783  :  acting  Ensign,  1784-5  : 
a  conductor  of  Stores  :  attached  to  Artil- 
lery, 1786-7  :  Ensign  in  the  Madras 
Army,  1788  :  A.A.G.,  Madras  Army  for  5 
years  :  D.A.G.,  1807  :  when  Lt. -General 
H.  Macdowall,  C.  in  C,  Madras,  signed  an 
order,  Jan.  28,  1809,  censuring  his  Q.M.G., 
Capt.  Munro,  Boles,  as  Depy.  A.G.,  was 
ordered  by  Col.  Capper,  the  Adjt-General, 
to  circulate  the  order  to  the  Army.  For 
circulating,  under  his  signature,  this  cen- 
sure of  Capt.  Munro,  Boles  was  suspended 
from  the  service  of  the  E.  I.  Co.,  by  the 
Government  of  Madras  (Sir  G.  Barlow), 
Jan.  31,  1809  :  and  declined  to  apologize 
for  his  conduct.  The  Madras  Government 
prevented  his  going  home,  sent  him  to 
Bengal  in  June,  1809,  whence  he  went  to 
England.  The  Court  of  Directors,  to 
whom  he  appealed  in  18 10,  recorded  in 
Feb.  1811,  their  opinion  that  Boles  would 
not  have  been  justified  in  refusing  to  obey 
General    Macdowall's  order.      Boles'  sus- 



pension  was  continued  to  Oct.  1811,  when 
he  was  restored  to  the  service. 


(1850-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Dr.  J.  Bolton  :  educated 
at  University  College  School,  the  Royal 
College,  Mauritius,  and  King's  College, 
London :  went  out  to  Lower  Bengal, 
1872  :  Under  Secretary  to  the  Bengal 
Government,  1879  :  Secretary  to  the 
Board  of  Revenue,  1897  :  Chief  Secretary 
to  the  Bengal  Government,  1896  :  Member 
of  the  Board,  1900  :  Additional  Member 
of  the  Governor-General's  Legislative 
Council,   1900-1902  :    C.S.I.,   1897. 

BOLTS,  WILLIAM  (1740P-1808) 

Born  about  1740  :  was  a  merchant  of 
Dutch  extraction  :  being  in  Calcutta  in 
1759,  he  was  taken  into  the  E.  I.  Co.'s 
service  :  engaged  in  private  trade,  like 
other  civil  servants  :  was  Second  in  Council 
at  Benares,  1764  :  being  censured  by  the 
Court  of  Directors  for  his  private  trading 
under  the  Company's  authority  and  re- 
called, he  resigned  in  1766,  quarrelled  with 
,  the  Bengal  authorities,  was  arrested  in 
1768,  and  deported  to  England  as  an 
interloper.  In  his  Considerations  on  Indian 
Affairs,  1772,  he  attacked  the  Bengal 
Government :  Verelst  replied,  and  Bolts 
published  another  work  in  1 775 .  He  made 
a  large  fortune  in  India,  but  could  not 
take  it  away  :  he  spent  what  he  had  in 
England  in  defending  the  lawsuits  brought 
against  him  by  the  E.  I.  Co.  for  some  years. 
He  entered  the  Austrian  service,  became 
a  Colonel,  and  founded  stations  in  India 
for  an  Austrian  Company  :  these  came 
to  nothing  :   he  died  in  Paris  in  1808. 


A  Brahman,  of  good  family  :  educated 
at  the  Duff  College,  and  baptized  by  the 
Rev.  Dr.  Duff  in  1847  :  held  various 
missionary  charges  :  celebrated  both 
for  his  eloquent  preaching  and  his  philan- 
thropy :  was  the  author  of  a  Life  of 
Christ  in  Bengali,  and  a  large  number  of 
tracts  :  universally  regarded  as  one  of 
the  leading  ministers  of  the  Bengali  Church. 


(1844-    ) 

Second  son  of  Grees  Chunder  Bonnerjee, 
attorney  of    the    High   Court,   Calcutta : 

born  Dec.  29,  1844 :  educated  at  the 
Oriental  Seminary  and  Hindu  School  : 
in  1864,  in  receipt  of  a  scholarship  from 
Mr.  R.  J.  Jijibhai  of  Bombay,  went  to 
England  to  study  law  :  called  to  the  bar 
from  the  Middle  Temple :  joined  the 
Calcutta  High  Court  Bar,  1868  :  acted  as 
the  Standing  Counsel  to  Government  in 
1882,  1884,  1886-7 :  presided  over  the 
First  Indian  National  Congress  at  Bombay, 
1885  :  Fellow  of  the  Calcutta  University  : 
President  of  the  Faculty  of  Law,  1880  : 
represented  the  Calcutta  University  in 
the  Bengal  Legislative  Council,  1893  : 
retired  from  the  Calcutta  Bar,  1901,  to 
practise  before  the  Judicial  Committee  of 
the  Privy  Council  in  England. 

BOPP,  FRANCIS  (1791-1867) 
Born  at  Mentz,  Sep.  14,  1791  =  educated 
at  Aschaffenburg,  under  Windischmann, 
the  celebrated  Oriental  scholar  :  went  to 
Paris,  1812,  for  5  years  :  chiefly  studied 
Sanskrit  :  settled  in  Gottingen  :  became 
in  1821  Extraordinary,  and  in  1825 
Ordinary  Professor  of  Oriental  Literatiure 
and  General  Philology  at  Berlin  Univer- 
sity, till  his  death  :  a  prominent  Member 
of  the  Royal  Society  at  Berlin  :  wrote  his 
Analytical  Comparison  of  the  Sanskrit, 
Greek,  Latin  and  Teutonic  Languages  in 
the  Annals  of  Oriental  Literature,  1820  : 
greatly  encouraged  and  facilitated  the 
study  of  Sanskrit  :  his  Sanskrit  Grammar 
passed  through  several  editions,  1827-63  : 
an  original  foreign  member  of  the  R.A.S. 
from  June  7,  1823  :  his  Comparative 
Grammar  was  translated  into  English, 
1845-50  :    he  died  Oct.  23,  1867. 

BORTON,  SIR  ARTHUR  (1814-1893) 
Son  of  the  Rev.  J.  D.  Borton  :  born 
Jan.  20,  1814  :  educated  at  Eton  :  entered 
the  Army,  1832,  rose  to  be  General,  1877  : 
went  to  India  in  1835,  served  in  the 
Afghanistan  campaign  of  1842  under 
General  Pollock  :  was  at  Tezin,  in  the 
Kohistan,  and  at  Istalif  on  Sep.  29  :  in 
the  battles  of  the  Satlaj  campaign  of 
1845-6  :  in  the  Crimea  :  C.B.  :  in  Canada  : 
commanded  the  Mysore  Division  of  the 
Madras  Army,  1870-5  :  K.C.B.  :  Governor 
and  C.  in  C.  of  Malta  in  1877  :  G.C.M.G., 
1880  :    G.C.B.,  1884  :    died  Sep.  7,  1893. 

BOSCAWEN,    HON.    EDWARD    (1711- 
Son  of  first  Viscount  Falmouth  :    born 
Aug.  19,  1711  :    joined  the  Navy,  1726: 



served  on  a  number  of  stations,  the 
Mediterranean,  the  West  Indies,  the  Home 
station,  the  Channel,  at  the  Nore,  at 
Cape  Finisterre,  1747  :  and  in  that  year 
was  appointed  C.  in  C.  of  the  sea  and  land 
forces  in  the  E.  Indies :  passed  the 
Mauritius  without  taking  it  from  the 
French  :  reached  Fort  St.  David,  July, 
1748:  failed,  after  a  repulse  at  Ariancopang, 
which  he  captured  later,  in  taking  Pondi- 
cherry  by  both  sea  and  land :  lost  ships 
in  stormy  weather  :  at  the  peace  of  Aix-la- 
Chapelle,  took  possession  of  Madras  on 
its  restoration  by  the  French,  Aug.  21, 
1749  :  and  returned  to  England  :  held 
more  commands  in  N.  America  :  a  Lord 
of  the  Admiralty  :  at  the  siege  of  Louis- 
berg  against  the  French  in  Europe  :  was 
made  P.C.  :    died  Jan    10,  1761. 


(1853-  ) 

Born  July  14,  1853  :  educated  at  Ken- 
sington Grammar  School  and  privately  : 
has  contributed  to  all  the  leading  journals 
on  questions  relating  to  India,  China, 
Egypt  and  Turkey  since  1876  :  founded, 
in  conjunction  with  Sir  Lepel  Griffin,  the 
Asiatic  Quarterly  Review  in  1885,  and 
edited  it  for  some  years  :  author  of  Life 
of  Yakub  Beg  of  Kashgar,  England  and 
Russia  in  Central  Asia,  Central  Asian 
Portraits,  Armies  of  the  Native  States  of 
India,  Central  Asian  Questions,  Lord 
William  Bentinck,  Story  of  India,  India 
in  the  Nineteenth  Century,  History  of 
China,  of  which  several  editions  have  been 
published.  Life  of  Gordon,  Life  of  Sir 
Stamford  Raffles,  etc. 

BOURCHIER,    SIR    GEORGE    (1821- 

Son  of  Rev.  Edward  Bourchier  :  edu- 
cated at  Addiscombe :  entered  the  Bengal 
Artillery,  1838  :  in  the  Gwalior  campaign, 
1843-4  :  at  Punniar :  in  the  mutiny 
commanded  a  battery  at  Trimmu  Ghat : 
at  the  siege  and  capture  of  Delhi :  at 
Bulandshahr,  Alighar,  Agra,  Sir  Colin 
Campbell's  relief  of  Lucknow,  at  Cawnpur  : 
Brevet  Colonel  and  C.B.  :  commanded 
the  R.A.  in  Bhutan,  1864-6  :  commanded 
the  E.  frontier  district,  1871,  and  the 
Cachar  column  in  the  Lushai  expedition, 
1871-2:  K.C.B.,  1852:]  Maj-General: 
died  March    15,    1898. 


(1848-         ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  at  Madras,  March,  1848  : 
son  of  J.  D.  Bourdillon  {q.v.)  :  educated 
at  Marlborough  :  Captain  of  the  Cricket 
XI  :  went  out  to  India,  1870  :  Superinten- 
dent of  the  Census  of  Bengal,  1880-3  • 
acting  Secretary  to  the  Bengal  Government, 
Financial  Department,  1893-5  :  Com- 
missioner of  Patna,  in  the  famine,  1897  : 
C.S.I. ,  1898  :  Chief  Secretary  to  the 
Government  of  Bengal,  1900  :  Member  of 
the  Famine  Commission  in  India,  1901  : 
Member  of  the  Board  of  Revenue,  1902  : 
for  some  years  Member  of  the  Bengal 
Legislative  Council :  acted  as  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  Bengal,  Nov.  1902-Nov. 
1903  :  Resident  in  Mysore,  1903  : 
K.C.S.I.,  Jan.  1904  :  V.D.,  1896,  for  long 
service  as  a  volunteer  in  the  Calcutta 
Light  Horse  and  Bihar  Light  Horse. 



I.C.S  :  son  of  the  Rev.  T.  Bourdillon:  edu- 
cated at  Ramsgate  and  Haileybury  :  joined 
the  Civil  Service  at  Madras  in  1828  :  was 
Secretary  to  the  Board  of  Revenue  and 
Secretary  to  Government  in  the  Revenue 
and  P.W.D.  :  advocated  irrigation  and 
the  improvement  of  communications : 
was  an  authority  on  land  revenue  and 
the  despatch  of  public  business  :  retired 
in  1861  :    died  May  21,  1883. 


Louis  Bernard  :  a  Frenchman  :  went 
to  India  with  Admiral  Suffrein  :  from 
Pondicherry  went  to  Calcutta  and  enlisted 
in  the  E.I.  Co.'s  service  :  was  a  cook  and 
pyrotechnist  :  employed  by  Begam  Sam- 
ru  :  in  1794  by  De  Boigne  :  under  Perron 
in  1800,  in  Sindia's  service  :  fought  against 
George  Thomas  {q.v.)  :  and  was  defeated 
by  him  at  Georgeghar :  later,  made 
Thomas  surrender  at  Hansi :  captured 
Rohtak,  1803  :  after  the  defeat  of  Colonel 
Pedron  by  Lake  at  Alighar,  Bourguien 
revolted  against  Perron :  the  latter  sur- 
rendered to  the  British,  and  Boiurguien, 
as  General,  held  command  of  Sindia's 
troops  for  a  fortnight,  until  he  himself 
was  defeated  by  Lake  at  the  battle  of 
Delhi,  Sep.  11,  1803  :  three  days  after- 
wards he  surrendered  to  Lake  :  was  sent 
to  Calcutta :  returned  to  France,  with 
great  wealth,  and  was  heard  of  no  more. 





(1824-  ) 

I.CjS.  :  born  July  15,  1824  :  third  son  of 
Sir  George  Bowring  :  educated  at  Exeter, 
Leipzig  and  Haileybury,  1841-3  :  went 
out  to  India,  1843  :  Deputy  Commissioner 
in  the  Panjab,  1849-54  :  Private  Secretary 
to  Lord  Canning,  when  Viceroy,  April, 
1858  to  1862  :  Chief  Commissioner  ot 
Mysore  and  Coorg,  1862-70 :  retired, 
1870  :  C.S.L,  1867  :  author  of  Eastern 
Experiences,  Hyder  Ali  and  Tippoo  Sultan, 
and  contributions  to  the  Asiatic  Society 
of  Bengal. 

BOWSER,  SIR  THOMAS  (1748-1833) 
Born  1748,  at  Kirkby  Thore,  West- 
morland :  educated  at  Appleby  Grammar 
School :  entered  the  E.L  Co.'s  Army  at 
24  :  at  the  taking  of  Tanjore  in  1773  *•  for 
3  years  engaged  in  the  capture  of  forts  in 
the  N.  Sircars  :  at  the  siege  of  Pondi- 
cherry,  1778  :  in  the  Guntur  Sircar  cam- 
paign, 1779 :  as  a  Lieutenant,  in  Sir 
Hector  Munro's  army  in  1780,  sent  to  help 
Col.  Baillie  and,  with  him,  taken  prisoner 
by  Hyder  Ali  in  the  Perambakam  disaster, 
Sept.  1780  :  confined  at  Seringapatam  3 
years  and  8  months  :  loaded  with  irons 
for  3  years  and  4  months :  liberated, 
1784  :  to  England  for  3  years  :  published 
in  1788  his  Memoirs  of  The  Late  War  in 
Asia  :  served  under  Medows  in  1792,  at 
the  storming  of  Dindigul :  given  by 
Cornwallis  the  command  of  a  sepoy 
battalion  :  served  under  General  Braith- 
waite  at  the  siege  of  Pondicherry,  1798  : 
employed  against  the  Raja  of  Ramnad  : 
effected  the  reduction  of  Ceylon,  1796 : 
took  fort  Calpentein  and  Colombo  :  sent 
to  reduce  the  French  force  under  Perron 
at  Hyderabad  :  at  Seringapatam,  May  4, 
1790  :  stormed  the  fortress  of  Gooty : 
commanded  from  Hyderabad  a  mixed 
force,  joining  Colonel  A.  Wellesley,  against 
Doondia  Waugh  :  to  England,  1803  : 
again  to  India  in  1820 :  commanded  the 
Mysore  Division  :  was  temporarily  C.  in 
C.  of  Madras  Army,  1824-6,  on  the  death 
of  Sir  Alexander  Campbell :  retired. 
May,  1826  :  was  a  Lt-General  and  K.C.B.  : 
died  June,  1833. 

BOYD,  HUGH  (1746-1794) 

Son  of  Alexander  Macaulay  :    took  his 

mother's    name,    Boyd :     born     in    Oct. 

1746  :   educated  at  Dublin,  and  graduated 

at  Trinity  College,  1765  :  studied  law,  and 

contributed  to  journals  and  literature  :  in 
1 78 1  became  Secretary  to  Lord  Macart- 
ney, Governor  of  Madras  :  sent  on  a  mis- 
sion to  Ceylon,  captured  by  the  French  and 
kept  a  prisoner  at  Bourbon  for  some 
months :  became  Master  Attendant  at 
Madras,  and  conducted  the  Madras 
Courier :  wrote  the  Indian  Observer 
papers,  and  the  Hircarrah  :  it  was  said 
that  he  was  the  author  of  the  Letters 
of  Junius,  a  supposition  which  he  never 
positively  contradicted  :  his  works  were 
collected  and  published :  died  Oct.  15, 

(1S37-  ) 

Born  Sept.  i,  1837  :  educated  at  Eton 
and  R.M.C.,  Woolwich  :  joined  the  Royal 
Artillery,  1856:  in  the  Indian  mutiny: 
served  in  Central  India,  1857-8  :  Ashanti 
war,  1873-4  :  Zulu  war,  1879-80  :  Private 
Secretary  to  Lord  Lytton,  the  Viceroy  of 
India,  1880  :  Military  Attache  at  Paris, 
1 88 1-2  :  commanded  River  Column, 
Egypt,  1884-5"':  promoted  Maj-General 
for  distinguished  service  in  the  field : 
Director  of  Military  Intelligence,  1886- 
91  :  Military  Member  of  the  Supreme 
Council  of  India,  189 1-6  :  Director- 
General  of  Ordnance  at  the  War  Office, 
1899  :  K.C.B.,  1894  :  K.C.S.I.,  1896  : 
G.C.B.,  1900 :  General  R.A.,  1901  : 

COVENTRY  (1829-1904) 
Son  of  Henry  Braddon,  and  brother  of 
Miss  Braddon  the  novelist:  went  out  to 
India  in  1847  to  join  the  mercantile  house 
of  Bagshaw  and  Co.,  in  Calcutta,  but  pre- 
ferred work  in  the  Mofussil  :  while  he  was 
employed  on  the  E.I.  Railway,  the  Sonthal 
rebellion  of  1855  broke  out,  in  which  he 
rendered  such  excellent  service  that  he 
was  appointed  an  Assistant  Commissioner 
in  the  Sonthal  Parganas  :  during  the 
mutiny  he  served  in  the  Volunteer  force 
under  Sir  George  Yule,  Commissioner  of 
Bhagalpur,  and,  after  the  mutiny,  on 
that  officer's  invitation,  joined  the  Oudh 
Commission,  where  he  remained  until 
Oudh  was  amalgamated  with  the  N.W.P. 
in  1877  :  resigned  the  Service  and  went 
to  Tasmania,  where  he  rose  to  be  Premier 
and  Agent-General  for  Tasmania  in  Lon- 
don :  K.C.M.G.,  1891  :  published  Life  in 
India,  and  Thirty  Years  of  Shikar,  in 
1895  :    died  F'eb.  3,  1904- 



COLBORNE,  BARONET  (1836-        ) 

Born  July  27,  1836  :  son  of  Rev.  W.  M. 
K.  Bradford  :  educated  at  Marlborough  : 
entered  the  Madras  Army,  1854  :  Colonel 
in  1884  :  served  in  the  Persian  campaign, 
1856-7  :  in  the  Indian  mutiny,  in  the 
N.W.  Provinces,  1858-9  :  commanded 
a  regt.  of  the  Central  India  Horse,  i860  : 
entered  the  Political  Department :  General 
Superintendent  for  suppressing  Thagi  and 
Dakaiti,  1874  :  attended  H.R.H.  the 
Prince  of  Wales  on  his  tour  in  India, 
1875-6  :  Agent  to  the  Governor-General 
for  Rajputana  :  Secretary  in  the  Political 
and  Secret  Department,  India  Office, 
1887 :  accompanied  H.R.H,  Prince  Ed- 
ward, '(Duke  of  Clarence,  on  his  tour  in 
India,  1889-90  :  A.D.C.  to  the  Queen, 
1889-93  :  Chief  Commissioner  of  Police  in 
the  Metropolis,  1890- 1903  :  K.C.S.I., 
1885  :  G.C.B.  :  G.C.V.O.,  1902  :  Extra 
Equerry  to  the  King,  1902  :  Baronet,  1902. 

BRADFORD,  SIR  THOMAS  (1777-1853) 

Son  of  Thomas  Bradford  :  born  Dec.  i, 
1777  :  entered  the  Army,  1793  :  served 
in  Ireland,  Scotland,  S.  America,  the 
Peninsula :  commanded  the  Portuguese 
Division  at  Vittoria  in  1813  as  Maj- 
General :  K.C.B.,  1814  :  held  commands 
in  France  and  Scotland  :  was  C.  in  C.  in 
Bombay,  1825-9  '•  G.C.B. ,  1838  :  General, 
1841  :    died   Nov.  28,   1853. 

BRADSHAW,  JOHN  (1845-1894) 

Born  June  4,  1845  :  son  of  Rev.  William 
Hanna  Bradshaw,  A.M.,  Rector  of  Kil- 
sheery :  educated  at  Enniskillen  Royal 
School,  at  Portora,  and  Trinity  College, 
Dublin :  Senior  Moderator  in  History, 
Literature,  and  Law,  T.C.D.  :  appointed 
Head-master  of  Bishop  Corrie's  Grammar 
School,  Madras,  1868  :  and  of  the  Pro- 
vincial School,  Mangalore,  1870  :  Inspector 
of  Schools,  1872  :  Fellow,  Madras  Univer- 
sity, 1S75  :  he  was  essentially  an  education- 
alist :  his  knowledge  and  experience  were 
exceptional :  his  life  work  was  an  endeav- 
our to  place  native  education  on  a  sound 
basis  :  edited  many  works  for  Middle  and 
High  Schools  :  besides  An  English 
Anthology,  1885,  Milton  and  Gray  for  the 
Aldine  Poets,  Chesterfield's  Letters,  etc. : 
and  the  Life  of  Sir  Thomas  Munro,  for 
the  Rulers  of  India  series  :  died  at  Madras, 
Jan.  5, 1894. 

BRANDIS,  SIR  DIETRICH  (1824-        ) 

Born  1824  :  educated  at  the  Universi- 
ties of  Copenhagen,  Gottingen  and  Bonn : 
lecturer  on  Botany  at  Bonn,  1849  :  joined 
the  Indian  Forest  Department  in  1856  : 
Inspr-General  of  Forests,  1864  :  CLE., 
1878  :  retired,  1883  :  Member  of  the 
Board  of  Visitors  of  Cooper's  Hill  College, 
1886  :  K.C.I.E.,  1887  :  author  of  the 
Forest  Flora  of  N.W.  and  Central  India 
1874  :  Director  of  the  practical  course  of 
forestry  on  the  Continent  in  connexion 
with  Cooper's  Hill  College,  1887-96. 


(1848-  ) 

Born  Feb.  29,  1848  :  son  of  Jonathan 
Haigh  Branfoot,  M.D.  :  educated  at 
Epsom  College,  and  Guy's  Hospital : 
entered  the  I.M.S.,  1872  :  held  various 
civil  appointments  connected  with  the 
Madras  Medical  College,  1872-9  :  Pro- 
fessor of  Midwifery  there,  and  Superin- 
tendent Madras  Government  Maternity 
Hospital,  1879-98  :  CLE.,  1898  :  P.M.O., 
Rangoon  and  Bangalore,  189 8- 1903  : 
retired,  1903  :  President,  Medical  Board, 
India  Office,  1904  :  contributed  to  medical 
journals  and  societies. 

BRASYER,  JEREMIAH  (1812-1897) 
Colonel :  brought  up  as  a  gardener  in 
Kent :  enlisted  in  the  Bengal  Artillery, 
1833  :  Sergt-Major,  26th  regt.,  Bengal 
N.I.  Sept.,  1839  :  served  in  the  Afghan 
war,  1842  :  at  the  forcing  of  the  Khyber : 
at  Mamu  Kheyl,  Jagdalak,  Haft  Kotal, 
Tezin,  with  the  Artillery :  in  the  Sikh 
campaigns :  at  Mudki,  Firozshahr  and 
Sobraon,  with  the  26th  N.I.  :  Ensign, 
1846  :  interpreter  to  the  Firozpur  regt. 
of  Sikhs,  and  commanded  them,  "  Brasyer's 
Sikhs,"  in  the  mutiny,  1857-8  :  with  his 
regt.  as  the  sole  garrison,  he  held  the 
fortress  of  Allahabad,  the  key  of  Upper 
India,  at  the  most  critical  moment  : 
through  his  energy  and  resolute  attitude, 
his  Sikhs  remained  loyal :  "no  man  risen 
from  the  ranks  has  ever  done  a  deed 
evincing  such  force  of  character  and 
desperate  resolution,  and  securing  such 
invaluable  results "  :  at  the  capture  of 
Lucknow,  March,  1858  :  Lt-Colonel  and 
CB.,  1858  :  retured  Oct.  1861  :  died 
March  15,  1897. 

BRATHWAITE,  SIR  JOHN  (  ?  -  ?  ) 

A  noted  officer  in  the  Indian  wars  dur- 
ing the  latter  part  of  the  i8th  century  : 



as  Major,  1772,  he  marched  against  the 
Poligars  of  Madura  and  Tinnevelly  :  Lt- 
Colonel :  captured,  1779,  the  French 
settlement  of  Mahe  :  took  an  active  part 
in  the  war  with  Hyder  Ali  :  in  1780, 
Colonel,  and  in  command  of  the  troops  in 
Tanjore  :  his  defeat  by  Tippoo  near  Anna- 
gudi  in  1782  was  a  serious  blow  to  the 
Southern  Army  :  he  himself  was  wounded 
and  taken  prisoner,  but  released  on  the 
conclusion  of  peace  in  1784  :  held  high 
command  in  the  Madras  Army,  1792  : 
when  war  broke  out  with  the  French 
Republic,  Brathwaite  took  Pondicherry, 
1793  '    Maj -General  in  1800. 


I.C.S.  :  born  March  5,  1830  :  arrived 
at  Madras  in  1849  :  was  Private  Secretary 
to  the  Governor  of  Madras,  Sir  W.  Denison, 
1861-64,  accompanying  him  to  Calcutta 
when  he  acted  as  Governor-General, 
between  Lord  Elgin  and  Sir  John  Law- 
rence. In  1867  Breeks  was  appointed 
Commissioner  of  the  Nilgiris  :  in  187 1  he 
was  called  upon  to  make  collections  of 
objects  among  the  aboriginal  tribes  for 
the  Indian  Museum,  Calcutta  :  he  fell  ill 
and  died  June  7, 1872  :  he  wrote  a  valuable 
report  on  the  tribes  and  sepulchral  monu- 
ments of  the  Nilgiris,  published  under  the 
editorship  of  his  widow  in  1873. 

BRIGGS,    HENRY    GEORGE    (1824- 

Born  in  Bombay,  Oct.  20,  1824 :  son  of 
Henry  Briggs  :  travelled  in  S.  Africa, 
1843  :  in  China,  1845  :  settled  in  Bombay, 
1846,  in  the  ofifice  of  Briggs  &  Co.  :  served 
in  the  Bombay  Secretariat :  went  to 
Karachi :  edited,  1854,  the  Sindian,  and, 
1855,  the  Sind  Kossid,  both  long  since 
defunct :  became,  1856,  Assistant  Secre- 
tary at  Bombay  to  the  G.I. P.  Railway:  Sec- 
retary to  the  Bombay  Municipality,  1860- 
2  :  was  a  merchant  and  agent  at  Bombay 
and  Hingolee,  1863  :  he  wrote,  1849,  Cities 
of  Gujdrashtra,  a  book  of  travel  in  Guja- 
rat, containing  curious  information  gleaned 
from  travellers  in  India  :  of  whose  rare 
works  he  made  an  extensive  collection:  pub- 
lished The  Pars  is  or  Modern  Zardushtians, 
1852,  which  has  now  been  superseded  : 
wrote  an  historical  account  of  the  Nizam, 
1 861,  a  valuable  work  containing  special 
information.  His  firm  failed  in  the  share 
mania  of  1865  ;  he  travelled  in  Gujarat,  and 

settled  in  Calcutta,  entering  the  P.W.D. 
there:  in  May,  1872,  he  went  again  to 
Bombay;  died  there  July  4,  1872. 

BRIGGS,  JOHN  (1785-1875) 

Entered  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Madras  Army  in 
1 801  :  served  in  the  Mahratta  wars  : 
accompanied  Sir  J .  Malcolm  on  his  mission 
to  Persia,  1810 :  became  Resident  at 
Satara,  and  in  1831  was  Senior  Member  of 
the  Board  of  Administration  of  Mysore  : 
resigned  in  1832,  and  was  Resident  at 
Nagpur,  1832-5,  when  he  retired  :  Maj- 
General,  1838.  As  Member  of  the  Court 
of  Proprietors  of  the  E.I.  Co.,  he  opposed 
Lord  Dalhousie's  policy :  he  translated 
Ferishta's  Muhammadan  Power  in  India 
and  the  Siyar-ul-muta'  akhkhirin  from 
Persian  into  English  :  was  F.R.S.  :  died 
April  27,  1875. 

BRIGHT,  JOHN  (1811-1889) 

Born  Nov.  16,  181 1  :  son  of  Jacob 
Bright,  of  Rochdale  :  educated  there  and 
at  Ackworth,  York,  Newton  :  joined  his 
father  in  managing  mills,  travelled,  and 
entered  politics  :  co-operated  with  Cobden 
against  the  Corn  Laws  :  M.P.  for  Durham, 
1843 ;  for  Manchester,  1847,  1852 ;  for 
Birmingham,  1857-85  :  in  his  political 
life  he  paid  special  attention  to  India  :  in 
1848,  was  Chairman  of  the  Committee, 
for  which  he  moved,  to  inquire  into  the 
obstacles  to  the  cultivation  of  cotton  in 
India  :  helped  to  raise  a  fund  for  a  private 
Commission  of  inquiry :  opposed  the 
renewal  of  the  Charter  of  the  E.  I.  Co.  in 
1853  :  spoke,  1853,  strongly  in  favour  of 
making  the  Government  of  India  a  Depart- 
ment of  the  Government,  with  a  Minister 
of  State  and  a  Council :  in  the  discussions 
on  the  transfer  of  the  Government  of 
India  to  the  Crown,  in  1858,  and  again  in 
1879,  he  advocated  a  policy  of  decentra- 
lization, by  the  substitution  of  federated 
Provincial  Governments  for  a  Central 
Government :  urged,  in  1859,  the  reduc- 
tion of  military  expenditure  in  India : 
declined  to  be  Secretary  of  State  for  India, 
1868,  being  unwilling,  as  a  Quaker,  to  be 
mixed  up  with  military  matters  :  advo- 
cated developments  of  India  by  public 
works  and  canals,  1878-9  :  spoke  against 
the  Afghan  war  of  1878-80 :  D.C.L., 
1886  :  died  March  27,  1889  :  his  general 
career  in  Parliament,  his  share  in  English 
politics,  and  his  eloquent  speeches,  need 
not  be  dwelt  upon  here. 




RUS  (1823-1896) 

Born  July  7,  1823  :  son  of  Robert 
Bright,  merchant,  educated  at  Rugby  and 
Winchester  :  joined  the  19th  regt.  in  1843, 
and  served  continuously  with  it  until,  in 
1871,  he  obtained  a  Brigade  command 
served  in  the  Bulgarian  campaign,  1854 
in  the  Crimea,  present  at  all  the  battles 
in  1868  commanded  the  first  Brigade 
Hazara  Field  Force,  and  against  the 
Black  Mountain  tribes  :  commanded  the 
Meerut  Division,  1878-83  :  in  the  Afghan 
war,  1879-80,  commanded  the  Khyber 
Line  Field  Force  :  constantly  mentioned 
in  despatches  during  his  caxeer  :  Brevet 
Lt-Colonel :  Knight  of  the  Legion  of 
Honour  :  C.B.  in  1868  :  K.C.B.  and  the 
thanks  of  Parliament  after  the  Afghan 
war :  Colonel  of  his  regt.,  1886  :  Lt- 
General  :  G.C.B.,  1894  :  died  Nov.  15, 

BRIND,  SIR  JAMES  (1808-1888) 
Son  of  Walter  Brind  :  born  July  10, 
1808  :  educated  at  Addiscombe  :  joined 
the  Bengal  Artillery  in  1827  :  in  1854  he 
commanded  the  Artillery  in  Sir  Sydney 
Cotton's  force  against  the  Mohmands  :  at 
the  siege  of  Delhi  in  the  mutiny  he  com- 
manded a  battery,  called  after  him  :  show- 
ed great  bravery  and  activity  :  it  was  said 
that  he  never  slept,  and  that  he  should  be 
covered  with  Victoria  Crosses  from  head 
to  foot :  commanded  the  Artillery  in  a 
number  of  engagements  in  1858  :  in  Oudh, 
Rohilkund  and  the  pursuit  of  Firozshah  : 
Brevet  Colonel  and  C.B.  :  was  Inspr- 
General  of  Artillery,  1865  :  K.C.B., 
1869  :  commanded  the  Sirhind  Division, 
1873-8  :  General,  1877  :  G.C.B.,  1884  : 
died  Aug.  3,  1888  :  he  was  married  five 

BRISTOW,   JOHN   (  ?  -  ?  ) 

Appointed  Resident  of  Lucknow,  by 
direct  order  of  the  Court  of  Directors,  on 
Nathaniel  Middleton's  recall  in  1774,  after 
the  Rohilla  war,  by  a  majority  in  Council 
against  Warren  Hastings  :  Bristow  was  not 
friendly  with  Hastings  :  was  a  constant 
attendant  of  P.  Francis'  levees  :  he  was 
superseded  at  Lucknow  in  1781,  by 
Hastings'  order,  replaced  by  Middleton, 
but  re-established  in  1782,  when  Middleton 
was  recalled :  Bristow  assumed  the 
powers  of  Government  at  Lucknow,  aiming 

at  the  annihilation  of  the  Nawab's  authority, 
on  which  the  Nawab  complained  against 
Bristow's  administration:  Bristow's  defence 
was  discussed  by  the  parties  in  the  Supreme 
Council :  he  was  recalled  by  a  decision 
of  Dec.  31, 1783,  Hastings  being  authorized 
to  have  separate  charge  of  the  E.L  Co's 
concerns  in  Oudh,  for  which  he  repaired 
to  Lucknow  in  March- Aug.  1784. 

BROADFOOT,  GEORGE  (1807-1845) 

Born  1807 :  son  of  Rev.  W.  Broad- 
foot  :  entered  the  Madras  Native  Infantry 
in  1826  :  in  1 84 1  was  sent  to  Kabul 
commanding  the  escort  with  the  families 
of  Shah  Shuja  and  Zaman  Shah  :  in  Oct. 
1 841  he  accompanied  Sir  R.  Sale's  force 
from  Kabul  to  Jalalabad :  which  he 
fortified,  and  became  garrison  engineer 
there  during  the  siege  by  the  Afghans  : 
he  animated  the  whole  defence  and  pre- 
vented a  surrender :  was  with  General 
Pollock's  Army  in  the  campaign  of  1842, 
and  distinguished  himself  in  the  actions 
in  the  Khyber,  at  Tezin  and  Mamu  Kheyl : 
C.B. :  made  Commissioner  of  Tenasserim 
and,  later.  Agent  to  the  Governor-General 
on  the  N.W.  frontier  :  he  was  a  Major  in 
the  Sikh  war  of  1845-6  :  was  mortally 
wounded  at  Firozshahr,  Dec.  21,  1845. 

Born  Oct.  15,  1841  :  son  of  Alexander 
Broadfoot :  educated  privately  and  at 
Addiscombe  :  joined  the  Royal  Engineers, 
i860:  Major,  1881,  on  retirement: 
served  with  the  Hazara  Field  Force,  1868  : 
in  the  Irrigation  Department  in  the 
Panjab,  1864-8  :  Assistant  Secretary  to 
the  Panjab  Government,  1868-78  :  has 
written  The  Career  of  Major  George  Broad- 
foot,  C.B.,  1888  :  Billiards  in  the  Bad- 
minton Library  :  numerous  articles  hi  the 
principal  Reviews,  Magazines,  the  Atheri' 
cBum,  the  Times  Encyclopozdia  Britannica, 
Biographies  in  the  D.N.B.,  and  the  R.E. 
Journal :  F.R.G.S  :  is  the  Referee  of  the 
R.  Geographical  Society  on  Afghanistan, 
Beluchistan,  India. 

BROCKHAUS,  HERMAN  (1806-1877) 
Born  at  Amsterdam,  Jan.  28,  1806  :  son 
of  Friedrich  Arnold  Brockhaus,  founder 
of  the  Leipzig  publishing  house  :  studied 
Oriental  literature  at  Leipzig,  Gottingen, 
Bonn,  and  frequented  Oriental  libraries 
at  Copenhagen,   Paris,  London,   Oxford  : 



Professor  Extraordinarius  of  Oriental 
Languages  at  Jena,  1839  :  and  Professor 
Ordinarius  of  Indian  Lanugages  and 
Literature,  at  Leipzig,  1848  :  lectured 
chiefly  on  Sanskrit,  which  was  his  speciality, 
though  he  had  studied  Hebrew,  Arabic, 
Persian,  and  lectured  on  Pali,  Zend  and 
Chinese  :  edited  the  K atha-sarit-sagara 
of  Sanskrit  stories,  1839-66,  which  first 
led  to  the  scientific  study  of  the  origin  of 
Popular  Tales  :  also  edited  the  Prabodha- 
Chandrodaya,  a  comedy,  1834-45  :  the 
Zend  Vendidad  Sade :  Hafiz  and  the 
Seven  Wise  Masters  :  was  a  founder  of  the 
Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenland- 
ischen  Gesellschaft  :  wrote  for  scientific 
journals  :  died  Jan.  5,  1877. 

JOHN  FREMANTLE  (1856-       ) 

Bom  Dec.  14,  1856:  eldest  son  of  third 
Viscount  Middleton :  educated  at  Eton 
and  Balliol  College,  Oxford :  President  of 
the  Oxford  Union  Society :  M.P.  for  West 
Surrey,  1880-5 ;  for  Guildford  Division  of 
Surrey,  since  1885  :  Financial  Secretary  to 
the  War  Office,  1886-92  :  Under  Secretary 
of  State  for  War,  1895-8  :  Under  Secretary 
of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs,  1 898-1900: 
Secretary  of  State  for  War,  1900-3,  during 
part  of  the  S.  African  War :  Secretary  of 
State  for  India  since  1903 :  P.C.  1897 : 
J.P. :  D.L. 

BROOKE,  SIR  GEORGE  (1793-1882) 

Born  1793  :  son  of  Henry  Brooke  : 
educated  at  the  R.M.A.,  Woolwich  :  entered 
the  Royal  Artillery,  1808  :  saw  service  in 
Bundelkund,  1809-10 :  in  the  Nipal 
war,  1 8 15-6  :  and  in  the  Mahratta  war, 
1817  :  present  at  the  sieges  of  Hatras  and 
Bhartpur  ;  in  the  battles  of  the  Satlaj 
campaign,  1845-6  :  Brigadier  in  the 
Panjab  in  1848  :  commanded  Horse 
Artillery  at  Chilianwala  and  Gujarat  : 
C.B.,  1849  :  K.C.B.,  1867  :  General,  1870  : 
retired,  1877  :    died  Dec.  31,  1882. 

BROOKE,  HENRY  (1725? -1786) 

Son  of  Rev.  Henry  Brooke,  Rector  of 
Kinawley  and  Kilina,  Ireland  :  born  about 
1725  :  joined  the  E.I.  Co'.s  Civil  Service, 
and  rose  to  be  a  Member  of  the  Madras 
Council :  took,  with  George  Stratton,  a 
prominent  part  in  the  arrest  and  deposition 
of  Lord  Pigot,  .the  Governor  of  Madras, 
in  1776  :  and  was  one  of  the  four  sentenced 

on  Feb.  10,  1780,  in  the  King's  Bench  to 
pay  a  fine  of  £1,000  each  for  their  action  t 
died  in  Dublin,  March  26,  1786. 

BROOKE,   SIR  JAMES    (1803-1868) 

Raja  of  Sarawak :  son  of  Thomas 
Brooke  of  the  India  Civil  Service  :  born 
at  Benares  in  1803  :  educated  at  Norwich  : 
ran  away  from  school  and  entered  the 
Bengal  Native  Infantry  in  1819  :  served 
in  the  Burmese  war  of  1824  :  was  wounded 
and  sent  home  :  resigned  the  E.  I.  Co.'s- 
service  in  1830  :  in  1838  he  sailed  in  a 
private  vessel  to  Borneo,  to  Sarawak : 
and  became  its  Raja  in  184 1  by  invitation  : 
there  he  passed  the  remainder  of  his- 
career,  suppressing  rebellion,  piracy, 
cruelty,  and  establishing  civilized  govern- 
ment :  retired  in  i860  :  was  made  K.C.B  t 
D.C.L.   Oxford  :    died  in   1868. 

BROOKE,  JOHN  CHEAPE  (1818-1899) 

General :  son  of  Colonel  C.  W.  Brooke  : 
joined  the  63rd  Bengal  N.I.,  1836:  raised 
and  disciplined  the  Mewar  Bhils,  and  gained 
great  influence  over  them  and  the  neigh- 
bouring chiefs :  during  the  mutiny, 
kept  a  large  tract  of  country  quiet : 
Political  Agent  at  Jodhpur  and  Jaipur,. 
1860-70  :  A.G.G.  for  Rajputana,  1870-3  : 
died  Jan.  23,  1899. 

BROOKE,  ROBERT  (1746  ?-1802  ?) 

Son    of    Robert    Brooke :     entered   the 
E.  I.  Co.'s  Bengal  Army  in  1764  :  engaged 
at  the  battle  of  Baxar  and  under  Lord  Clive 
against   Kasim  Ali  and    Shuja-ud-daula 
and    against    Hyder    Ali    of    Mysore    in 
1768-9  :    put  down  a  revolt  in  Kora,  and 
was  made  Collector:    served  in  the  Raj- 
mahal    hills  against  the  Mahrattas,  and 
in  the  Rohilla  war  :  his  services  terminated 
in  1775  :   lost  his  money  in  attempting  tO' 
establish  cotton  manufacture  in  Ireland  : 
Governor     of     St.     Helena,     1787-1801  :. 
died  soon  after  his  retirement. 


Son  of  Rev.  T.  Broughton  :  educated 
at  Eton:  went  to  India  in  1795  in  the 
Bengal  Army  :  was  at  the  siege  of  Serin- 
gapatam  in  1799,  and  mihtary  Resident 
with  the  Mahrattas  in  1802  :  commanded 
the  island  of  Java:  Colonel,  1829:  died 
Nov.  16,  1835  :  wrote  Letters  from  a- 
Mahratta  Camp,  and  Selections   from   the 



Popular  Poetry  of  the  Hindus,  1814  :  Hony. 
Secy.  R.A.S. 




Son  of  Sir  Benjamin  Hobhouse,  Bart. 
born  June  27,  1786  :  educated  at  Bristol, 
Westminister  and  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge :  friend  of  Byron  and  travelled  with 
him  on  the  Continent :  committed  to 
Newgate  from  Dec.  14,  1819,  to  Feb.  29, 
1820,  for  breach  of  privilege  of  the  House 
of  Commons :  M.P.  for  Westminster, 
1820 :  succeeded  as  Baronet  in  1831  : 
Secretary  at  War,  1832-3  :  Chief  Secretary 
for  Ireland,  1833,  resigned :  M.P.  for 
Nottingham,  1834  :  Commissioner  of 
Woods  and  Forests :  President  of  the 
Board  of  Control,  April  23,  1835,  to  Sep. 
4,  1841  :  again  from  July  8, 1846,  to  Feb. 
3,  1852  :  on  his  advice  the  appointment 
of  Lord  Heytesbury  in  1835-6,  to  succeed 
Lord  W.  Bentinck  as  Governor-General 
was  cancelled  :  he  supported  Lord  Auck- 
land's Afghan  policy  :  M.P.  for  Harwich 
in  1848  :  made  a  peer  in  1851  :  K.C.B.  in 
1852  :  died  June  3,  1869  :  wrote  his 
Recollections  of  a  Long  Life,  and  a  number 
of  papers  on  literary,  classical,  political 
and  historical  subjects. 

BROWN,    CHARLES    PHILIP    (1798- 

I.C.S.  :  born  in  India,  1798  :  son  of 
the  Rev.  David  Brown  {q.v.)  :  educated 
by  his  father  in  India  :  and  at  Haileybury  : 
went  to  Madras  in  the  Civil  Service, 
1817  :  Judge  of  Masulipatam  ;  Persian  and 
Telugu  Translator  to  Government  :  Post 
Master  General,  Madras  :  Member  of  the 
Council  of  Education :  early  made  a 
special  study  of  Telugu  and  became  a 
great  scholar  :  compiled  a  Telugu-English 
and  English-Telugu  Dictionary,  1845-53, 
and  Grammar,  1840,  and  translated  the 
Bible  into  Telugu  :  published  Chronologi- 
cal Tables  :  and  various  works  in  Telugu  : 
wrote  on' that  language  and  other  subjects 
in  the  Madras  Journal  of  Literature : 
retired,  1855  :  Honorary  Professor  of 
Telugu  in  London  University :  on  the 
Council  of  the  R.A.S  :    died  1884. 

BROWN,  REV.   DAVID  (1763-1812) 
Born    in     1763 :     educated    at    Scar- 
borough,    Hull,    and    Magdalen    College, 

Cambridge  :  ordained  and  went  to  Calcutta 
as  a  Chaplain  in  Bengal  in  1786  :  held 
several  clerical  charges,  including  the  minis- 
try of  the  Old  Church,  21  years,  and  10  years 
the  senior  Presidency  chaplaincy,  and 
laboured  greatly  in  the  cause  of  missions 
and  aid  to  native  Christians  :  was  held 
in  great  esteem  by  the  English  residents  : 
founded  the  Auxiliary  Bible  Society  :  Pro- 
vost of  the  College  of  Fort  William,  Aug. 
18,  1800  :  in  1 812  he  embarked  on  a  ship 
which  was  wrecked  in  the  Bay  of  Bengal: 
was  rescued,  and  returned  to  Calcutta, 
but  died  there  directly,  June  14,  1812. 


Born  at'^Mahe,  Nov.  10,  1792  :  son  of 
Murdoch  Brown  {q.v.)  :  educated  in 
England  and  France  (where  he  was 
detained  at  the  ruptiure  of  the  peace  of 
Amiens)  :  joined  the  80th  foot :  Lieuten- 
ant and  A.D.C.  :  retired  on  half  pay  to 
help  his  father  manage  the  Anjrakandy 
estate  :  J.P.  :  returned  to  Europe,  1838  : 
was  an  active  member  of  the  committee 
of  the  "  British  India  Society,"  the  first 
organization  established  to  promote  re- 
form in  India,  and  afterwards  of  the 
"  India  Reform  Society  "  :  died  at  Telli- 
cherry,  Sep.  23, 1868  :  author  of  pamphlets 
on  Indian  subjects.  Letters  to  and  from  the 
Government  of  Madras  relating  to  the 
Disturbances  in  Canara  in  April,  1837-8: 
Free  Trade  and  the  Cotton  Question  with 
reference  to  India,  being  a  Memorial  from 
the  British  merchants  of  Cochin,  1847  •• 
Obstructions  to  Trade  in  India,  1862  : 
The  Supply  of  Cotton  from  India,  1863  : 
his  knowledge  of  native  customs  and 
native  matters  generally  on  his  side  of 
India  was  probably  unrivalled  among 
Englishmen  :  he  was  able  to  explain  many 
things  relating  to  the  natives  which  others 
had  not  been  able  to  understand. 



Entered  the  Medical  Service  of  the 
Bengal  Army,  1836  :  in  the  first  Afghan 
war :  became  Surgeon-General,  1870  : 
C.B.,  1858  :  K.C.B.,  1875  :  died  July  27, 

BROWN,    MURDOCH    (1750-1828) 

Born  at  Edinburgh,  1750,  left  Scotland 
for   Lisbon  merely   for  the   voyage,   but 



never  returned :  found  work  at  Lisbon, 
made  his  way  through  Europe  :  in  1775 
went  out  as  Consul  to  Calicut  for  the 
Empress  Maria  Theresa  of  Austria : 
engaged  in  trade,  of  which  Jonathan 
Duncan,  Governor  of  Bombay,  wrote,  1792, 
as  the  most  considerable  of  any  British 
subject  on  that  side  of  India:  he  lost 
eleven  ships.  East  Indiamen,  of  1,000  tons 
or  more  in  the  war  with  France :  in  1798  he 
took  over  from  Government  as  a  plan- 
tation "  Five  Tarras  of  Randaterra  "  (The 
Anjrakandy  estate)  in  Malabar :  was 
granted,  in  1802,  a  99  years'  lease,  being 
the  earliest  English  landholder  in  India  : 
the  natives  regarded  him  as  their  Raja  : 
none  but  the  lowest  caste  would  work  on 
the  estate,  which  was  wasted  by  war  : 
he  educated  his  tenants  and  Christianized 
them  by  native  catechists  and  German 
missionaries,  raising  them  in  the  scale  of 
civilization  :  he  spoke  seven  European  and 
five  or  six  Oriental  languages  :  died  at 
Tellicherry,  1828. 


vSon  of  William  Loder  Browne  :  born 
Dec,  1802  :  was  a  Midshipman,  R.N  : 
educated  at  Addiscombe :  joined  the 
Madras  Army,  1820  :  in  15th  and  12th 
regts.  :  examiner  in  Hindustani  and 
Persian  :  Military  Secretary  to  Govern- 
ment, Madras,  1857  :  Adjutant -General : 
commanded  at  Nagpur,  1862  :  commanded 
the  N.  Division,  Madras  Army,  1863  : 
retired,  1864  :  wrote  a  Persian  grammar  : 
established,  1833,  Sunday  schools  at 
Madras  and  the  Black  Town,  the  first  in 
the  Madras  Presidency:  died  Feb.  14,  1866. 

BROWNE,  JAMES  (  ?  -  ?  ) 

Major  :  in  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  service,  iemp. 
Warren  Hastings :  Collector  of  the 
Jungleterry  districts,  1773  :  had  difficult 
work  in  administering  the  country  and 
settling  disturbances  :  sent  by  the  Council 
on  an  embassy  to  Shah  Alamat  Delhi  to 
negotiate  with  him  for  assistance  against 
the  Sikhs :  Resident  at  Delhi,  1782  : 
recalled,  when  Warren  Hastings  left 
for  England,  1785  :  published,  in  1787. 
his  Indian  Tracts,  which,  he  says,  were 
written  by  order  of  Hastings,  describing 
the  Jungleterry  districts,  and  giving  an 
account  of  the  Sikhs. 

BROWNE,   SIR  JAMES   (1839-1896) 

Born  Sep.  16,  1839 :  son  of  Robert 
Browne :  educated  at  Cheltenham  and 
Addiscombe :  appointed  to  the  Bengal 
Engineers,  1857 :  served  in  the  N.W. 
Frontier  campaign  against  the  Mahsud- 
Waziris,  i860,  in  the  Umbeyla  campaign, 
1863  :  Executive  Engineer  in  the  Panjab  : 
in  1876  surveyed  for  a  railway  from 
Sukkur  to  Quetta :  Political  Officer  at 
Quetta :  in  the  Afghan  war,  1878-9, 
Political  with  Sir  D.  Stewart's  advance  to 
Kandahar :  C.S.I.  1879  :  in  Egypt,  in 
1882,  commanded  the  Royal  Engineers 
of  the  Indian  Contingent :  at  Tel-el- 
Kebir :  C.B.  1882  :  superintended  the 
construction  of  the  Indus  bridge,  1875  : 
Engineer  in  Chief  of  the  Sind-Peshin  rail- 
way, 1883-7  :  Q.M.G.  in  India,  1889-90  : 
Chief  Commissioner  of  British  Belu- 
chistan,  March,  1892  :  died  there,  June 
13,   1896  :     K.C.S.I  :    General. 

BROWNE,    SIR    SAMUEL    (1824-1901) 

Son  of  James  Browne,  M.D  :  born  Oct. 
13,  1824 :  entered  the  Bengal  Army, 
1840  :  in  the  Panjab  campaign  of  1848- 
49  :  at  Chilianwala  and  Gujarat  :  in  the 
mutiny,  with  the  2nd  Panjab  cavalry,  in 
the  movable  column  of  the  Panjab  : 
under  Sir  Colin  Campbell  in  Oudh,  lost  an 
arm  :  gained  the  V.C  :  for  his  action  at 
Nuria,  near  Philibhit,  when  he  attacked 
the  rebels,  and  was  severely  wounded  in 
hand-to-hand  fight :  commanded  the 
Guides  in  1864  :  accompanied  H.R.H.  the 
Prince  of  Wales  on  his  Indian  tour,  1875-6  : 
K,C.S.I. :  Military  Member  of  the  Supreme 
Council,  Aug.  9  to  Nov.  5,  1878  :  com- 
manded the  first  Division  of  the  Peshawar 
Field  Force,  in  the  Afghan  war,  1878-9  : 
captured  Ali  Masjid,  occupied  Jalalabad  : 
K.C.B  :  retired,  1879  :  General :  G.C.B., 
1901  :  died  March  14,  1901  :  he  invented 
the  military  sword  belt,  called  after  him. 


Son  of  Robert  Browne  :  born  July  3, 
1807  :  entered  the  Army  1824  :  in  the 
campaign,  in  1842,  of  the  first  Afghan 
war  commanded  his  regiment  as  Major  : 
was  in  the  repulse  of  Haikalzai,  at  Kanda- 
har, Kabul  and  Istalif,  and  through  the 
Khyber  to  India :  C.B.,  1843  :  was 
Governor   of   St.    Helena,    New   Zealand, 



Tasmania,    Bermuda:     K.C.M.G.,    1869: 
died  April   17,    1887. 


(1831-  ) 
Born  1831  :  son  of  Colonel  George  A. 
Brownlow :  entered  the  Indian  Army : 
served  in  the  Panjab  campaign,  1848  : 
Hazara,  1852-3 :  Mohmand  expedition, 
1854  (severely  wounded) :  Yusafzai  expedi- 
tion, 1858  :  China  war,  i860 :  Umbeyla 
campaign,  1863  :  C.B.  :  Hazara,  1868  : 
commanded  the  Southern  column,  Lushai 
expedition,  1871-2  :  K.C.B. :  A.D.C.  to  the 
Queen,  1869-81  :  Assistant  Military  Secre- 
tary at  Horse  Guards,  1879-80  :  G.C.B. 
1887 :  retired. 


Born  Jan.  11,  1793  :  at  Jorehat,  Assam  : 
was  the  first  explorer  of  tea  tracts  in 
Assam,  and  discoverer  of  the  indigenous 
tea  plant  in  Assam :  was  appointed 
Superintendent  of  Tea  cultivation  under 
the  Government  of  India  until  the  tea 
industry  was  adopted  by  private  enter- 
prise, as  stated  on  a  memorial  tablet  to 
him  in  the  Church  at  Tezpur  :  wrote  a 
report  on  the  manufactiure  of  tea,  and  on 
the  export  and  produce  of  the  tea  planta- 
tions in  Assam,  1839  :  died  April  23, 

BRUCE,  JOHN  (1745-1826) 
Historian :  educated  at  Edinburgh 
University,  and  Professor  of  Logic  there  : 
appointed  Keeper  of  the  State  Paper 
Office,  and  Historiographer  of  the  E.  I.  Co.: 
M.P.  for  a  borough  in  Cornwall,  1809-14  : 
and  for  a  short  time  Secretary  of  the 
Board  of  Commissioners  for  the  affairs  of 
India,  i.e.  the  Board  of  Control :  F.R.S  : 
died  April  16,  1826.  He  wrote  on 
philosophy  as  well  as  history  :  his  chief 
works  relating  to  India  were  Historical 
View  of  Plans  for  the  Government  of  British 
India,  1793  =  Annals  of  the  E.  I.  Co.  from 
their  establishment  by  the  Charter  of  Queen 
Elizabeth,  1600,  to  the  Union  of  the  London 
and  English  E.  I.  Companies,  1707-8, 1810  : 
Report  on  the  Renewal  of  the  E.  I.  Co.'s 
exclusive  Privileges  of  Trade  for  20  years 
from  March  1794-1811. 


Entered  the  Army  1842,  in  the  Bengal 
Artillery :    in  the  Gwalior    campaign,  at 

Maharajpiu: :  in  the  Satlaj  campaign, 
1845-6:  at  Badiwal,  Aliwal,  Sobraon  :  in 
the  Panjab  campaign,  1848-9  ;  at  Sadu- 
lapur,  Chilianwala,  Gujarat  :  in  the 
mutiny  at  the  second  relief  of  Lucknow, 
at  Cawnpur  and  many  engagements : 
C.B.  1875  :  retired  as  Lt-General,  1878  : 
K.C.B. :  1898  :   died  April  15,  1899. 

BRUCE,  RICHARD  ISAAC  (1840-  ) 
Born  1840  :  son  of  Jonathan  Bruce  : 
served  in  the  Afghan  war,  1878-9  :  on  the 
N.W.  Frontier  of  India :  at  Daulatzai, 
1884  :  in  the  Zhob  Valley  expedition,  1890  : 
co-operated  in  the  opening  of  the  Gomal 
Pass,  1890  :  British  Commissioner  of  the 
Afghan-Waziristan  Delimitation  Com- 
mission, 1894 :  at  Wano,  1894 :  in 
Waziristan,  1894-5  :  a  Commissioner  in 
the  Panjab  :  author  of  a  Gazetteer  of 
Dera  Ghazi  Khan,  and  a  manual  of 
Beluchi :  a  History  of  the  Marri-Beluch 
tribe :  of  The  Forward  Policy  and  its 

BRUTTON,  NICHOLAS  (1780-1843) 
Entered  the  Army.1795  :  went  to  India  : 
at  Seedaseer,  1799,  and  at  the  siege  of 
Seringapatam,  May  4,  1799  :  in  the 
Canara  campaign ;  under  Lord  Lake, 
1804-5  :  at  the  siege  of  Bhartpur,  1805  : 
under  General  St.  Leger  on  the  Satlaj, 
1809  :  in  the  Pindari  campaigns  of  1812 
and  1817  :  in  the  Nipal  war  of  1815  :  at 
the  siege  of  Hatras  :  retired  in  1837  from 
the  nth  Hussars,  as  Lt-Colonel :  died 
March  26,  1843. 

BRYANT,  SIR  JEREMIAH  (  ?  -1845) 
Maj-General :  appointed  to  E.  I.  Co.'s 
Army,  1798  :  served  in  Oudh  :  in  the 
Mahratta  war  :  in  Bundelkund  :  at  Deeg, 
1804 :  Town  and  Fort  Major,  Fort 
William,  1815  :  Judge  Advocate  General, 
1 817,  1824  :  in  the  Dekkan  war  :  at 
Bhartpur,  1826  :  knighted,  1829  :  C.B.  : 
commanded  the  14th  N.I.,  1835  :  Director 
E.  I.  Co.,  1841  :  died  June  10,  1845. 

BARONET  (1764^1847) 
In  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  Civil  Service  :  son  of 
Harford  Jones  of  Presteign  :  born  Jan.  12, 
1764  :  assumed  the  name  of  Brydges  from 
his  mother's  family :  Envoy  to  Persia, 
1 807-181 1  :  Baronet  in  1807  :  resigned 
in  1811  :  D.C.L.,  1831  :  Privy  Councillor : 
died  March  17,  1847  :  wrote  on  Persian 
affairs  and  his  mission. 



BRYDON,  WILLIAM  (1811-1873) 
Born  Oct.  9,  181 1  :  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s 
medical  service  in  1835  :  served  with  Sir 
H.  Fane  and  Lord  Auckland :  sent  in 
1839  with  a  regiment  to  the  first  Afghan 
war.  When  the  Army  retreated  from 
Kabul  in  Jan.  1842,  Brydon  was  attached 
to  the  6th  regt.  of  Shah  Shuja's  Hindustani 
Infantry  and,  alone,  of  13,000  persons, 
reached  Jalalabad  alive  on  January  13, 
1842  :  he  was  in  the  garrison  of  Jalalabad 
under  Sir  R.  Sale,  and  with  General 
Pollock's  army  to  Kabul  and  back  in 
1842  :  in  the  mutiny  of  1857  he  was,  by 
a  curious  fate,  again  besieged,  being  in  the 
Lucknow  garrison,  and  was  uninjured 
throughout  the  siege  :  C.B.,  1858  :  retired, 
1859,  as  Surgeon-Major  of  the  Bombay 
Army  :    died  March  20,  1873. 


I.C.S.  :  appointed  a  writer  on  the 
Madras  Establishment,  Aug.  1792  : 
Assistant  under  the  Secretary  in  the 
Military,  PoHtical  and  Scout  Department, 
and  French  Translator,  1794  :  also  for 
supplying  "  beetle,"  tobacco,  and  "  gangee" 
in  1795  :  Paymaster  to  the  Malacca 
expedition,  1796 :  sub-Secretary  in  the 
above  Department,  1799  :  Secretary  in 
the  Public  and  Commercial  Department, 
1801  ;  in  the  Military  Department,  1801  : 
Chief  Secretary,  1803  :  Private  Secretary 
to  Government,  1809  :  went  home,  1810  : 
"  out  of  the  service,"   1814. 



Born  March  12,  1766  :  son  of  Alexander 
Buchanan  :  educated  at  Inverary  and 
Glasgow  University  ;  Queen's  College,Cam- 
bridge,  179 1-5  :  ordained,  1795  :  went 
to  Calcutta  as  a  Chaplain  on  the  Establish- 
ment, 1797  :  at  Barrackpur  and  Calcutta  : 
was  Professor  and  Vice- Provost  of  the 
College  of  Fort  William,  1 799-1 807,  when 
the  latter  appointment  was  abolished  :  he 
devoted  himself  to  the  promotion  of 
Christianity  and  to  native  education  :  he 
made  two  prolonged  tours  in  Southern  and 
Western  India,  1806-7,  to  ascertain  the 
circumstances  and  facts  of  the  various 
religions  of  the  country  and  suggest 
measures :  he  returned  to  England  in 
1808,  and  advocated  the  appointment  of 
Bishops  in  India  and  the  cause  of  missions, 
besides    pubhshing    translations    of    the 

Scriptures  in  Malayalam,  Syriac,  etc.  :  he 
wrote  Christian  Researches  in  Asia,  18 10  : 
Colonial  Ecclesiastical  Establishment,  and 
papers  about  Christianity  and  Christian 
Missions  in  India :  he  was  D.D.  of 
Glasgow  and  Cambridge  :  died  Feb.  9, 


(1836-  ) 

Son  of  John  Buchanan,  of  Co.  Tyrone, 
Ireland :  volunteered  for  the  Crimea : 
served  in  the  Indian  mutiny  in  the  88th 
Connaught  Rangers  :  author  of  Through 
the  Himalayas  and  Chinese  Tibet  :  Colonel  : 



Doctor  :  born  Feb.  15,  1762,  son  of 
Thomas  Buchanan,  doctor  :  took  his  degree 
of  M.D.  at  Edinburgh  in  1783  :  after 
serving  on  a  man-of-war,  joined  the  E.I. 
Co.'s  service  in  1794 :  employed  on  a 
mission  to  the  Court  of  Ava,  and  on 
various  botanical,  zoological  and  statistical 
inquiries  in  Chittagong  and  Tippera,  and, 
in  1 800-1,  through  Mysore,  Canara  and 
Malabar,  on  which  he  wrote  a  full  report  : 
went  to  Nipal  in  1802  :  he  was  Surgeon 
to  Lord  Wellesley,  and  accompanied  him 
to  England  in  1805.  The  records  of  his 
subsequent  inquiries  in  several  Bengal 
districts  and  Assam  were  deposited  at  the 
India  House  in  1816  and  not  utilized  for  22 
years.  He  was  Superintendent  of  the 
Botanic  Garden,  Calcutta,  1814-5,  when 
he  returned  to  Scotland  and  took  the 
additional  name  of  Hamilton  on  succeeding 
to  his  mother's  property :  F.R.S.  and 
F.R.A.S.,  and  contributed  largely  to  the 
literary  and  scientific  societies  to  which  he 
belonged  :  wrote  on  the  History  of  Nipal, 
the  Genealogy  of  the  Hindu  gods,  the 
Fishes  of  the  Ganges,  etc  :  died  June  15, 


(1838-         ) 

I.C.S.  :  educated  at  Norwich  and 
Oakham  School,  and  Clare  College, 
Cambridge  :  entered  the  Bengal  Civil 
Service  in  1862  and  retired  in  1897  : 
represented  the  Indian  Government  at 
the  Colonial  Exhibition,  1886  :  Secretary 
to  the  Government  of  India,  1882-97  : 
Knight    Bachelor  and    K.C.S.I. 




Son  of  Christopher  Buckingham  :  born 
Aug.  25,  1786:  was  at  sea  from  1796: 
went  to  India,  1815  :  in  1818,  at  Calcutta, 
he  brought  out  the  Calcutta  Journal, 
attacked  Government  so  vigorously  that, 
in  1823,  his  licence  was  taken  away  by 
Mr.  J.  Adam  {q.v.),  and  he  was  deported 
from  the  country  :  years  afterwards,  the 
E.I.  Co.  gave  him  a  pension  of  £200  a 
year  :  went  to  India  again  when  the 
restrictions  on  the  Press  had  been  re- 
moved :  M.P.  for  Sheffield,  1832-7  : 
conducted  the  Oriental  Herald  and  Colon- 
ial Review,  1824-9,  ^^.d  was  connected 
with  other  journals,  besides  writing 
largely  on  social  and  political  subjects  : 
travelled  extensively  to  and  from  India  : 
wrote  Arabia,  1825  :  Mesopotamia  and 
Adjacent  Countries,  1827  :  Assyria  and 
Media,  1830  :  travelled  also  in  Europe  and 
N.  America  :  and  gave  lectures  in  Eng- 
land :    died  June  30,  1855. 

i      THIRD   DUKE  OF  (1823-1889) 

Governor  :  born  Sep.  10,  1823,  only  son 
of  the  second  Duke  :  educated  at  Eton 
and  Christ  Church,  Oxford :  M.P.  for 
Buckingham,  1846-57 :  Junior  Lord  of 
the  Treasury,  1852  :  as  Marquis  of  Chandos 
was  Chairman  of  the  London  and  N.W. 
Railway,  1853-61  :  succeeded  as  Duke, 
1 861  :  Lord  President  of  the  Council, 
1866-7 :  Secretary  for  the  Colonies, 
1867-8  :  Governor  of  Madras  from  Nov. 
1875  to  Dec.  1 880  :  had  to  deal  with  the 
severe  famine  of  1877,  when  immense 
numbers  of  the  population  came  on  relief 
works  and  gratuitous  relief,  and  there  was 
great  mortality  :  built  Government  House 
at  Ootacamund  :  Chairman  of  Commit- 
tees in  the  House  of  Lords,  1886-9  =  P-C.  : 
G.C.S.I.  :  CLE.  :  D.C.L.  :  died  March 
26,  1889  :  when  the  Dukedom  became 



Son  of  third  Earl  :  born  May  6,  1760  : 
educated  at  Westminster :  joined  7th 
regt.,  1776  :   served  in  the  American  war  : 

Major :  M.P.  in  both  the  English  and 
Irish  Parliaments  :  Secretary  to  the  Lord 
Lieutenant  of  Ireland,  1789-93  :  Privy 
Councillor,  1793  :  was,  as  Lord  Hobartr 
Governor  of  Madras  from  Sep.  1794  ta 
Feb.  1798  :  led  an  expedition  to  Malacca 
and  destroyed  the  Dutch  settlements : 
by  his  independence  he  came  into  antagon- 
ism with  the  Governor-General,  Sir  John 
Shore,  over  the  affairs  of  the  Nawab  of 
the  Carnatic,  when  Hobart  desired  to 
make  financial  reforms :  the  Court  of 
Directors  recalled  him,  but  supported  his 
action  in  Tanjore  affairs :  Hobart  co- 
operated with  the  Governor-General  against 
Tippoo  :  called  up  to  the  House  of  Lords, 
1798  :  helped  to  arrange  the  union  with 
Ireland,  1799  •  Secretary  for  War  and  the 
Colonies,  1 801-4  '•  became  Earl,  1804  : 
appointed  President  of  the  Board  of 
Control,  April  4,  1812  :  and  spoke  on  the 
renewal  of  the  E.L  Co.'s  charter,  1813  : 
died  Feb.  4,  1816. 


(1847-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Charles  Thomas  Buck- 
land,  I.C.S.  :  born  Sep.  19,  1847  :  edu- 
cated at  Laleham,  Eton,  and  Balliol 
College,  Oxford  :  joined  the  Civil  Service 
in  Bengal,  1870 :  Private  Secretary  to 
Sir  Richard  Temple,  when  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  Bengal,  1874-7,  and  Gover- 
nor of  Bombay,  1877-8  :  Revenue,  and 
Chief  Secretary  to  Government  of  Bengal, 
and  Member  of  the  Bengal  Legislative 
Council :  Senior  Member  of  the  Board  of 
Revenue  :  retired  in  1904  :  CLE.,  1895  : 
author  of  Bengal  under  the  Lieutenant 
Governors  :  editor  of  The  Dictionary  of 
Indian  Biography. 



I.C.S.  :  son  of  the  Rev.  John  Buckland  : 
born  Feb.  27,  1824  :  educated  at  Laleham, 
Eton,  and  Haileybury  :  gained  his  ap- 
pointment to  the  Indian  Civil  Service 
by  competition  at  Eton  :  went  to  India 
in  1844  :  served  throughout  his  career  in 
Bengal,  making  a  reputation  for  ability 
and  independence  as  an  administrator : 
Junior  Secretary  to  the  Governor  of 
Bengal :  Member  of  the  Bengal  Legisla- 
tive Council,  and  Member  of  the  Board  of 
Revenue,  Calcutta :  retired  in  1881  : 
died  March  21,  1894. 




Born  July  19,  1837,  at  Borstel,  in  Han- 
over :  son  of  a  pastor :  educated  at 
Hanover  and  Gottingen  :  graduated  in 
Oriental  languages  and  Archaeology,  1858  : 
studied  Sanskrit  at  Paris,  London,  Oxford  : 
became  an  eminent  Orientalist :  Pro- 
fessor of  Oriental  Languages  at  the  Elphin- 
stone  College,  Bombay,  1863 :  Superin- 
tendent of  Sanskrit  Studies,  Poona,  1866  : 
Educational  Inspector,  N.  Division, 
Bombay  Presidency,  1868,  1872  :  edited 
Sanskrit  texts  :  several  times  deputed  to 
collect  Sanskrit  texts :  discovered  over 
5,000  MSS.,  which  the  Indian  Government 
distributed  among  British  Universities  and 
Collections,  and  Indian  Societies  and 
Institutions :  left  India,  1880 :  gave 
much  attention  to  ancient  inscriptions, 
doing  important  work  as  an  epigraphist : 
wrote  on  Indian  inscriptions  :  brought 
out,  with  Sir  R.  West  (q.v.),  a  digest  of 
Hindu  Law  :  wrote  a  Sanskrit  Primer, 
editions  of  Sanskrit  works  :  published  a 
Glossary  of  the  oldest  Prakrit  dictionary  : 
collaborated  in  the  series  of  Sacred  Books 
of  the  East :  translated  the  Laws  of 
Manu :  became  Professor  of  Indian 
Philology  and  Archaeology  at  the  Univer- 
sity of  Vienna  :  edited  an  Encyclopeedia 
of  Indo-Aryan  Philology  :  contributed  his 
Indische  Paldographie,  1896  :  was  member 
of  the  Royal  Asiatic  and  other  learned 
Societies  :  drowned  in  Lake  Constance, 
April  8,  1898. 

BUIST,  GEORGE  (1805-1860) 

Doctor  :  born  Aug.  22,  1805  :  son  of 
the  Rev.  J.  Buist :  educated  at  St.  Andrews 
and  Edinburgh  :  became  a  preacher  and 
lecturer,  and  editor  of  newspapers  in 
Scotland  from  1832  to  1839,  when  he  be- 
came editor  of  the  Bombay  Times  till 
1857  :  he  opposed  the  Government  policy 
in  Kabul  in  1842 :  from  Jan.  1858  he 
brought  out  the  Bombay  Standard,  which 
was  amalgamated  with  the  Bombay 
Times  in  i860.  He  was  Inspector  of 
Observatories  in  Bombay  for  many  years, 
and  wrote  on  scientific  subjects,  meteoro- 
logy* geology,  antiquities,  for  the  Bombay 
Asiatic  Society's  Jomrnal :  he  was  instru- 
mental in  the  establishment  of  a  number 
of  observatories,  and  founded  the  Bombay 
Reformatory  School  of  Industry :  a 
Municipal     Commissioner     in     Bombay : 

appointed,  in  1859,  Superintendent  of  the 
Government  Press,  Allahabad,  and  Curator 
of  Government  books  :  died  at  Calcutta, 
Oct.  I,  i860  :  described  as  "  India's  fore- 
most man  of  letters,"  "  not  only  famous 
as  the  most  successful  of  Indian  journalists, 
but  as  the  thoughtful  and  enterprising 
man  of  science  "  :  he  devoted  himself  to 
scientific  philanthropy. 

RAJA  OF  (1826-1896) 

A  Rajput  of  the  Jadon  clan :  his 
grandfather  held  a  high  post  in  Sindia's 
Army,  and  died  at  Alighar  in  1801  :  his 
sons  resided  in  Agra,  and  held  lands  near 
the  city :  Lachhman  Singh  entered 
Government  service  in  1847  :  employed  as 
a  translator  in  the  Secretariat  at  Agra : 
rendered  good  service  during  the  mutiny  : 
rewarded  with  a  Khilat,  and  a  small  parcel 
of  revenue-free  land  in  the  Agra  district : 
employed  in  the  Educational  Department, 
and  promoted  to  a  Deputy  CoUectorship  : 
wrote  a  Statistical  Memoir  of  the  Buland- 
shahr  District,  and  translated  various 
official  works,  besides  the  Sakimtala,  in 
Hindi  :  in  1877,  was  made  Raja  as  a 
personal  distinction  :  after  his  retirement, 
resided  at  Bulandshahr,  and  died  there  in 
July,  1896. 


OF  (1881-    ) 

Born  Oct.  19,  1881  :  son  of  Raja  Ban 
Bihari  Kapur  (q.v.)  :  succeeded  in  1885  : 
was  installed  as  Maharaja  in  Feb.,  1903. 

DUR OF  (1820-1879) 

Son  of  Maharaja  Tej  Chand  Rai :  born 
Nov.  17,  1820  :  succeeded  to  the  Burdwan 
Raj  (which  pays  over  40  lakhs  annually 
of  Government  Revenue),  on  April  16, 
1832  :  made  Maharaja  Adhiraj  Bahadur, 
Aug.  30,  1833  :  on  Jan.  i,  1877,  was 
granted  a  salute  of  13  guns  as  a  personal 
distinction,  and  the  title  of  "  His  High- 
ness "  :  appointed  to  the  Governor- 
General's  Legislative  Council  in  1864 : 
during  the  Sonthal  rebellion  of  1855,  and 
in  the  mutiny,  he  helped  Government 
greatly  with  transport,  and  by  maintaining 
communications  :  established  a  college, 
schools,  hospitals  and  dispensaries  on  his 



estates ;  widely  supported  charities,  and 
gave  munificent  contributions  on  occasions 
of  epidemic  fever,  famines  and  calamities  : 
encouraged  literature  and  learning :  though 
not  always  a  strict  observer  of  Hinduism, 
he  maintained  his  numerous  religious 
endowments  and  temples  :  while  he  did 
not  seek  popularity,  he  was  highly  re- 
spected by  both  Europeans  and  his  coun- 
trymen, for  his  independence,  high 
character  and  public  spirit :  died  at 
Bhagalpur,  Oct.  26,  1879. 

BURGESS,  JAMES  (1832- 

Born  Aug.  14,  1832  :  educated  at  Dum- 
fries, Glasgow,  Edinburgh  :  went  to 
India,  1855  :  engaged  in  educational 
work  in  Calcutta  and  Bombay  :  Archaeo- 
logical Surveyor  and  Reporter  for  W.  India, 
1874  :  and  for  S.  India,  1881  :  Director- 
General  of  the  Archaeological  Survey  of 
India,  1886 :  Fellow  of  the  Bombay 
University  :  retired,  1889  :  attended  the 
Geneva  Oriental  Congress,  1894,  as 
representative  of  India  :  edited  the  Indian 
Antiquary,  1872-84  :  published  scientific 
papers  in  the  Philosophical  Magazine, 
Archceological  Survey  Reports,  Epigraphica 
Indica,  1889-94  :  published  various  ar- 
chaeological works,  as  The  Rock  Temples 
of  Elephanta,  1871  :  Temples  of  Somnath, 
Junaghar  and  Girnar,  The  Rock  Temf^les 
of  Ajanta,  The  Rock  Temples  of  India 
(with  J.  Fergusson),  1880  :  Buddhist  Art 
in  India,  igoi. 

BURGOYNE,  JOHN  (1722-1792) 

General :  son  of  Captain  John  Bur- 
goyne  :  educated  at  Westminster  :  entered 
the  Army  in  the  13th  Light  Dragoons, 
1740 :  M.P.  for  Midhurst,  1761  :  for 
Preston,  1768  :  spoke,  moving  for  a 
Select  Committee,  on  the  Government  of 
India,  1772,  urging  the  principle  (after- 
wards adopted  by  Fox  and  Pitt  in  their 
India  Bills)  of  Government  control  over 
the  E.  I.  Co.  :  in  the  attack  in  Parliament 
on  Lord  Clive,  May  3,  1773,  Burgoyne, 
Chairman  of  the  Committee,  was  the 
accuser,  and  carried  condemnatory  reso- 
lutions against  Clive :  commanded  in 
America  in  1774,  and  surrendered  at 
Saratoga,  Oct.  17,  i777  :  C.  in  C.  in  Ire- 
land, 1782  :  was  a  manager  of  the  im- 
peachment of  Warren  Hastings,  1787 : 
died  June  4,  1792. 


( 1739-1780) 

General :  born  1739  :  entered  the  Army 
young:  served  in  the  7th  and  other 
regts.  :  Lt-Colonel  of  58th  regt.,  1764  : 
and  of  14th  Light  Dragoons  :  raised,  in 
1 78 1,  the  first  regt.  of  European  cavalry 
sent  to  India,  called  the  23rd  Light  Dra- 
goons, afterwards  the  19th  Dragoons  and 
the  19th  Hussars,  which  he  took  to 
Madras  :  Maj-General,  1783  :  he  and  Sir 
Robert  Fletcher  were  the  champions  of 
what  they  considered  the  rights  and 
privileges  of  the  King's  service  as  against 
the  authority  of  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Governor 
and  Council  :  both  were  recalled,  but 
Burgoyne  died  at  Madras,  Sep.  23,  1785  : 
buried  in  the  Fort  Church  there. 

BURKE,  EDMUND  (1729-1797) 

Son  of  Richard  Burke  :  born  Jan.  12, 
1729  :  educated  at  Ballitore  and  Trinity 
College,  Dublin,  1743-8  :  entered  at  the 
Middle  Temple,  but  not  called  to  the 
bar :  took  to  literature :  founded  the 
Annual  Register,  1759  :  Private  Secretary 
to    Lord    Rockingham,    Prime    Minister, 

1765  :  M.P.  for  Wendover,  1765-74  :  for 
Bristol,  1774-80  :  for  Malton,  1781-94  : 
Paymaster  of  the  Forces,  1782-3  :  his 
connexion  with  India  extended  over 
many  years  :  he  attacked  the  E.  I.  Co., 

1766  :  refused,  in  1772,  an  offer  by  the 
E.  I.  Co.'s  Directors,  of  an  appointment  to 
reform  their  adminstration :  opposed 
Lord  North's  "  Regulating  Act,"  1773  ' 
was  member  of  the  Committee  on  the 
affairs  of  the  E.I.  Co.,  1783,  wrote  both 
the  Ninth  Report  on  the  trade  of  Bengal 
and  the  system  pursued  by  Warren 
Hastings,  and  the  Eleventh  Report  on 
the  system  of  presents  :  drafted  Fox's. 
East  India  Bill,  1783  :  attacked  Hastings 
in  a  speech  on  the  debts  of  the  Nawab  of 
Arcot,  1785,  and  again  on  the  Rohilla 
war,  1786:  impeached  Hastings  before 
the  House  of  Lords,  May,  1787  :  led  the 
impeachment  at  the  trial  of  Hastings  in 
Westminster  Hall,  Feb.,  1788  :  secured 
its  continuation  in  a  new  ParUament, 
1790  :  spoke  for  nine  days  in  May-June, 
1794,  in  reply  to  Hastings'  defence : 
Hastings  was  acquitted  in  April,  i795  : 
Burke  died  July  9,  i797  :  no  further  al- 
lusion need  be  made  here  to  his  writings, 
speeches     in     Parliament     and     political. 



career,  which  are  well  known  apart  from 
his  relations  to   India. 


Entered  the  Army  as  a  Hospital  Mate 
on  Sep.  13,  1795,  and  rose,  through  the 
grades  of  Regimental  Surgeon,  Apothecary, 
Surgeon,  etc.  to  be,  on  Oct.  5,  1825, 
Inspr-General  of  Hospitals  of  the  Forces 
in  the  East  Indies,  until  his  death.  In 
1817,  he  was  Physician-General  in  the 
Mauritius,  was  present  at  the  capture  of 
nearly  all  the  French  and  Dutch  colonies 
in  the  West  Indies  and  South  America  : 
served  in  Europe,  including  the  Mediter- 
ranean and  Gibraltar  :  and  was  at  the 
capture  of  Bhartpur  by  Lord  Combermere 
in  1826  :  died  at  Calcutta,  May  22,  1837. 

BURLTON,    PHILIP    BOWLES    (1803- 

Son  of  William  Burlton :  joined  the 
Bengal  Artillery  at  Dumdum  in  1821  : 
was  transferred  to  Africa  :  was  actively 
employed  in  the  Burmese  war  of  1824  : 
devoted  himself  zealously  to  discovering 
the  sources  of  the  Brahmaputra  and 
Irawadi,  and  solving  geographical  ques- 
tions :  he  also  wrote  about  the  Assamese  : 
was  murdered,  with  Lt.  Bedingfield  of 
the  Artillery,  by  the  Khasias  at  Nunklow, 
in  Assam  :    died  April  4,  1829. 


(1837-  ) 

Maj -General :  son  of  the  Rev.  Henry 
Thomas  Burne  :  entered  the  Army,  1855  : 
served  in  the  Crimea  and  in  the  Indian 
mutiny  :  present  in  15  actions,  including 
the  siege  and  capture  of  Lucknow  :  pro- 
moted for  gallantry  in  the  field  :  Military 
Secretary  to  Lord  Strathnairn,  when 
C.-in-C.  in  India,  1861  :  Private  Secre- 
tary to  Lord  Mayo,  Viceroy  of  India, 
1869-72  :  Political  A.D.C.  to  the  Secretary 
of  State  for  India,  1872  :  Assistant  Secre- 
tary, 1873,  and  later.  Secretary,  Political 
and  Secret  Department,  India  Office, 
1874  :  Private  Secretary  to  Lord  Lytton, 
Viceroy  of  India,  1876-7:  Member  of 
the  Council  of  India,  1887-97  :  author  of 
Clyde  and  Strathnairn,  in  the  "  Rulers  of 
India"  series;  Lord  Strathnairn,  Imperial 
Assemblage  at  Delhi,  etc.  :  CLE.,  1877  : 
K.C.S.I..    1879. 


I.C.S.  :  born  1840 :  son  of  Arthur 
Burnell,  of  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Marine  Service  : 
educated  at  Bedford  and  King's  College  : 
after  passing  the  open  competitive  exami- 
nation, went  to  Madras,  i860  :  held  minor 
appointments  and,  from  1870,  district 
judgeships  in  various  districts,  longest  at 
Tanjore,  until  1880,  when  his  health, 
always  indifferent,  gave  way.  On  his 
retirement,  the  Madras  Government  re- 
corded their  regret  for  being  "  prematurely 
deprived  of  the  services  of  so  distinguished 
a  scholar  "  :  died  Oct.  12, 1882.  He  began 
early  to  collect  Sanskrit  MSS.,  and  made 
an  extensive  collection,  which  he  presented 
to  the  India  Office  Library  :  was  an 
excellent  Sanskrit  scholar :  published 
translations  from  Sanskrit,  and  catalo- 
gues :  also  knew  some  Tibetan,  Arabic, 
Kawi,  Japanese,  Coptic  and  Pali :  travelled 
in  Arabia,  Egypt,  Nubia  :  wrote  a  Hand- 
book of  South  Indian  Palceography,  on  The 
Portuguese  in  India,  The  Aindra  School  of 
Sanskrit  Grammarians,  1875  :  made  a 
catalogue  of  the  Tanjore  Library,  and, 
with  Sir  H.  Yule,  compiled  the  Hobson- 
Jobson,  a  Glossary  of  Anglo-Indian  collo- 
quial words  and  phrases  :  besides  many 
papers  on  law,  languages,  ethnography 
and  inscriptions  :  CLE.  :  and  Ph.D.  of 
the  University,  Strasburg. 

BURNES,    SIR    ALEXANDER    (1805- 


Political  :  son  of  James  Burnes  :  born 
May  16,  1805,  connected  with  the  family 
of  the  poet  Burns  :  educated  at  Montrose 
Academy  :  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  military 
service  at  16 :  Interpreter  at  Surat  in 
1823  :  transferred  to  Cutch  in  1825  : 
sent,  in  1830,  on  a  mission,  with  a  gift  of 
horses,  to  Ranjit  Singh  at  Lahore,  and  to 
explore  the  country  :  in  1832,  travelled, 
under  the  orders  of  Government,  in  N. 
India,  Afghanistan,  Bokhara  and  Persia  : 
in  England  in  1833-5,  was  lionized  as  a 
traveller :  received  the  medal  of  the 
Royal  Geographical  Society,  and  elected 
member  of  learned  Societies  :  on  return 
to  India,  he  succeeded,  by  negotiation  at 
Hyderabad  (Sind),  in  warding  off  war  with 
the  Amirs,  who  agreed  to  a  survey  of  the 
Indus  :  in  1836,  Burnes  was  sent  on  a 
mission,  nominally  commercial,  but  really 
political,   to   Dost   Muhammad,   Amir   of 



Kabul  :  his  discovery  of  Russia's  intrigues, 
and  the  arrival  of  a  Russian  agent  at 
Kabul,  led  to  his  advice,  that  Dost  Muham- 
mad, the  reigning  Amir,  should  be  sup- 
ported :  but  this  advice  was  not  accepted, 
the  Amir's  requests  were  rejected,  and, 
by  the  second  Afghan  war.  Shah  Shuja 
was  to  be  reinstated.  Burnes  was  sent  to 
Sind  and  Beluchistan,  to  prepare  the  way 
of  the  British  Army  :  he  was  made,  later, 
Political  Agent  at  Kabul  under  the  Envoy 
Sir  W.  H.  Macnaghten :  Shah  Shuja 
was  re-made  Amir :  Burnes  was  knighted, 
made  Lt-Colonel :  'and  C.B.  :  for  2  years, 
at  Kabul,  he  had  a  subordinate  position  : 
the  Afghan  mob  rose,  not  without  warning, 
on  Nov.  2,  184I;  and  Burnes  was  assassi- 
nated. It  came  to  light,  in  1861,  that 
some  of  Burnes'  despatches  from  Kabul, 
in  1839,  had  been  altered,  so  as  to  convey 
opinions  opposite  to  his.  The  matter 
was  brought  before  Parliament,  on  an 
application  for  an  inquiry :  but  Lord 
Palmerston's  Government  resisted  the 
motion,  which  was  defeated  on  the  ground 
of  the  interval  of  time  that  had  passed 
since  the  occurrence. 

BURNES,  JAMES  (1801-1862) 

Elder  brother  of  Sir  Alexander  Burnes, 
(q.v.)  :  born  Feb.  12,  1801  :  educated  at 
Edinburgh  University  and  London  hospi- 
tals :  went  out  to  Bombay  with  his 
brother,  1821  :  was  Residency  Surgeon 
at  Cutch  :  in  the  expedition  of  1825  against 
Sind  :  invited,  in  1827,  by  the  Amirs  to 
Sind  :  from  1837,  he  held  medical  and 
other  scientific  appointments  at  Bombay, 
and  was  Secretary  and  Member  of  the 
Medical  Board  and,  finally,  Physician- 
General,  retiring  in  1849  :  President  of 
the  Medical  and  Physical  Society  :  Vice- 
President  of  the  Bombay  Asiatic  Society  : 
was  LL.D.  of  Glasgow,  1834  :  F.R.C.P. 
of  Edinburgh  :  F.R.S.  and  a  Knight  of 
the  Guelphic  Order  :  wrote  a  Narrative 
of  a  Visit  to  Sind,  and  a  History  of  Cutch  : 
died  Sep.  19,  1862. 

BURNEY,  HENRY  (  ?  -1846?) 
Captain  :  attached  to  the  20th  (Marine) 
N.L  :  on  duty  at  Prince  of  Wales'  Island  : 
learnt  Malay  :  acquired  knowledge  of  the 
Archipelago  and  Malacca :  appointed 
MiUtary  Secretary  of  the  Penang  Govern- 
ment :  employed  to  negotiate  with  Malay 
and  Siamese  Chiefs  :  Political  Agent  to 
Siamese  States,   1825  :    Envoy  to  Siam  : 

obtained  the  release  of  1,400  Burmans  and 
Peguese  :  Deputy  Commissioner  of  Tenas- 
serim,  1827-9  =  Resident  at  the  Court  of 
Ava,  1829-38  :  contributed  papers  to  the 
J.A.S.B.,  about  Ava:  wrote  a  Historical 
Review  of  the  Political  Relations  between 
British  India  and  Ava  :  had  a  Dictionary 
of  Pali  compiled :  returned  to  India, 
1842  :    died  there  in  1845-6. 


Born  at  Valognes,  Aug.  25, 1821  :  cousin 
of  the  Orientalist,  Eugene  Burnouf  {q.v.  )  : 
studied  at  Paris  :  appointed  Professor  of 
Oriental  studies  at  Nancy,  1854:  in  1867, 
Director  of  the  Ecole  Fran^ aise  at  Athens  : 
returned  to  France  in  1875,  and  settled  at 
Paris  :  as  an  Indian  scholar,  his  chief 
works  are  : — his  Sanskrit  Grammar, 
brought  out  in  collaboration  with  Leupol, 
1859  :  a  Sanskrit  and  French  Dictionary, 
1863-5  :  Essai  sur  le  Veda,  1863  :  Bha- 
gavad-Gita,  translation,  1861,  1895. 

BURNOUF,  EUGENE  (1801-1852) 

Born  at  Paris,  Aug.  12,  1801  :  son  of 
Jean  Louis  Burnouf,  grammarian :  a 
pupil  of  Chezy  :  studied  at  the  College  of 
Louis-le-Grand :  scholar :  gave  up  his 
profession,  the  law,  and  took  to  Oriental 
languages  :  gave  instruction  in  Sanskrit, 
1824  :  published  in  1826,  with  Lassen  of 
Bonn,  the  Essai  sur  le  Pali :  appointed 
Professor  of  General  and  Comparative 
Grammar  in  the  Normal  School  at  Paris, 
1829-33 :  and  of  Indian  Languages  and 
Literature  at  the  College  de  France,  1832  : 
a  founder  of  the  Societe  Asiatique  in 
Paris  :  published,  1833,  a  commentary  on 
the  Yacna,  dealing  with  the  language, 
literature,  and  history  of  the  Parsis : 
brought  out  his  Etudes  sur  la  langue  et  les 
textes  Zendes,  1840-50  :  the  earliest  to 
study  Zend  MSS.  at  first  hand,  giving 
a  great  impulse  to  the  study  of  that  lan- 
guage, and  assistance  in  the  decipherment 
of  the  old  Persian  cuneiform  inscriptions  : 
wrote  3  vols,  of  his  work  on  the  text 
and  translation  of  the  Bhagavat  Purana, 
1840-4  :  and  began  an  introduction  to  the 
History  of  Indian  Buddhism,  1844  :  trans- 
lated a  Sanskrit  work  on  Le  Lotus  de  la 
Bonne  Lot,  1852,  and  the  Vendidad  Sade, 
1829  :  and  wrote  on  the  Buddhist  inscrip- 
tions on  pillars  and  rocks  :  left  other 
Zend  works  and  a  Pali  grammar  and 
dictionary  nearly  complete  :     Permanent 



Secretary  of  the  Academy  of  Inscriptions  : 
Member  of  the  Institute  of  France  since 
1832  :  a  great  European  Orientalist : 
died  May  28,  1852. 

BURRELL,  LITTELLUS  (1753-1827) 

Ma j -General :  born  in  1753  :  entered 
the  E.  I.  Co.'s  Bengal  Army  as  a  volunteer 
in  1770  :  Corporal,  1771  ;  Serjeant,  1772  ; 
Serjeant-Major,  1775  ;  Ensign,  1779  ;  Maj- 
General,  1821  :  was  at  the  battle  of 
Cutra,  April  23,  i774  :  in  the  capture  of 
Gwalior  under  Popham  in  1780  :  fought 
under  Col.  J  ohn  Gardiner  at  Malavilli : 
and  Seringapatam,  1799 :  engaged  in 
Mysore,  in  Lord  Lake's  campaigns  of  1803, 
and  1804-5  :  commanded  a  Brigade  in 
1 81 7  against  the  Pindaris,  and,  later,  the 
British  forces  in  Oudh,  and  at  Cuttack  : 
after  1821  he  retired,  and  died  Sep.  13, 

BURROW,  REUBEN  (1747-1792) 
A  distinguished  mathematician  and 
astronomer  :  born  Dec.  30,  i747.  son  of  a 
farmer  :  educated  at  Leeds  :  became  a 
clerk,  usher,  schoolmaster,  assistant  astro- 
nomer and  schoolmaster  at  Greenwich, 
arithmetical  teacher  at  the  Tower,  edited 
the  Royal  Almanack,  went  to  India  in  1782, 
learnt  Sanskrit :  wrote  to  Warren  Hastings, 
then  Governor-General :  appointed  to 
teach  mathematics  to  the  Engineers,  and 
on  the  Survey  of  Bengal :  an  early  member 
of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  for  whom, 
and  the  Asiatic  Researches,  he  contributed 
eleven  papers  about  the  mathematics  and 
astronomy  of  the  Hindus  :  died  at  Baxar, 
June  7,  1792. 



Traveller,  author  and  linguist :  son  of 
Colonel  J.  Netterville  Burton :  born 
March  19,  1821  :  educated  on  the  con- 
tinent, without  system,  and  was  at  Trinity 
College,  Oxford,  for  5  terms  from  1840  : 
to  India,  1842,  in  the  Bombay  Native 
Army :  made  himself  proficient  in  Oriental 
languages  and  studied  Muhammadan  life 
and  customs  thoroughly,  at  Baroda  and 
in  the  Sind  Survey  :  wrote  on  Pushto  and 
Beluchi :  while  in  England,  from  1849  to 
1853,  he  published  works  on  languages 
and  his  Indian  experiences.  In  1853  he 
made  the  pilgrimage  to  Mecca  in  disguise, 
without  being  detected,  and  wrote  a  full 

account  of  it.  In  1854  he  visited  Somali- 
land  with  the  leave  of  the  Bombay  Govern- 
ment :  wrote  Footsteps  in  E.  Africa  :  in 
1855,  served  in  the  Crimean  war  in  the 
Bashibazouks  :  on  leave  from  India,  led 
an  expedition  with  Speke  to  discover  the 
sources  of  the  Nile,  1856-9  :  gained  the 
gold  medal  of  the  Royal  Geographical 
Society,  1859  :  left  the  Indian  service, 
only  visiting  that  country  again  in  1876, 
to  Aden,  Sind  and  Goa.  The  rest  of  his 
life  was  spent  in  the  Consular  service  at 
Fernando  Po,  in  Brazil,  Damascus,  Trieste 
(1872-90),  and  in  extensive  travels  in 
North  and  South  America,  on  the  Gold 
Coast,  and  in  other  countries  adjacent  to 
his  consular  appointments.  His  literary 
work  was  very  considerable.  He  wrote 
on  Camoens  and  translated  the  Lusiad  : 
planned  a  great  Book  of  the  Sword  :  and 
translated  the  Arabian  Nights,  with  a 
fulness  of  text  and  notes  which  laid  bare 
his  minute  knowledge  of  Oriental  nature  : 
his  works  exceeded  50  volumes.  His  wife 
accompanied  him  wherever  possible  in 
his  appointments  and  travels  :  and  wrote 
a  life  of  him,  which  was  corrected  by 
another  account  :  made  K.C.M.G.  in  1885  : 
died  at  Trieste,  Oct.  20,  1890. 

DE  (1718-1785) 

French  officer  :  was  in  La  Bourdonnais' 
expedition  to  India  in  1746  :  through  his 
influence,  Salabat  Jang  was  made  Nizam 
of  Hyderabad  in  175 1,  on  the  death  of 
Muzaflfar  Jang :  Bussy  secured  French 
ascendency  at  Hyderabad  and  the  grant 
of  the  Northern  Sircars  :  fighting  for  the 
Nizam,  he  defeated  the  Nawab  of  Savanore, 
but  was,  through  jealousy,  ordered  in  1756 
to  leave  the  Nizam's  territory :  soon 
regained  his  supremacy  :  refused  assist- 
ance to  Sturajuddaula,  Nawab  Nazim  of 
Murshidabad  in  1757  :  he  seized  Vizagapa- 
tam  and  other  English  fortresses,  and 
secured  Daulatabad  for  Salabat  Jang.  In 
June,  1758,  when  at  the  zenith  of  his 
power,  he  was  recalled  by  Lally,  the  new 
French  Governor-General  at  Pondicherry  : 
in  the  battle  of  Wandiwash,  in  which  Sir 
Ejnre  Coote  defeated  Lally,  in  Jan.,  1760, 
Bussy  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  English, 
but  released.  After  the  capture  of 
Pondicherry  on  Jan.  16,  1761,  no  mention 
is  made  of  Bussy  in  India  until  1783,  whea 



he  was  landed  with  French  troops,  by 
Admiral  Suflxein,  to  reinforce  Cuddalore, 
then  besieged  by  the  English.  On  the 
declaration  of  peace  between  France  and 
England,  Bussy  withdrew  the  French 
troops  from  the  support  of  Tippoo.  He 
is  said  to  have  gained  a  large  fortune  in 
India  and  to  have  been  highly  regarded 
by  Dupleix.  He  died  at  Pondicherry, 
Jan.  1785. 


(1833-    ) 

Brig-Surgeon  :  entered  the  Madras 
Medical  service,  1856 :  served  in  the 
Indian  mutiny  :  at  the  relief  of  Lucknow, 
1857  :  was  in  the  Assay  Department  of 
the  Mints  at  Madras,  Bombay,  and  Cal- 
cutta, successively  :  confirmed  as  Assay- 
master,  Calcutta,  1872  :  acted  as  Mint- 
master,  1873  and  1875  :  retired,  June, 
1886 :  C.I.E.,  1887  :  author  of  Echoes 
from    Old    Calcutta. 

BUTLER,  THOMAS  ADAIR  (1835-1901) 
Major  :  son  of  Rev.  Stephen  Butler  : 
educated  privately  :  joined  the  1st  Bengal 
FusiUers  :  in  the  mutiny,  at  the  assault 
of  Delhi,  displayed  great  bravery  :  wound- 
ed :  at  the  attack  on  Lucknow,  March  9, 
1858,  twice  swam  the  River  Gumti  and 
gained  the  V.C.  :  in  the  attack  on  Ruiya, 
April  15,  1858  :  in  the  N.W.  frontier 
campaign,  1863  :    died  May  17,  1901. 

BYTHESEA,  JOHN  (1827- 

Born  June  15,  1827  :  son  of  Rev.  G. 
Bythesea  :  educated  at  Grosvenor  College, 
Bath  :  entered  the  Navy,  1841  :  Rear- 
Admiral,  1877  :  gained  the  V.C.  in  the 
Russian  war,  1854-5  '■  saw  service  in  China 
and  elsewhere,  in  command  of  various 
vessels  :  Naval  Attache  at  Washington, 
1865-7  :  Consulting  Naval  Officer  to  the 
Government  of  India,  1874-80  :  C.B.  : 

CADELL,  ALAN  (1841-        ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  July  28,  1841  :  son  of  John 
Cadell :  educated  at  Edinburgh  Academy 
and  University  and  in  Germany  :  entered 
the  Bengal  Civil  Service,  1862  :  was  Com- 
missioner of  Agra  and  Rohilkund  :  Member 
of  the  Board  of  Revenue,  and  Member  of 
the  Legislative  Council,  United  Provinces  : 
'acted     as     Lieutenant-Governor    of    the 

United  Provinces,  Jan.  to  Nov.,  1895,  and 
as  temporary  Member  of  the  Governor- 
General's  Supreme  Council,  Feb.  to  May, 
1896  :    C.S.I.  in  1895  i]  retired  in  1897. 

CADELL,fJESSIE  ELLEN  (1844-1884) 

Born  Aug.  23,  1844  :  daughter  of 
William  Nash,  merchant,  London :  was  an 
excellent  French  scholar  :  was  in  India, 
1858-64  :  went  with  her  husband,  Capt. 
Henry  Mowbray  Cadell  (died  1867),  to 
Peshawar  :  wrote  a  novel,  Ida  Craven,  on 
frontier  life,  1876  :  and  Worthy  :  learnt 
Hindustani,  Persian  and  some  Arabic, 
studied  Omar  Khayyam,  and  prepared 
a  superior  edition  and  translation,  pub- 
lished, 1899  :  wrote  an  article  on  it  in 
Eraser's  Magazine  :  was  closely  connected 
with  the  Anglo-Indian  Association,  1873- 
81  :  her  health  gave  way,  and  she  died 
June  17,  1884. 

CADELL,  SIR  ROBERT  (1825-1897) 
General :  son  of  H.  F.  Cadell :  educated 
at  Edinburgh  Academy  and  Addiscombe  : 
entered  the  Madras  Artillery,  1843  :  on 
the  Turkish  Staff  in  the  Crimea,  1854-5  : 
served  in  the  Indian  mutiny :  Inspr- 
General  of  Ordnance  at  Madras,  1876-81  : 
C.B.,  1873  :  General,  1883,  and  Colonel 
Commandant,  R.A.,  1885  :  K.C.B.,  1894  : 
died  June  30,  1897. 

CADELL,  THOMAS  (1835- 

Colonel :  born  Sep.  5,  1835  :  son  of 
H.  F.  Cadell,  of  Cockenzie,  Haddington- 
shire :  educated  at  Edinburgh  University, 
Grange,  Sunderland  and  abroad  :  served 
with  the  2nd  European  Bengal  Fusiliers 
(now  the  Munsters),  at  the  siege  of  Delhi 
and  subsequent  operations,  and  with  the 
3rd  Bengal  Cavalry  in  the  Oudh  cam- 
paign :  commanded  a  flying  column  in 
Bundelkund.  After  the  mutiny,  Cadell 
entered  the  Political  Department  and 
served  in  Central  India  and  Rajputana  : 
was  Chief  Commissioner  of  the  Andamans 
from  1879  to  1892  :  received  his  V.C.  for 
saving  life  on  two  occasions  at  the  Flagstaff 
Picket,  Delhi,  on  June  12,  1857,  bringing 
in  wounded  men  under  severe  fire. 

CAILLAUD,  JOHN  (1724-1812) 

Born  1724 :  joined  Onslow's  regt., 
afterwards  the  8th  King's,  in  1743  :  fought 
at  Fontenoy  and  Culloden :  petitioned 
the  E.I.  Co.  for  a  Commission  in  1752  : 




joined  Stringer  Lawrence  at  Trichinopoly 
with  troops  in  i753  :  was  repulsed  before 
Madura  in  April,  1757  :  defended  Trichino- 
poly :  defeated  the  Mysoreans  near 
Madura :  in  Nov.  i759.  he  arrived  at 
Calcutta,  appointed  to  the  chief  military 
command  in  Bengal :  took  command  of 
the  British  force  co-operating  with  the 
Nawab  of  Bengal  to  protect  Bihar  against 
the  Shahzada :  defeated  the  Emperor  at 
Sirsi,  Feb.  22,  1760  :  took  a  prominent 
part  in  deposing  Mir  J  afar,  and  setting  up 
Mir  Kasim  :  Lt-Colonel  in  the  E.  Indies, 
Jan.  1760 :  reverted  to  Madras,  1761  : 
Brig-General,  1763  :  appointed  C.  in  C, 
Madras,  in  succession  to  Lawrence,  1766  : 
took  possession  of  the  Northern  Sircars 
for  the  E.  I.  Co.  in  1766  :  concluded  a 
treaty  with  Nizam  Ali  of  Hyderabad  to 
pay  a  yearly  tribute  of  7  lakhs  for  the 
Sircars  :  resigned,  Jan.  1767,  and  went 
to  England  :  D.C.L.,  Oxford,  1773  :  he 
died  in  England,  at  Aston  Rowant,  Dec. 
26,  1812. 


Born  March  26,  1842,  son  of  Nathaniel 
Caine,  wine  merchant :  educated  at 
Birkenhead  Park  School :  entered  his 
father's  business  :  preached  :  was  M.P. 
for  Scarborough,  1880  :  Civil  Lord  of  the 
Admiralty,  1884 :  M.P.  for  Barrow-in- 
Furness,  1886:  resigned  his  seat,  1886: 
M.P.  for  E.  Bradford,  1892-5,  for  Cam- 
borne from  1900  :  Temperance  and  India 
were  his  two  chief  subjects  :  was  a  strong 
teetotaler,  and  advocate  of  advanced 
temperance  :  President  of  the  National 
Temperance  Federation,  and  of  similar 
Associations  :  a  severe  critic  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  India,  and  great  friend  of  the 
natives  of  India :  paid  much  attention 
to  the  Indian  Excise  (liquor)  question : 
was  strongly  opposed  to  the  Opium 
trade :  paid  visits  to  India :  criticized 
missionary  work  in  India  :  was  a  Member 
of  the  Royal  Commission  on  Indian 
Expenditure :  died  March  17,  1903  : 
wrote  Picturesque  India,  and  Young 

CAIRD,  SIR  JAMES  (1816-1892) 

One  of  the  greatest  authorities  of  his 
time  on  all  agricultural  subjects  :  son  of 
James  Caird,  born  June,  1816  :  educated 
at  Edinburgh  High  School  and  University  : 

farmed  for  20  years :  engaged  in  the 
Free  Trade  controversy :  reported  on 
Ireland  in  1850,  and  for  the  Times  on 
agricultural  depression :  was  M.P.  for 
Dartmouth  and  the  Stirling  Burghs : 
1857-65  :  toured  in  America,  and  served 
on  various  Commissions :  F.R.S.,  CB. 
and  K.C.B.  in  1882  :  visited  India  for 
six  months  in  1878-9,  as  a  Member  of 
Sir  R.  Strachey's  Indian  Famine  Com- 
mission :  published  an  account  of  his 
experiences,  first  in  the  Nineteenth  Century^ 
and  afterwards  in  a  volume,  India,  the 
Land  and  the  People  :  was  afterwards  a 
Member  of  other  Commissions  on  land 
questions  :  LL.D.  of  Edinburgh  :  on  the 
Board  of  Agriculture  in  1889,  and  Privy 
Councillor  :   died  Feb.  9,  1892. 


Son  of  William  Caldwell :  born  Feb.  i, 
1763  :  educated  at  Woolwich,  and  joined 
the  Bengal  Artillery  in  1783  :  commanded 
at  Midnapur  in  1792  :  was  at  Pondicherry 
in  1793  :  in  1798  led  the  Artillery  which 
defeated  the  Nizam's  Army  :  he  was  at 
the  battle  of  Malavilli,  and  the  sieges  of 
Seringapatam  in  1799,  and  Gooty:  in  1800 
to  Calcutta  as  A.D.C.  to  Maj -General  G. 
Green.  In  181 1,  he  commanded  the 
Artillery  in  Sir  A.  Auchmuty's  expedition 
to  Java,  being  present  at  the  Batavia  and 
Cornells  engagements :  commanded  the 
Artillery  at  Agra  in  181 2  against  Zaman 
Shah  :  CB.  in  1817  :  retired,  1821  : 
Maj-General  and  K.C.B.  in  1839  :  G.C.B. 
in  1838  :    died  Dec.  6,  1839. 



Son  of  Major  Arthur  Caldwell,  and 
nephew  of  General  Sir  Alexander  Cald- 
well [q.v.)  :  born  Nov.  22,  1770  :  joined 
the  Madras  Engineers  of  the  E.  I.  Co.  in 
1789  :  became  General,  1854  :  was  in  the 
Mysore  campaign  of  179 1-2  under  Lord 
Cornwallis  against  Tippoo  and  in  all  the 
fighting  up  to  the  siege  of  Seringapatam  in 
Feb  .-March,  1792  :  led  a  party  in  the 
final  assault  on  Seringapatam  on  May  4, 
1799.  After  10  years  on  civil  public 
works,  he  was,  in  1810-11,  Chief  Engineer 
on  the  expedition  to  Mauritius  :  defeated 
the  French  by  sea  and  took  the  island. 
In  Madras,  from  18 11,  he  had  more  engin- 
eering work,  and  was  special  Surveyor  of 



fortresses :  C.B.  in  1815  :  was  Com- 
missioner for  the  restoration  of  French 
settlements  on  the  Coromandel  and  Malabar 
coasts,  and  Chief  Engineer  of  Madras  in 
1816 :  retired  in  1837  and  was  made 
K.C.B.  :  and  G.C.B.,  1848  :  died  June  28, 
1863.  He  painted  in  water-colours  with 
great  skill. 



Missionary  and  linguist :  born  May  7, 
1814  :  at  first  he  studied  art  in  Dublin  : 
went  to  Glasgow  University  :  B.A.,  1837  : 
sent  by  the  London  Missionary  Society  to 
Madras,  1838  :  ordained,  1841  :  joined 
the  English  Church,  1841,  and  the  Society 
for  the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel :  also  in 
1841  made  his  residence  at  Idaiyangudi, 
"the  shepherds'  abode,"  in  Tinnevelly, 
and  entered  on  his  50  years'  missionary 
work,  during  which  the  Christians  of 
Tinnevelly  increased  from  6,000  to  100,000. 
He  was,  in  1877,  consecrated  Bishop  of 
Tinnevelly  as  coadjutor  to  the  Bishop  of 
Madras  :  resigned  his  Bishopric  on  Jan.  31, 
and  died  at  Kodaikanal  on  the  Pulny 
Hills  on  Aug.  28,  1891.  He  studied 
comparative  philology,  and  his  linguistic 
attainments  were  great :  helped  to  revise 
the  Tamil  Prayer  Book  and  Bible,  col- 
lected Sanskrit  MSS :  published  a 
Comparative  Grammar  of  the  Dravidian 
or  South  Indian  Family  of  Languages  in 
1856  :  wrote  on  the  "  Tinnevelly  Shanars," 
the  general,  political  and  mission  history 
of  Tinnevelly,  besides  other  works  on 
religion :  LL.D.  of  Glasgow,  1857,  and 
D.D.  of  Durham,   1874. 

CALL,   SIR   JOHN,   BARONET   (1732- 

Son  of  John  Call :  born  in  1732  :  went 
to  India  in  1749,  with  Benjamin  Robins, 
Chief  Engineer  and  Captain-General  of 
\rtillery  :  arrived  at  Fort  William,  1750  : 
deputed  to  fortify  St.  David  near  Madras, 
[751  :  accompanied  Clive,  1752,  against 
he  French  :  Engineer-in-Chief  at  Fort 
>t.  David,  1752-7  :  Chief  Engineer  at 
vladras  and  the  Coromandel  Coast,  1758  : 
it  the  siege  of  Pondicherry  and  Vellore  : 
vas  in  the  war  of  1767-8  against  Hyder 
\  Vli :  Member  of  Council,  Madras,  in  1768  : 
etired,  1770,  to  England :  was  High 
heriff  of  Cornwall,  1771  :  Commissioner  on 
J'rown  Lands,  Woods,  and  Forests,  1782  : 

M.P.  for  Callington  from  1784  :  Baronet 
in  1791  :  F.R.S.  :  became  blind  in  1795  : 
died  March  i,  1801. 

CALLCOTT,  MARIA,  LADY  (1785-1842) 

Daughter  of  Rear-Admiral  George 
Dundas,  whom  she  accompanied  to  India 
early  in  1808  :  she  married  Capt.  Thomas 
Graham,  R.N.,  1809  :  and  travelled  in 
India :  returned  to  England,  1811  : 
sailed  with  her  husband  for  S.  America  in 
1821  :  he  died  off  Cape  Horn  in  1822  : 
she  manied,  in  1827,  Augustus  Wall 
Callcott,  R.A.,  who  was  knighted  on  the 
Queen's  Accession,  1837  :  she  died  Nov.  28, 
1842  :  she  wrote,  as  Maria  Graham, 
lournal  of  a  Residence  in  India,  1812 
Letters  on  India,  18 14,  besides  other 
works  on  travels,  etc.  :  including  Little 
Arthur'' s  Hidory  of  England,  1835. 


Son  of  Hormusji  Cama  :  of  "a  Gujarat 
Parsi  family  ;  in  commercial  partnership 
with  his  brothers,  1828  to  1871  :  the 
Cama  family  established  the  first  Indian 
house  of  business  in  London,  in  1855  : 
Pestonji  Cama  led  a  retired  life  :  made  a 
large  trust  for  charitable  purposes  :  and 
gave  Rs.  164,000  for  the  Cama  Hospital 
for  Females  and  Children  in  Bombay  : 
a  staunch  supporter  of  native  female 
education :  warmly  interested  in  the 
cause  of  reform  and  progress  in  native 
movements  :  promoted  the  Victoria  Gar- 
dens, and  various  associations  for  the 
advancement  of  natives  :  an  early  Free- 
mason :  CLE.,  1887  :  died  about  Jan.  21, 

CAMAC,  JACOB  (  ?    -     ?  ) 

In  the  84th  regt.  till  1763  :  Lieutenant, 
Oct.,  1763  :  commanded  the  24th  Bengal 
Infantry  from  1766  for  many  years  at 
Ramghar  :  served  in  1779  under  Popham 
against  Sindia,  whom  he  defeated  at 
Durdah :  Lt-Colonel,  Jan.,  1781  :  re- 
tired, Dec.  2,  1782  :  died  of  fever  in  Ire- 

CAMERON,  AYLMER  (1833-  ) 
Son  of  Lt-Colonel  W.  G.  Cameron, 
Grenadier  Guards  :  served  in  the  Seaforth 
Highlanders  (72nd),  in  the  Crimea,  and  in 
the  Indian  mutiny  :  severely  wounded  at 
the  storming  of    Kotah,  where    he  gained 



his  V.C.  :  commanded  the  King's  Own 
Borderers,  1881-1883  :  Chief  of  the 
Intelligence  Department,  1883-6 :  Com- 
mandant of  Royal  Military  College, 
Sandhurst,    1886-8:     General. 

CAMERON,  CHARLES  HAY  (1795-1880) 

Barrister :  son  of  Charles  Cameron : 
born  on  Feb.  11,  1795  :  called  to  the  bar 
from  Lincoln's  Inn,  1820  :  was  a  Com- 
missioner on  judicial  affairs  in  Ceylon, 
and  the  poor-laws,  in  183 1-3  :  after  the 
statute  of  1833,  he  was  appointed  Member 
of  the  Law  Commission  and  went  to 
India  in  1835  :  co-operated  in  law-making 
and  codification  with  Macaulay,  the  Legal 
Member :  was  in  1843  himself  Legal 
Member  of  the  Supreme  Council  till  1848  : 
and  President  of  the  Council  of  Education  : 
retired  in  1848  :  went  to  Ceylon  in  1875, 
and  died  there.  May  8,  1880. 



Son  of  Captain  Robert  Cameron,  R.N.  : 
entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  military  service, 
1821  :  served  in  the  S.  Mahratta  country, 
1824-5  :  served  in  Portugal,  1832-3  : 
sent  to  Constantinople  and  Persia  :  served 
in  the  Persian  Army,  1836-8  :  command- 
ing at  Tabriz  :  visited  Circassia  :  C.B.  : 
Political  Agent  with  the  Nawab  of  Arcot, 
in  Madras,  1842  :  in  command  in  the 
Nilgiri  Hills,  1855  :  retired,  1858  :  wrote 
an  account  of  his  travels,  1845,  and  The 
Romance  of  Military  Life,  1853  :  died 
Feb.  12,  1882. 


(   ?  -1885) 

Went  out  to  India  in  a  merchant's 
house  :  acted  as  Editor  of  the  Bombay 
Gazette  :  was  a  special  war-correspondent 
in  the  Afghan  war,  1878,  on  the  Kandahar 
side  :  went  out  to  the  battle-field  of 
Maiwand,  July  27,  1880  :  was  similarly 
employed  as  correspondent  in  Egypt, 
Madagascar,  Tonquin,  the  Nile  expedi- 
tion, from  1880-5  :  killed  in  the  fighting 
after  Abuklea  on  Jan.  18,  1885  :  a  tablet 
put  up  to  his  memory  in  St.  Paul's 


( ?i:-i79i) 

Maj-General  and  K.B. :  Captain  in  1758, 
wounded  at  Quebec  ;  as  Colonel,  captured 
Savannah   in   1778  :     made   Governor   of 

Jamaica  :  appointed  Governor  of  Madras, 
April  6,  1786  :  and  in  the  same  year  C.  in 
C.  During  his  period  of  rule  he  attempted 
a  settlement  of  the  vexed  Question  con- 
cerning  the  revenues  of  the  Carnatic  :  the 
treaty  of  1787  was  his  work.  Ill-health 
caused  him  to  resign  in  1789  :  he  died 
i79i»  and  was  buried  in  Westminster 

BARONET  (1769-1843) 
Son    of    Captain    A.    Campbell :     born 
March  12,  1769  :  entered  the  Army,  1787  : 
went  to  Bombay,  1788,  and  served  under 
Sir    Robert    Abercromby,    1790-2  :     was 
at  Seringapatam,  1792  :    at  Cochin,  1795, 
and  the  defeat  of  the  Dutch  in  Ceylon, 
1796 :    was  at  Seedaseer    and  the    final 
siege  of  Seringapatam,   1799  :    served  in 
Portugal  and  under  Sir  John  Moore,  1808  : 
commanded    a    Portuguese    regt.,    1810 : 
was    Brig-General   with    the    Portuguese, 
1811  :     knighted,    1814  :      K.C.B.    1815  : 
was    Portuguese     Maj-General,    18 16,    in 
command  at  Lisbon  :   went  to  India  again 
with  his  regiment,  1821  :    commanded  in 
the  first  Burmese  war,    1824-6,   and  took 
Rangoon  and  Prome,  and,  marching  on 
Ava,  made    the  Treaty  of  Yandaboo  in 
Feb.,  1826  :   G.C.B.  :    governed  the  ceded 
Provinces  still  1829,  when  he  returned  to 
England :     Baronet,    1831  :    Lieutenant- 
Governor    of    New    Brunswick,    183 1-7  : 
Lt-General,     1838  :    was  unable  through 
ill-health   to   accept   the   appointment   of 
C.  in  C.  Bombay  in  1839  :    Colonel  of  the 
62nd  regt.,  1840  :   died  Oct.  6,  1843. 


(   ?  -1832) 

Major,  son  of  William  Campbell  : 
entered  the  Bengal  Artillery  in  1805  : 
served  under  Lord  Lake  :  was,  in  1801, 
Adjutant  and  Quarter-master  of  Artillery  : 
held  other  appointments  on  the  General 
Staff  of  the  Army  :  Deputy  Secretary  in 
the  Military  Department  and  in  charge  of 
the  Cossipur  Gun  Factory  :  wrote,  in  the 
British  Indian  Military  Repository,  papers 
on  professional  subjects,  including  <the 
History  of  Sieges  in  Bengal  :J  he  diedjMay 
19.  1832. 

CAMPBELL,    SIR    COLIN    (1776-1847) 

Son  of  John  Campbell :    was  born  in 

1776  :    from  the  Perth  Academy  he  ran 

away  to  sea,  1792  :    brought  home  from 



Jamaica  :  Midshipman  on  an  East  India- 
man,  1793  :  joined  the  militia,  1795  ; 
the  Army,  1799  :  went  to  India  in  1 801-2  : 
was  under  Arthur  Wellesley  at  Ahmadna- 
gar,  Assaye  and  Argaum  :  A.D.C.  to  Lord 
Wellesley,  and  returned  with  him  to 
England,  1805  :  served  in  Hanover, 
Denmark,  in  Portugal,  the  Peninsula : 
was  at  a  number  of  engagements,  and  was 
A.Q.M.G :  K.C.B.,  in  1814  :  was  at 
Waterloo  :  Maj  -  General,  1825  :  Lt- 
Governor  of  Nova  Scotia,  1833  :  Governor 
of  Ceylon,  1839-47  :  died  in  England, 
June  13,  1847 

CAMPBELL,  DONALD  (1751-1804) 
Captain  of  a  Cavalry  regt.  in  the  service 
of  the  Nawab  of  the  Carnatic  :  at  the  age 
of  30  he  made  a  journey  to  India  and 
published  an  account  of  it,  1795:  travelled 
via  Venice,  Trieste,  Zante,  Alexandria, 
Cyprus,  Aleppo,  Badgad,  Russia  and 
Bushire  :  by  sea  to  Bombay  and  Goa  : 
shipwrecked  on  the  coast  on  his  way  to 
Madras  :  captured  by  Hyder  All's  soldiers 
and  imprisoned  at  Hydernagar,  in  com- 
pany with  one  Hall,  to  whom  he  was 
chained.  Hall  died  in  prison,  and  his 
gaoler  refused  to  remove  the  corpse  for 
several  days :  eventually,  on  General 
Matthew's  approach,  he  was  released 
in  order  to  negotiate  with  him  on  behalf 
of  Hyat  Singh,  Hyder's  General  :  with 
despatches  for  the  Governments  of  Bom- 
bay and  Madras,  he  proceeded  by  sea  to 
Anjengo,  travelled  by  land  through 
Travancore,  Tinnevelly,  Madura,  Trichi- 
nopoly,  Tanjore  to  Negapatam,  and 
Madras  :  with  Lord  Macartney's  permis- 
sion, went  on  to  Calcutta  and,  on  behalf 
of  Hyat  Singh,  negotiated  with  Warren 
Hastings  :  returned  overland  to  Madras 
and  Anjengo  :  thence  by  sea  to  Bombay : 
again  visited  Madras  and  China,  and  re- 
turned to  England  in  1785,  after  four 
years'  absence  :    died  June  5,  1804. 

GERALD, BARONET  (1822-1882) 
Son  of  Maj -General  Sir  Guy  Campbell, 
Bart.  C.B.,born  Oct.  25,  1822  :  educated 
at  Sandhurst  :  entered  the  Army  in  the 
6oth  Rifles,  1841  :  Lt-Colonel,  1870  : 
retired  1872  :  served  with  distinction 
in  the  Panjab  campaign  of  1848-9,  was 
at  the  siege  of  Multan  and  at  Gujarat : 
in  1849  was  A.D.C,  to  the  C.  in  C,  Sir  C. 
Napier  :  was  at  the  siege  of  Delhi  in  1857  : 

Military  Secretary  to  Lord  Canning  when 
Governor-General,  1857-61  :  was  Assistant 
Inspector  of  Volunteers,  1864  :  died  Nov. 
23,  1882. 

CAMPBELL,  SIR  GEORGE  (1824-1892) 
I.C.S.  :    son  of  Sir  G.  Campbell  of  Eden- 
wood,  of  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Medical  service  : 
born  in  1824  :   educated  at  the  Edinburgh 
New    Academy,     St.    Andrew's,    Madras 
College,  and  the  University,  Haileybury  : 
went  to  India,  1842  :  served  in  the  N.W.P. 
and   Cis-Satlaj   States  :     and  in   1849   in 
the  Panjab  after  the  annexation,  which 
he    had    advocated    in    the    Mofussilite 
newspaper.     While   on    furlough   he   was 
called  to  the  bar  from  the  Inner  Temple, 
1854,  and   wrote    Modern    India,   1852  : 
in   1855,  he  assisted  J.  R.   Colvin  in  the 
government  of  the  N.W.P.,  and  became 
Commissioner  of  the  Cis-Satlaj  States  :  was 
engaged  in  the  mutiny  of  i857,about  Delhi, 
Agra,  Cawpiu:,  Lucknow  :  was  provisional 
Civil    Commissioner :      accidentally    cap- 
tured three  guns  :    wrote  letters  on  the 
mutiny  to  the  Times,dind  an  official  account 
of    it    for    Lord    Canning :     was    second 
Civil  Commissioner  for  Oudh  :    appointed 
Judge  of  the  High  Court,  Calcutta,  1862  : 
was  head  of  the  Commission  on  the  Orissa 
famine  of    1866-7 :    Chief    Commissioner 
of  the  Central  Provinces  in  Nov.,  1867  : 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  Bengal  from  March, 
1871,  to  April,  1874,  when,  on  account  of 
ill-health,  he  retired,  having  commenced 
the  relief  operations  against  the  Bengal 
famine    of    1873-4.     His   rule   in    Bengal 
was    very    energetic,    being    intended    to 
rouse     the     Province    from    its     alleged 
lethargy.     He  passed  the  District   Road 
Cess     Act,  and   gave  a  great  impetus  to 
Education,   especially   primary :    K.CS.I. 
in    1873  :     M.P.    for    Kirkcaldy    1875-92, 
but   was  not   successful   as   a  politician  : 
died    at    Cairo,    Feb.    18,    1892  :     wrote 
several    works :      the    chief    being     The 
Ethnology  of  India,  The  Capital  of  India, 
Tenure   of   Land   in   India,    The   Eastern 
Question,  besides  papers  on  Ethnology  and 
languages   and   land   questions  :     he   was 
D.C.L.     of     Oxford,     1870.      His      auto- 
biography was,  after  his  death,  edited  by 
Sir  C.  E.  Bernard  {q.v.) 


I.C.S.  :    born   1847:    son  of   Rev.   J.   M. 
Campbell,  D.D.  :    educated    at  Glasgow  : 



D.C.L.  Glasgow  :  went  out  to  Bombay, 
1869  :  Under  Secretary  to  Government 
in  Political,  Judicial  Departments,  1880  : 
acted  as  Commissioner  of  Customs,  Salt, 
Opium  and  Abkari,  1897  :  Chairman  of 
the  Bombay  Plague  Committee,  1897 : 
Commissioner,  1900  :  retired,  1900  :  C.I.E., 
1885  :  K.C.I.E.  1897 :  compiled  the 
Bombay  Gazetteer,  1873-84,  in  26  volumes  : 
wrote  a  history  of  Mandoghar,  the  capital 
of  the  Muhammadan  kingdom  of  Malwa, 
and  "  Notes  on  the  Spirit  Basis  of  BeUef 
and  Custom,"  in  the  Indian  Antiquary, 
1894-1901  :   died  May  26,  1903. 

CAMPBELL,  JOHN  (1753-1784) 

Son  of  John  Campbell,  Lord  Stonefield  : 
born  Dec.  7,  i753  =  entered  the  Army 
in  1771  :  served  in  America :  went  as 
Lt-Colonel  to  India  in  1782  :  was  engaged 
against  Hyder  Ali :  was  at  Bednore  and 
Anantapur :  the  British  force  being 
driven  into  Mangalore  by  Tippoo,  Camp- 
bell was  left  in  command  and  made  the 
famous  defence  of  that  town  from  May, 
i783,to  Jan.,1784,  when  he  was  compelled 
to  surrender  :  he  died,  from  his  exertions, 
Feb.  23,  1784. 

CAMPBELL,  SIR  JOHN  (1802-1878) 

Son  of  John  Campbell  of  Lochead  :  born 
in  1802 :  entered  the  E.  I.  Go's  service, 
1820:  served  in  Madras :  in  1834  was  in 
command  in  subduing  the  hill  tribes  in 
Orissa  :  in  the  Gumsur  war,  1836-7  :  was 
deputed,  1837-42,  to  the  civil  duty  of 
stopping  the  practices  of  human  sacrifice 
and  female  infanticide  among  the  Khonds 
of  Orissa  :  went  to  China,  1842  :  C.B.  : 
was  again  sent  to  his  former  duty  among 
the  Khonds,  1847-9  :  returned  to  Scot- 
land, 1855  :  Maj-General,  1872  :  died 
April  22,  1878  :  published  a  personal 
narrative  of  his  13  years'  (not  uninter- 
rupted) work  among  the  Khonds,  which 
led  to  controversy  with  the  family  of  the 
officer  who  had,  in  his  absence,  favoured 
a  different  policy  with  that  native  race. 

CAMPBELL,  JOHN  (1817-    ) 

Surgeon-major  :  born  April  27,  1817  : 
son  of  Capt.  Thomas  Campbell  R.N. : 
educated  at  St.  George's.London,  Aberdeen 
University,  and  King's  College  :  entered 
the  Bengal  Medical  Service  in  1840 : 
served  in  the  Afghan  war,  1842,  on  the 
line  of  the   Khyber,   and  with   Pollock's 

force  :  with  Sir  Charles  Napier  in  Sind  : 
in  the  Indian  mutiny  was  at  Chinhut  and 
the  siege  of  Lucknow,  for  which  he  received 
his  C.B. 

DICK  (1846-  ) 
Entered  the  Army,  1863  :  served  in  the 
Hazara  expedition,  1868  ;  Dour  Valley 
expedition,  1872 ;  Afghanistan,  1878-9; 
Mahsud-Waziri  expedition,  1881  ;  China, 
1900-01,  where  he  commanded  the  lines 
of  communication :  commands  the 
Bundelkund  District,  India,  since  1901  : 


(1864-  ) 

Joined  the  Gordon  Highlanders,  1887  : 
served  in  the  Waziristan  Field  Force, 
1894-5  ;  Chitral  ReUef  Force,  1895  ; 
Tirah  expedition,  1897-8,  including  Dargai, 
Sampagha,  and  Arhanga ;  South  Africa, 
1899-1902,  with  ist  Batt.  Gordon  High- 
landers  :  Brig-Major,  Highland  Brigade, 
and  D.A.A.G.,  Army  Head  Quarters  : 
D.A.Q.M.G.,  Head  Quarters  Staff :  D.S.O. 

CANARAN,  CHURIA  (1812-1876) 
Born  at  Mahe,  1812  :  son  of  a  jailor 
at  Tellicherry,  whom  he  succeeded,  1829- 
32  :  learnt  several  languages  besides  his 
own  vernacular  Malayalam,  and  rose,  from 
his  first  appointment  in  1832,  through  a 
succession  of  posts  in  the  judicial  and 
revenue  offices,  to  be  a  Deputy  Magis- 
trate-Collector in  1859,  retiring  as  a  first- 
class  officer  at  the  end  of  1869,  after  39 
years'  service,  having  performed  such  excel- 
lent work  in  respect  to  the  Moplah  dis- 
turbances in  Malabar,  1852-5,  his  coura- 
geous conduct  exposing  him  to  great 
danger,  that  for  his  "conspicuous  and 
most  valuable"  services  therein  and  in 
revenue  matters,  he  was  granted  a  pension 
equal  to  his  full  pay  :    died  Oct.  18,  1876. 


(1845-  ) 

I.C.S. :  born  April  15, 1845  :  son  of  Major 
Thomas  Candy  :  educated  at  Cheltenham  : 
entered  the  Bombay  Civil  Service,  1865  : 
was  Judicial  Assistant  to  the  PoHtical 
Agent,  Kattiawar,  1872-82  :  officiating 
Judicial  Commissioner  in  Sind,  1886-7  : 
Vice-chancellor  of  the  Bombay  University, 
1 897-1902  :  Judge  of  the  Bombay  High 
Court,  1889-1902  :    Member  of  the  Police 



Commission,  1902-3  :      retired   in    1903  : 
C.S.I,  in  1903  :    Knight  Bachelor  in  1904. 



Governor-General  and  first  Viceroy : 
third  son  of  George  Canning  the  statesman': 
born  Dec.  14,  1812  :  educated  at  Putney, 
Eton,  privately,  and  at  Christ  Church, 
Oxford  :  first  class  in  classics  and  second 
class  in  mathematics  :  M.P.  for  Warwick 
in  1836 :  succeeded  to  his  mother's 
peerage  in  1837  :  Under-Secretary  for 
Foreign  Affairs,  1 841-6,  and  Chief  Com- 
missioner for  Woods  and  Forests  :  was  a 
follower  of  Sir  Robert  Peel :  Postmaster- 
General  in  Lord  Aberdeen's  and  Lord 
Palmerston's  Governments  in  1853-5  : 
Governor-General  of  India,  Feb.  29,  1856  : 
Viceroy  from  Nov.  i,  1858.  In  his  first 
year  of  office  he  had  to  arrange  for  the 
war  with  Persia,  in  which  Sir  James 
Outram  {q.v.)  had  the  command.  The 
events  of  the  mutiny  of  1857-8  constitute 
the  history  of  India  rather  than  the 
biography  of  Canning.  Its  causes  orginated 
before  his  time.  He  was  not  alone  in 
failing  at  first  to  appreciate  adequately 
the  symptoms  and  the  extent  of  the  out- 
break :  but,  on  grasping  its  character,  he 
rose  to  the  occasion.  He  detained  troops 
on  their  way  to  China,  and  expedited  the 
dispatch  of  reinforcements  to  the  affected 
districts  of  Upper  India.  He  showed 
calmness,  courage,  judgment,  firmness, 
foresight,  and  acquired  the  name  of 
"  Clemency  Canning  "  for  his  moderation 
in  punishment,  and  his  repression  of 
vindictiveness.  He  became  unpopular 
on  account  of  this  policy.  He  trusted  his 
chief  officers,  Sir  Henry,  and  Sir  John, 
Lawrence,  his  commanders  in  the  field, 
his  immediate  advisers  and  others  :  but 
preserved  his  own  right  to  decide,  when 
he  disagreed  with  them.  For  a  time  he 
assumed  personally  the  government  of  the 
N.W.P.  By  his  Oudh  proclamation  he 
confiscated,  with  exceptions,  the  land  of 
that  province.  This  led  to  the  controversy 
which  ended  in  the  resignation  of  Lord 
Ellenborough,  the  President  of  the  Board 
of  Control.  He  carried  out  the  transfer 
on  Nov.  I,  1858,  of  the  Government  of 
India  from  the  E.  I.  Co.  to  the  Crown  :  and 
was  made  an  Earl.  In  1859-60  and 
1860-1  he  made  prolonged  tours  in  Upper 
India.  He  had  to  deal  with  all  the 
troubles  resulting  from  the  mutiny,  the 

reorganization  of  the  finances  and  of  the 
Army  required  for  India  :  the  reforms  in 
the  Indian  Councils,  the  development  of 
education,  the  question  of  the  income-tax, 
the  grant  of  adoption  sunnuds  to  native 
chiefs,  with  the  famine  of  1 860-1  in  the 
N.W.P.  The  death  of  Lady  Canning 
from  fever,  in  Nov.  18  61,  was  universally 
deplored.  He  left  India  on  March  18, 
1862, in  bad  health:  died  June  17,  1862, 
and  was  buried  in  Westminster  Abbey. 
He  had  been  made  K.G.  for  his  services 
in  India. 

COUNTESS  (1817-1861) 
Daughter  of  Lord  Stuart  de  Rothesay  ; 
born  March  31, 1817,  married,  Sep.  5>  i835» 
in  London  to  the  Hon.  Charles  John 
Canning,  afterwards  Earl  Canning,  {q.v.), 
first  Viceroy  of  India.  She  was  constantly 
at  Court  as  Lady-in -Waiting  in  attendance 
on  Queen  Victoria.  Her  death  at  Calcutta, 
Nov.  18,  1 861,  was  deeply  lamented. 
She  returned  to  Calcutta  on  Nov.  8,  after  a 
month's  visit  to  Darjeeling.  She  had 
caught  jungle  fever  on  her  way  down,  when 
passing  through  the  malarious  country  at 
the  foot  of  the  hills  and  in  the  Purnea 
district.  She  was  buried  in  Barrackpur 
Park,  on  the  banks  of  the  Ganges.  All 
accounts  testify  to  her  noble,  simple  and 
beautiful  character,  her  talents  and  mental 
gifts,  her  personal  appearance,her  gracious- 
ness  and  dignity  :  in  the  trying  time  of 
the  mutiny  she  rendered  great  help  to  her 
husband  by  her  devotion,  loyalty  and 
self-sacrifice,  by  her  calm  and  steady 
courage,  her  patience  and  self-possession, 
"  no  one  was  ever  more  admired  and  looked 
up  to  by  every  class  of  her  Majesty's 
subjects."  Lord  Canning  wrote  this 
inscription  for  the  monument  over  her 
grave  :  "  Honoxurs  and  praises  written  on 
a  tomb  are  at  best  but  vain-glory  :  but 
that  her  charity,  humility,  meekness  and 
watchful  faith  in  her  Saviour  wUl,  for 
that  Saviour's  sake,  be  accepted  of  God 
and  be  to  her  a  glory  everlasting,  is  the 
firm  trust  of  those  who  knew  her  best  and 
most  dearly  loved  her  in  life,  and  who 
cherish   the   memory  of  her,  departed." 

CANNING,  GEORGE  (1770-1827) 
Son  of  George  Canning  :  born  April  11, 
1770  :  educated  at  Eton  and  Christ  Church, 
Oxford :    M.P.   for  Newport,    i794  '•    for 



Wendover,  1797 :  Under  Secretary  for 
Foreign  Affairs,  1796-9  :  Commissioner 
of  the  Board  of  Control  (commonly  called 
the  India  Board)  1799- 1800 :  Foreign 
Secretary,  1807  :  fought  a  duel  with  Lord 
Castlereagh,  Sep.  22,  1809 :  M.P.  for 
Liverpool,  1812  :  President  of  the  Board 
of  Control,  June  4,  1816,  to  Jan.  12,  1821  : 
nominated  Governor  -  General  of  India 
March,  1822,  but,  on  Lord  Castlereagh's 
death.  Canning  resigned  that  appointment 
and  again  became  Foreign  Secretary, 
1822  :  M.P.  for  Harwich,  1822  :  Prime 
Minister,  April,  1827,  and  Chancellor  of 
the  Exchequer :  died  Aug.  8,  1827  : 
father  of  Earl  Canning  {q.v.).  Viceroy 
and  Governor-General,  1856-62. 



Son  of  foiurth  Earl  of  Essex  :  born  Aug. 
25,  1776  :  was  in  the  Navy,  1791-1847, 
rising  to  be  Admiral :  served  on  various 
stations,  and  under  Nelson  at  the  Nile  and 
Trafalgar :  at  the  forcing  of  the  Dar- 
danelles, 1807  :  off  N.  America  :  K.C.B., 
1832  :  and  from  1834  to  1837  was  Naval 
C.  in  C.  in  the  E.  Indies,  in  the  Winchester, 
50  guns:  G.C.B.,  1852  :  died  March  4, 

CAPON,  SIR  DAVID  (1793-1869) 
Born  in  Bombay,  1793 :  educated  in 
England:  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s military 
service,  1809  :  joined  the  Bombay  N.I., 
1810  :  in  the  Palampur  expedition,  1813  : 
in  the  Konkan,  1817  :  commanded  troops 
at  Aden,  1838  :  twice  attacked  by  large 
bodies  of  Arabs  :  commanded  a  Brigade 
of  the  Bombay  Army  at  the  siege  of 
Multan,  1848-9  :  in  the  subsequent 
pursuit  of  the  Sikhs :  K.C.B.,  1862  : 
General,  1868  :   died  Dec.  17,  1869. 


(1836-  ) 

Born  1836  :  served  in  the  Crimea  1855- 
6  :  entered  the  Indian  Telegraph  Depart- 
ment, 1857,  and  was  Director  of  Indian 
Telegraphs,  1883-9  :    K.C.I.E.  in  1887. 

CAPPER  (   ?    -1809) 

Colonel  in  the  Madras  Army  :  influential 
in  the  affairs  of  Fort  St.  George  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  i8th  century  :  on  more 
than  one  occasion  was  employed  by  the 
Governors  in  civil  and  ecclesiastical  negotia- 

tions :  as,  e.g.  in  1787.  in  the  time  of  Sir 
Archibald  Campbell,  when  the  Council  had 
to  settle  important  matters  with  regard  to 
the  Roman  Catholic  population  of  Madras, 
and  French  influence  had  to  be  excluded  : 
saw  active  service  and  fought  "  with  spirit 
and  gallantry  "  at  Arikera,  under  Colonel 
Montresor,  1800 :  distinguished  himself 
under  Wellesley :  became  Lt-Colonel 
and  Adjutant-General.  When  Sir  George 
Barlow  was  Governor  of  Madras,  Capper 
became  impUcated  in  the  disputes  between 
General  Hay  Macdowall,  C.  in  C.  of  the 
Madras  Army,  and  the  Civil  Authorities, 
1809  :  Macdowall  had  resigned  in  Jan. 
and  left  for  England  :  the  responsibility 
of  pubUshing  his  Army  Order  against 
Munro  (which  gave  further  offence  to  the 
Madras  Government)  rested  with  Colonel 
Capper,  and  his  suspension  was  the  result : 
he,  too,  started  for  England,  but  was  lost 
at  sea  on  the  voyage,  March,  1809. 

CAREY,  ARTHUR  DOUGLAS  (  ?  -   ) 

I.C.S.  :  educated  at  the  City  of  London 
School :  went  out  to  Bombay,  1865  : 
Collector  of  Salt  Revenue,  1881  :  acting 
Commissioner  of  Inland  Customs,  1881  : 
in  1885  travelled,  via  Ladak  to  Northern 
Tibet,  to  Lake  Mungtsa,  Khotan,  Kuchar, 
Lake  Lob,  Tsaidam,  Urumtsi,  Yarkand,  to 
Ladak  :  Commissioner  of  Customs,  Salt, 
Opium  and  Abkari,  1891  :  on  special  duty 
to  Lisbon,  in  connexion  with  Goa  Treaty 
negotiations,  1891-2  :   retired  1893. 

CAREY,  EUSTACE  (1791-1855) 

Missionary :  son  of  Thomas  Carey,  a 
non-commissioned  officer  :  nephew  of  the 
Rev.  Dr.  W.  Carey  (q.v.)  :  born  March 
22,  1791  :  educated  at  Bristol  College  : 
arrived  at  Serampur  as  a  missionary  in 
1814 ;  founded  a  missionary  establish- 
ment at  Calcutta,  1817  :  left  India,  1825  : 
urged  the  cause  of  missions  in  England  : 
wrote  about  missions  and  a  memoir  of 
W.  Carey  :    died  July  19,  1855. 

CAREY,  FELIX  (1782-1822) 

Missionary :  son  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  W. 
Carey  (q.v.)  :  went  with  his  parents 
to  India :  assisted  his  father  in  his 
Biblical  translations  :  besides  many  trans- 
lations in  Bengali,  he  published  a  Burmese 
grammar,  and  began  a  Burmese  dictionary 
and  Pali  grammar  :  he  died  at  Serampur, 
Nov.  10,  1822. 



CAREY,  MARY  (1741-1801) 
Of  Indian  birth  :  wife  of  Peter  Carey, 
a  seafaring  man  :  the  last  of  the  23  sur- 
vivors of  the  146  persons  imprisoned  in 
the  Black  Hole  of  Calcutta  on  June  20, 
1756  :  her  husband  died  there,  or  after- 
wards in  the  fighting  at  Fulta :  her 
subsequent  fate  is  uncertain,  but  the 
tradition  of  her  being  carried  off  by  the 
Nawab's  people  is  not  authentic.  She 
married  again,  her  second  husband  being  a 
military  officer.  She  confirmed,  at  an 
interview  on  Aug.  13,  1799,  Holwell's 
account  of  the  Black  Hole  tragedy  :  she 
died  March  28,  1801,  at  Calcutta. 

CAREY,   REV.   DR.   WILLIAM   (1761- 

Missionary:  born  Aug.  17,  1761,  in 
Northamptonshire  :  son  of  Edmund  Carey, 
a  village  schoolmaster  :  apprenticed  to  a 
shoemaker  at  Hackleton :  joined  the 
congregation  of  Baptists  in  1783,  and  at 
22  was  publicly  baptized  :  studied  Greek, 
Latin  and  Hebrew  under  great  privations  ; 
had  charge  of  a  congregation  at  Leicester 
in  1789,  and  joined  in  forming  a  Baptist 
missionary  society  at  Kettering,  1792  : 
sent  out  as  their  first  missionary  to  Bengal 
in  1794,  lost  all  his  property  in  the  Hughli 
and  was  destitute  in  Calcutta.  After 
cultivating  in  the  Sundarbans,  he  became 
Superintendent  of  an  indigo  factory  in  the 
Malda  district  for  5  years,  built  a  church 
there,  and  preached  in  the  villages. 
Being  prevented  by  the  E.  L  Co.  from 
establishing  a  mission  in  British  territory, 
he  formed  with  others,  in  1799,  a  mission- 
ary settlement  at  Serampur  under  the 
protection  of  the  Danish  Governor,  Colonel 
Bie  :  there  he  first  translated  the  Bible 
into  Bengali  and  printed  it,  and  it  was 
afterwards  translated  into  26  languages. 
Carey  also  published  dictionaries  and 
many  grammars  of  languages  and 
other  Indian  works  :  edited  the  Ramayana 
and  Roxburgh's  Flora  Medica.  In  1801 
he  was  appointed  to  be  a  Professor  of 
Sanskrit,  Bengali  and  Mahratti  at  the 
new  College  of  Fort  William,  and  in  1805 
he  founded  the  Bow  Bazar  Mission  Chapel 
in  Calcutta  :  in  1807  he  was  made  D.D. 
by  the  Brown  University  in  the  United 
States.  Notwithstanding  official  warnings 
against  over-zeal  his  mission  prospered, 
and  many  out-stations  were  established  : 
he  died  at  Serampur,  June  9,  1834. 



I.C.S. :  son  of  D.  D.  Carmichael  Smyth : 
he  resumed  the  family  name  of  Carmichael : 
educated  at  Harrow  and  Haileybury, 
1849-50  :  went  to  Madras  in  the  Civil 
Service,  1851  :  Private  Secretary  to  Sir 
C.  Trevelyan  when  Governor,  1859  : 
Revenue  Secretary  to  Government,  1875  : 
Chief  Secretary,  1877  :  Member  of 
Council,  1878-83  :    died  Sep.  30,  1903. 

CARNAC,  JOHN  (1716-1800) 

Entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  service  in  1758,  as 
Captain,  from  H.M.'s  39th  regt.  :  in  1760 
commanded  at  Patna,  and  in  176 1  defeated 
the  Delhi  Emperor  near  Bihar,  and  took 
prisoner  M.  Law  with  his  men  :  beat  off 
Shuja-ud-daula's  attack  on  Patna,  April, 

1764  :  was  Brig-General  in  1764,  and 
defeated  the  Mahrattas  in  the  Doab  in 

1765  :  received  the  Emperor  Shah  Alam 
and  the  Wazir  Shuja-ud-daula,  and  closed 
the  war  :  M.P.  for  Leominster,  1767  :  in 
1776-9,  was  Member  of  Council,  Bombay  : 
Member  of  the  Superintending  Committee 
on  the  expedition  against  Poona,  1778 : 
and  was  dismissed  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  service 
for  his  share  in  the  convention  of  War- 
gaum,  Jan.  14,  1779  :  died  at  Mangalore 
on  a  sea  voyage,  Nov.  9,  1800. 

WAB  OF  THE  (1775-1819) 

Son  of  Amir-ul-umra :  nephew  of 
Umdat-ul-umra  {q.v.),  and  grandson  of 
Muhammad  Ali  {q.v.)  :  born  1775  :  on 
the  death  of  his  uncle,  Azim-ud-daula, 
accepted  the  British  terms,  which  Ali 
Husain,  the  reputed  son  of  Umdat,  had 
refused,  and  was  given  the  succession. 
An  engagement  was  made  with  him  on 
July  31,  1 801,  by  which  he  gave  up  the 
government  of  the  Carnatic  to  the  E.J.  Co., 
and  allowances  were  assigned  for  his 
personal  expenses  and  for  his  family : 
he  lived  quietly,  and  died  Aug.  3,  1819. 



THE  (1824-1855) 

Succeeded  as  a  child  to  his  father 
Nawab  Azim  J  ah,  Nov.  12,  1825  :  in- 
stituted as  Nawab  in  1842  by  Lord 
Elphinstone,  Governor  of  Madras  :  on  his 
death  without  issue,  Oct.  7,  1855,  Govern- 
ment  declared   the   title,   privileges,   and 



immunities  of  the  Nawab's  family  to  be  at 
an  end. 


Second  son  of  Anwar-ud-din  Khan, 
Nawab  of  the  Carnatic  :  present  at  the 
battle  of  Ambiir,  escaped  to  Trichinopoly  : 
he  was  appointed  Nawab  by  Nasir  Ali, 
the  Nizam  of  the  Dekkan,  in  1749  : 
was  besieged  at  Trichinopoly  by  Chanda 
Sahib  and  the  French,  until  relieved  by 
the  English  :  on  his  behalf  Clive  took 
Arcot,  1 75 1,  and  he  was  successfully 
supported  as  Nawab  by  the  English,  both 
against  Chanda  Sahib,  the  candidate 
assisted  by  the  French,  and  against  the 
rebellious  PoHgars  :  recognized  as  Nawab 
by  the  Treaty  of  Paris  of  1763,  and 
acknowledged  as  independent  of  the 
Nizam  by  the  Mogul  Emperor  in  1765  : 
entitled  Walajah :  he  contracted  large 
debts  to  the  E.  I.  Company  and  the  English 
adventurers  who  crowded  his  court  and 
preyed  upon  him  :  he  assigned  districts 
for  their  payment :  by  Treaties  of  1763. 
1781,  1785,  1787,  1792,  arrangements 
were  made  for  their  liquidation,  by  the 
English  managing  the  Carnatic,  etc.  :  he 
died  Oct.  16,  1795  :  his  intrigues  with 
Tippoo  were  discovered  after  the  fall  of 
Seringapatam  in  i799»  whereupon  the 
English  assumed  the  government  of  the 
Carnatic,  making  provision  for  the  family 
of  the  Nawab. 

WAB OF  THE  (1748-1801) 

Son  of  Muhammad  Ali  (q.v.),  whom  he 
succeeded  in  Oct.  i795-  After  the  fall  of 
Seringapatam  in  May,  i799»  treasonable 
correspondence  between  Tippoo  and  Um- 
dat-ul-umra  and  his  father  came  to 
light  :  the  British  Government  thereupon 
repudiated  the  existing  treaty  of  1792 
with  the  Nawab  of  the  Carnatic,  and 
resolved  to  assume  the  government  of  the 
Carnatic,  making  a  provision  for  the 
family  of  the  Nawab.  Umdat-ul-umra 
died  July  15,  1801,  before  the  proposed 
arrangements  could  be  concluded. 

CARPENTER,  ALFRED  (1847-        ) 

Son  of  Charles  Carpenter,  R.N.  :  born 
Aug.  2,  1847 :  educated  at  Brighton 
College  :    entered  the  Royal  Navy,  18 61, 

and  retired  as  Captain  in  1895  :  served 
in  the  Challenger  scientific  expedition : 
Soudan  expedition  1884  :  and  while  in 
charge  of  the  Marine  Survey  of  India, 
piloted  the  war  flotilla  under  fire  to 
Mandalay  and  Bhamo  in  1885,  for  which 
he  received  his  D.S.O. 

CARPENTER,  MARY  (1807-1877) 
Daughter  of  Dr.  Lant  Carpenter :  born 
April  3,  1807:  devoted  her  life  to  philan- 
thropy :  opened  schools  at  Bristol,  for 
girls,  for  the  reformation  of  juvenile 
criminals :  also  ragged  and  industrial 
schools  :  and  worked  for  the  passing  of 
the  Industrial  Schools  Act.  Her  attention 
had  been  attracted  to  India  by  the  presence 
of  Raja  Rammohan  Roy  (q.v.)  at  Bristol 
in  1833,  and  by  the  visits  of  native  gentle- 
men. She  visited  India  in  1866-7,  1868- 
9,  1869-70,  1875-6,  with  a  view  to 
improve  female  education,  reformatory 
schools,  and  the  management  of  the  jails. 
She  was  in  communication  with  the 
authorities  in  India,  and  at  the  India 
Office,  and  with  the  leading  native  gentle- 
men, such  as  Keshab  Chandra  Sen  (q.v.), 
with  whom  she  founded  a  "  National  Indian 
Association"  at  Bristol  in  1870,  to  bring 
Indian  visitors  and  EngHsh  inquirers 
into  closer  relations.  Many  of  her  sugges- 
tions for  reforms  and  improvements  were 
adopted.  She  paid  visits  to  Germany  and 
America.  Among  her  publications  were 
Last  Days  in  England  of  the  Raja  Ram- 
mohan Roy,  1866  :  and  Six  Months  in 
India,  1868.     She  died  on  June  14, 1877. 


Educated  at  St.  John's  College,  Cam- 
bridge :  B.A.,  1813  :  Senior  Optime : 
Bishop  of  Bombay,  1837-51,  when  he 
resigned  from  ill-health  :  appointed  Rector 
of  Bath,  1854 :  universally  esteemed 
there :  a  member  of  the  Evangelical 
section  of  the  Establishment :  died  at 
Bath,  Sep.  5,  1859. 

MUND (1769-1849) 

Born  Oct.  22, 1769  :  son  of  Codringtoa 
Carrington  :  educated  at  Winchester : 
called  to  the  bar  by  the  Middle  Temple, 
1792  :  Bencher,  1832  :  practised  as  an 
advocate  at  the  Calcutta  bar,  1792-9, 
being  junior  Counsel  to  the  E.I.  Co. :  was  an 



intimate  friend  of  Sir  William  Jones  {q.v. ) : 
when  in  England,  he  made  a  code  of  law 
for  Ceylon  :  was  appointed  Chief  Justice 
there  and  knighted,  1801  :  retired  in 
1806  from  ill-health.  M.P.  for  St.  Mawes, 
1826-31:  was  D.C.L.  1810:  F.R.S.,  J.P. 
and  F.S.A.  :  died  Nov.  28, 1849. 

CARTIER,  JOHN  (1733-1802) 

Governor  :  arrived  in  India  as  a  writer 
in  E.  I.  Co.'s  service  :  was  a  factor  and 
assistant  at  Dacca,  whence  he  was  expelled 
in  1756  :  joined  other  fugitives  at  Fulta : 
served  as  a  volunteer  under  Clive  in  re- 
taking Bengal,  and  was  praised  by  Court 
of  Directors :  Chief  of  Dacca  factory, 
1761  :  Second  in  Council  at  Calcutta, 
1767  :  succeeded  H.  Verelst  as  Governor 
of  Bengal,  Dec.  26,  1769  :  followed,  as 
Governor,  by  Warren  Hastings,  April  13, 
1772  :  eulogized  by  Edmund  Burke  for 
his  government  of  Bengal :  died  in  Kent, 
Jan.  25,  1802. 

CASEMENT,  SIR  WILLIAM  (1780-1844) 
Maj-General :  appointed  to  Bengal, 
1795  :  served  in  India  47  years  and  6 
months  :  in  Lord  Lake's  campaigns,  at 
Alighar,  1803,  Deeg,  1804  :  D.Q.M.G.  in 
the  Nipal  war,  1815  :  Secretary  to  the 
Government  of  India  in  the  Military 
Department  for  20  years  from  June, 
1818  :  Colonel,  23rd  N.I.,  1824  :  K.C.B., 
1837 :  was  Member  of  the  Supreme 
Council  from  June  17,  1839  :  died  of 
cholera  at  Cossipur,  April  16,  1844  :  his 
bust  is  in  the  Town  Hall,  Calcutta. 

CASSELS,  ANDREW  (1812-1886) 
Of  an  old  Scotch  family,  resident  at 
Manchester  :  he  opened  in  1843  in  Bom- 
bay the  firm  of  Peel,  Cassels  &  Co.  : 
returned  to  England,  1851  :  Dhrector  of 
the  Manchester  Chamber  of  Commerce, 
1 861  :  Member  of  the  Council  of  India, 
1874-84  :  Vice-President,  1875,  of  the 
Society  of  Arts  :  a  great  authority  on 
Indian  cotton  :    died  Aug.  2,  1886. 


(1826-  ) 

Son  of  Robert  Cassels :  educated 
privately  and  abroad  :  spent  some  years 
in  Italy,  and  in  1856  joined  the  mercantile 
firm  of  Peel,  Cassels  &  Co.  in  Bombay  : 
was  a  Fellow  of  the  Bombay  University  : 
a  Member  of  the  Legislative  Council, 
Bombay,   1863:    left  India  in    1865   and 

devoted  himself  to  literature :  wrote 
poems,  1850  and  1856,  Cotton  in  the  Bom- 
bay Presidency,  1869 ;  Supernatural  Re- 
ligion, 1874-6,  and  1879 :  The  Gospel 
according  to  Peter,  1894,  etc.  etc. 

VISCOUNT  (1769-1822) 

Second  Marquis  of  Londonderry  (April, 
1821-Aug.  1822),  better  known  as  Lord 
Castlereagh  :  son  of  the  first  Marquis  : 
born  June  18,  1769  :  M.P.  for  Tregony, 
1794-6  :  for  Oxford,  1796-7,  and  other 
places :  his  career  lay  in  English  and 
European  politics,  and  his  only  connexion 
with  India  was  as  President  of  the  Board 
of  Control  (the  India  Board),  Sep.  9, 1802 — 
Feb.  14,  1806,  in  the  Addington  and  W. 
Pitt  Administrations  :  while  holding  this 
office,  he  supported  the  Governor-General, 
Lord  Wellesley,  whom  he  admired,  against 
the  Court  of  Directors  :  fought  a  duel 
with  George  Canning,  Sep.  22,  1809  : 
Foreign  Secretary,  1812-33  :  died  by  his 
own  hand,  Aug.  12,  1822. 



Colonel :  son  of  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Cautley  :  born  Jan.  3,  1802  :  educated 
at  Charterhouse  and  Addiscombe  :  entered 
the  Bengal  Artillery,  1819  :  was  assistant 
to  Colonel  Robert  Smith  in  reconstructing 
the  old  irrigation  channel  of  the  Doab 
Canal  from  1824-30,  but  was  at  the  siege 
of  Bhartpur  in  1826  :  held  charge  of  the 
above  canal,  1831-43  :  framed  the  project 
of  the  Ganges  Canal,  sanctioned  by  the 
Court  of  Directors  in  184 1,  and  constructed 
between  1843  and  1854.  He  left  India  in 
1854,  Lord  Dalhousie  ordering  a  salute  to 
be  fired  in  his  honour  :  and  his  bust  was 
placed  in  the  Calcutta  Town  Hall : 
K.C.B.  :  from  1858-68,  Member  of  the 
Council  of  India.  He  had  a  controversy 
with  Sir  Arthur  Cotton  {q.v.)  on  the 
engineering  of  the  Ganges  Canal,  in  which 
further  work  and  improvement  were  found 
to  be  required.  He  explored  largely  in 
the  Sivalik  range  of  hills  in  India,  and 
acquired  many  fossils  of  scientific  value, 
which  he  presented  to  the  British  Museum  : 
contributed  many  papers  to  the  Asiatic 
Society  of  Bengal  and  to  the  Geological 
Society,  chiefly  on  fossils  :  died  Jan.  25, 



NAPOLEON  (1841-1879) 

Lt-Colonel :  son  of  General  Adolphe 
Cavagnari  :  born  July  4,  1841,  educated 
at  Christ's  Hospital  and  Addiscombe :  was 
naturalized  in  1857  :  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s 
Army,  1858  :  in  the  Oudh  campaign  in 
the  mutiny :  joined  the  Staff  Corps, 
1 86 1,  and  the  Pan  jab  Commission  as  an 
Assistant  Commissioner  :  had  charge  of 
the  Kohat  district,  1866  to  1877,  and,  as 
Deputy  Commissioner  of  Peshawar,  accom- 
panied several  frontier  expeditions,  1868- 
78  :  C.S.I,  in  1877  :  he  was  a  member  of 
Sir  N.  Chamberlain's  mission  to  Shir  Ali, 
in'the  autumn  of  1878,  when  it  was  stopped 
at  Ali  Masjid  by  the  Amir's  officer.  When 
Yakub  Khan  had  become  Amir,  on  the 
death  of  Shir  Ali,  Major  Cavagnari  nego- 
tiated the  treaty  of  Gandamak  with  him, 
May  26,  1879:  K.C.B.  He  was  appointed 
Resident  at  Kabul  and  was  residing,  from 
July,  1879,  at  the  Bala  Hissar  in  Kabul, 
when  the  Afghan  troops  rose,  attacked  his 
residence,  and  he  and  his  staff  were  all 
killed,  Sep.  3,  1879. 


(1845-         ) 

Colonel :  son  of  General  Cavaye : 
born  1845  :  educated  at  Edinburgh 
Academy  and  Sandhurst  :  commanded 
the  2nd  Royal  Sussex  regt.  :  Military 
Secretary  to  H.R.H.  the  Duke  of  Con- 
naught,  when  C.  in  C.  in  Bombay  :  has 
since  held  several  Staff  appointments : 
served  in  the  Zulu  war,  1879,  and  in  the 
S.   African  war,   1900-2. 


(1835-  ) 

Born  May  29,  1835  :  son  01  Lt-Colonel 
Edward  Cave-Browne  :  educated  at  the 
College  School,  Taunton :  clerk  in  the 
East  India  House,  1854 :  rose  to  be 
Accountant-General  in  the  India  Office 
fromi893:  retired  in  1900  :  C.S.I,  in  1898. 

CAVENAGH,  SIR  ORFEUR  (1821-1891) 

General  :  son  of  James  Gordon  Cave- 
nagh  :  educated  at  Addiscombe  :  entered 
the  Army :  was  through  the  Gwalior 
campaign  :  lost  a  leg  at  Maharajupr,  1843  : 
in  the  Satlaj  campaign  at  Badiwal :  in 
charge  of  the  Mysore  Princes  and  ex- Amirs 
of  Sind  :  had  political  charge  of  Sir  Jang 
Bahadur    and   the   Nipalese   embassy    to 

England,  1850  :  was  Town  Major  of  Fort 
William,  Calcutta,  during  the  mutiny : 
frustrated  the  plot  of  the  mutineers  to 
seize  the  Fort  :  recommended  the  forma- 
tion of  the  Volunteer  Guards  :  Governor 
of  the  Straits  Settlements,  1859-67  :  Lt- 
General,  1874  :  K.C.S.I.,  1881  :  died 
July  7,  1891  :  wrote  Reminiscences  of  an 
Indian  Official. 

CHALMERS,  SIR  JOHN  M.  (1756-1818) 

Son  of  Patrick  Chalmers  :  joined  the 
Madras  Infantry  in  1775  ■  made  a  gallant 
defence  of  Coimbatore,  June-Nov.  1791, 
with  only  a  small  force,  against  Tippoo's 
troops :  obliged  to  capitulate :  taken 
prisoner  to  Seringapatam,  his  release 
effected  by  Cornwallis  in  Feb.  1792  : 
commanded  the  force  at  Travancore, 
1803-9,  and  the  N.  Division  of  the  Madras 
Army,  1812-7  :  Maj-General,  1812  :  K.C.B. , 
1 8 15.  After  42  years'  service  in  Madras, 
he  died  on  the  voyage  home,  March  31, 


(1847-    ) 

Born  Feb.  7,  1847  :  son  of  Rev.  F. 
Chalmers,  D.D.,  educated  at  King's 
College,  London,  and  Trinity  College, 
Oxford  :  served  in  the  Indian  Civil  Service, 
1869-72  :  held  several  legal  appoint- 
ments as  Judge  of  County  Courts  and 
Acting  Chief  Justice  of  Gibraltar  :  Legal 
Member  of  the  Viceroy's  Council,  1896, 
retired,  1899  :  Parliamentary  Counsel  to 
the  Treasury,  1902-3  :  Permanent  Under 
Secretary  in  the  Home  Department,  1903  : 
contributed  Articles  to  the  Dictionary  of 
Political  Economy,  and  the  EncyclopcBdia 
Britannica  :  author  of  Digest  of  the  Law  of 
Sale,  Digest  of  the  Law  of  Bills  of  Ex- 
change :    C.S.I.  :    C.B. 

CHALMERS,  ROBERT  (   ?  -1878) 

Lt-Colonel :  joined  the  Indian  Army, 
1849  :  in  the  mutiny  his  regt.,  the  ist 
Oudh  Irregular  Infantry,  mutinied  :  he 
narrowly  escaped  to  Allahabad  :  joined 
a  regt.  proceeding  to  relieve  Cawnpur  : 
carried  back  news  of  the  massacre  at 
Cawnpur,  44  miles,  to  Allahabad,  through 
country  teeming  with  a  hostile  population  : 
was  in  Havelock's  engagements  about 
Cawnpur,  in  the  relief  of  Lucknow,  in  its 
subsequent  defence,  the  fighting  at  Alam- 
bagh,  and  the  final  capture  of  Lucknow, 



in  March,  1858  :   died,  which  commanding 
the  14th  Bengal  Lancers,  Aug.  11,  1878. 

TROTTER  (1821-1902) 

Third  son  of  Sir  Henry  O.  Chamberlain, 
Bart.,  younger  brother  of  Sir  Neville 
Bowles  Chamberlain  {q.v.)  ■  born  May, 
1821  :  entered  the  Army  in  1837,  was  in 
the  Afghan  war  of  1839-42,  at  the  siege 
and  capture  of  Ghazni,  and  in  various 
actions  near  Kandahar  :  in  the  Panjab 
campaign  in  1848-9  :  at  Chilianwala  and 
Gujarat,  in  the  pursuit  of  the  Sikh  Army 
and  its  final  surrender  :  wounded  :  Brevet- 
Major  :  commanded  the  ist  Irregular 
Cavalry,  Skinner's  Horse,  over  whom  he 
had  extraordinary  influence :  in  the 
mutiny  in  1857  distinguished  himself  by 
disarming,  with  "  undaunted  courage  and 
coolness,"  the  62nd  and  69th  Bengal  N.I., 
at  Multan  :  engaged  against  the  rebels, 
and  was  besieged  in  a  sarai  for  some 
days :  Lt- Colonel  after  the  mutiny : 
C.S.I,  in  1866  :  General  in  1880  :  G.CI.E. 
in  1897  :    died  Dec.  13,  1902. 

CHAMBERLAIN,    REV.    JOHN    (1777- 


Son  of  John  Chamberlain  :  born  July 
24,  1777  :  accepted  as  a  probationer  for 
missionary  work,  1798  :  preached  at 
Olney  :  studied  under  Dr.  Ryland  at  the 
Academy  at  Bristol :  sent  to  India  by  the 
Baptist  Missionary  Society  in  1802,  vid 
America :  arrived  at  Serampur,  Jan. 
1803:  visited  Dinajpur,  1804  :  established 
himself  at  Katwa,  May,  1804  :  carried  on 
a  cloth  business,  and  built  a  school : 
visited  Berhampur :  removed  to  Agra, 
181 1  :  sent  down  to  Calcutta  by  order  of 
Government :  appointed,  1812,  tutor  at 
Sardhana  to  David  Dyce  Sombre,  great- 
grandson  of  Begam  Sanuru :  established 
schools  and  preached  frequently  :  also  at 
Hardwar,  for  which  he  was  ordered  to 
Calcutta,  1815  :  went  to  Serampur,  and 
up  the  river  to  Ghazipur :  settled  at 
Monghyr,  1816  :  made  missionary  tours 
to  Benares,  Mirzapur,  etc.  :  ordered  home 
for  ill-health,  Sep..  1821  :  died  at  sea, 
Dec.  6,  1 82 1. 

BOWLES    (1820-1902) 

Field  Marshal :  second  son  of  Sir  Henry 
Orlando  Chamberlain,  first  Baronet  : 
bom  1820  :    educated  for  a  short  time  at 

Woolwich  :  at  17  entered  the  Bengal  Army: 
in  the  first  Afghan  war  was  with  Nott's 
force  :  at  the  occupation  of  Kandahar,  at 
Ghazni,  Kabul  and  Istalif :  constantly 
wounded  :  was  in  the  Governor- General's 
bodyguard :  in  the  Gwalior  campaign, 
D.A.Q.M.G.  :  at  Maharajpur :  in  the 
second  Sikh  war,  at  Chilianwala  and 
Gujarat :  complimented  by  the  C.  in  C. 
for  personal  gallantry  :  Commandant  of 
Panjab  Military  Police  :  Military  Secre- 
tary to  the  Panjab  Government  :  Com- 
mandant of  the  Panjab  Frontier  Force  : 
commanded  several  expeditions  against 
the  frontier  tribes :  in  the  mutiny  of 
1857  was  in  charge  of  the  movable  column 
of  the  Panjab  until  he  became  Adjutant- 
General  of  the  Army  at  Delhi,  and  Brig- 
General  :  severely  wounded  there  and  dis- 
abled :  C.B.  and  A.D.C.  to  Queen  Victoria  : 
commanded  operations  against  the  Wazi- 
ris  :  K.C.B.  :  commanded  in  the  Umbeyla 
campaign  in  1863,  until  severely  wounded 
when  personally  leading  an  assault  of  a 
difficult  position  :  Maj-General :  G. C.S.I.,. 
1873  :  G.C.B.,  1875  :  commanded  the 
Madras  Army,  1876-81:  in  1878 
selected,  by  Lord  Lytton,  to  lead  a  special 
mission  to  the  Amir  Shir  Ali :  the  stopping 
of  the  mission  at  Ali  Masjid  was  the  imme- 
diate ground  of  the  second  Afghan  war  t 
he  was  personally  in  harmony  with  Lord 
Lawrence's  frontier  policy :  Military- 
Member  of  Supreme  Council,  Nov.  1878- 
Jan.  1879  :  retired,  1881  :  severely 
criticised  the  policy  of  part  of  the  Boer 
war,  1 899-1902  :  Field  Marshal  in  1900  : 
died  Feb.  17,  1902. 


(1856-  ) 

Born  Jan.  13,  1856  :  son  of  Lt-Colonel' 
Charles  Chamberlain,  C.B.  :  educated 
abroad  and  at  Brentwood  School,  Essex  : 
joined  the  Army,  1873  :  Central  India 
Horse,  1876  :  on  the  staff  of  Sir  F.  Roberts- 
through  the  Afghan  war,  1878-80  :  A.D.C. 
to  Sir  F.  Roberts  when  C.  in  C,  Madras^ 
1 881-5  :  Persian  Interpreter,  1885-90  : 
served  in  the  Burma  campaign,  1886-7  • 
re-organized  the  Kashmir  Army,  1890-7  r 
commanded  the  Khyber  Force,  1899  : 
Private  Secretary  to  Lord  Roberts  in  S. 
African  war  :  Inspr-General  Royal  Irish 
Constabulary  since  1900  :  C.B.  in  1900  : 
K.C.B.,  1903  :  retired  as  Colonel  from 
the   Indian   Staff   Corps. 



COURT  (1789-1828) 

Born  Aug.  31,  1789  :  nephew  of  Sir 
Robert  Chambers,  (1737-1803),  C.J.  Ben- 
gal (1789-99):  educated  at  Cambridge, 
Fellow  of  Trinity  College  :  B.A.,  1809  : 
M.A.,  1814  :  practised  at  the  bar  at  the 
Mayor's  Court,  Chester,  and  elsewhere : 
in  1823  appointed  a  Puisne  Judge  of  the 
new  Supreme  Court,  Bombay,  opened 
May  8,  1824  :  knighted  by  Geo.  Ill :  the 
Supreme  Court,  while  he  was  judge,  passed 
severe  strictures  on  the  arbitrary  pro- 
ceedings of  the  executive  officers  of  the 
E.  I.  Co.,  including  the  magistracy  and  the 
police  :  the  Civil  Government  defied  the 
Court's  authority  and  instructed  the  Com- 
pany's officers  not  to  assist  the  Court's 
officials  :  the  Court  refused  to  register  a 
stringent  Regulation  of  the  Bombay 
Government  against  the  liberty  of  the  Press : 
on  the  death  of  the  Chief  Justice,  Sir  E. 
West,  on  Aug.  13,  1828,  Chambers  acted 
as  C.J.,  and  continued  opposing  the  Gov- 
ernment :  Lord  EUenborough,  as  President 
of  the  Board  of  Control,  supported  the 
Executive  :  Chambers,  still  in  opposition, 
died  Oct.  13,  1828,  leaving  Sir  J.  P. 
Grant  {q.v.)  alone  :  buried  in  the  Cathedral, 
Bombay  :  he  wrote,  in  England,  on  legal 

CHAMBERS,  SIR  ROBERT  (1737-1803) 

Son  of  Robert  Chambers,  of  Newcastle  : 
born  i737>  educated  there  and  at  Lincoln 
College,  Oxford  (Exhibitioner)  :  Fellow 
of  University  College,  1761  ;  M.A.,  1761; 
B.C.L.,  1765  ;  Vinerian  Professor  of  Law, 
1762-77  :  Principal  of  New  Inn  Hall, 
Oxford,  in  1766.  In  1744  he  joined  the 
Calcutta  Supreme  Court  as  second  Judge, 
Sir  Elijah  Impey  being  Chief  :  knighted 
in  1778  :  lived  for  several  years  in  a 
garden-house,  at  Bhawanipur :  he  became 
Chief  Justice  in  1791  :  retired  in  1799  = 
declined  a  peerage :  died  in  Paris,  May  9, 
1803  :  a  monument  by  Nollekens  is  in  the 
Temple  Church,  where  he  was  buried. 
He  was  a  friend  of  Dr.  Johnson  from 
1766,  and  of  Sir  Philip  Francis  in  Calcutta. 
He  was  one  of  the  Judges  on  the  trial  of 
Nuncomar  for  forgery,  when  the  latter 
was  convicted,  and  hanged  on  Aug.  5, 
1775.  Chambers  left  some  legal  writings, 
and  a  collection  of  Sanskrit  MSS. 

ARCHIBALD  (1833-         ) 

Maj -General :  son  of  Henry  Chamfer 
of  the  Madras  Civil  Service  :  born  May  13, 
1833  :  educated  at  Cheltenham  :  joined 
the  Indian  Army  :  Adjutant  of  the  Calcutta 
Volunteers,  1857  :  Persian  Interpreter  to 
Sir  James  Outram  in  first  relief,  defence, 
siege  and  capture  of  Lucknow :  com- 
manded the  Raja  of  Kapurthala's  troops 
in  the  Oudh  campaign,  1858  :   CLE. 

CHAMIER,  HENRY  (1795-1867) 
I.C.S.  :  educated  at  Haileybury,  181 1- 
12  :  went  out  to  Madras,  1813  :  entered 
the  Secretariat,  1827  :  became  Chief 
Secretary,  1837-42  :  Member  of  Council, 
Madras,  Jan.  1843  -  Jan.  1848  :  when  he 
retired  :  died  Feb.  4,  1867. 


I.C.S.  :  appointed  a  writer,  1772  : 
Factor,  1778 :  Junior  Merchant,  1780  : 
absent  in  England  for  7  years  :  Senior 
Merchant,  1787  :  Secretary,  1790,  in  the 
Military,  Political,  and  Secret  Depart- 
ments, and  Judge  Advocate  General : 
"  Chief  "  of  Vizagapatam,  for  6  years  : 
Chief  Secretary  to  Madras  Government, 
1801  :  Provisional  Member  of  Council, 
Madras,  1802  :  confirmed  as  Member, 
1803  :  resigned,  1805  :  returned  to  Eng- 

CHAMIER,  STEPHEN  (1834-  ) 
Born  Aug.  17,  1834:  son  of  Henry 
Chamier  of  the  Madras  Civil  Service : 
educated  at  Cheltenham  and  Addiscombe  : 
entered  the  Madras  Artillery,  1853  :  trans- 
ferred to  Royal  Artillery,  1861  :  com- 
manded mountain  battery  in  Burma 
against  the  Karens,  1856  :  served  in  the 
Indian  mutiny,  1857-8,  and  was  present 
at  Cawnpur  under  Sir  Charles  Windham, 
at  the  siege  of  Lucknow  under  Sir  Colin 
Campbell,  and  in  the  Oudh  campaign  : 
Brevet-Major,  and  C.B.  :  Inspr-General  of 
Ordnance,  Madras,  1881-6 :  Lt-General, 

CHAMPION,  ALEXANDER  (  ?  -  ?  ) 

Second  in  command  to  (Sir  Hector) 
Munro,  1764,  when  opposed  to  Shuja-ud- 
daula:  in  the  battle  of  Baxar,  Oct.  23, 
1764:  Colonel:  succeeded  Sir  Robert 
Barker,  as  C.  in  C.  of  the  Bengal  Army, 
June  18,  1774,  to  Oct.  29,  1774  =    com- 



manded  a  Brigade  in  1774,  asked  for  by  the 
Nawab  Wazir  of  Oudh, against  the  Rohillas: 
defeated  them  near  Tassunih,  April  23, 
1774 :  retired  1774 :  resided  at  Bath 
many  years. 

CHANDA,    SAHIB   (  ?  -1752) 

Another  name  of  Husain  Dost  Khan, 
son-in-law  of  Dost  Ali  Khan,  Nawab  of 
Arcot,  1732-40,  and  his  Diwan  :  regarded 
as  a  great  soldier  of  his  time  :  he  obtained 
possession  of  the  Hindu  kingdom  of 
Trichinopoly  by  cajoling  the  Rani,  1736- 
The  Mahrattas  invaded  the  Carnatic, 
1740,  besieged  Chanda  in  Trichinopoly, 
and  took  him  prisoner  in  1741  to  Satara : 
Dupleix  in  1748  procured  his  release  for  a 
large  ransom.  On  the  death  of  Anwarud- 
din,  the  Nawab  of  the  Carnatic,  in  1749, 
at  the  battle  of  Ambur  against  Chanda 
Sahib  and  Muzaffar  Jang  (the  claimant 
to  succeed  as  Nizam),  Chanda  was  pro- 
claimed as  Nawab  :  the  British  supported 
Muhammad  Ali,  son  of  Anwaruddin,  as 
their  candidate  for  the  Nawabship,  while 
the  French  supported  Chanda's  aspira- 
tions. Muhammad  Ali  fled  from  Ambur 
to  Trichinopoly,  where  he  was  besieged 
by  Chanda :  in  the  fighting  that  ensued 
Chanda  surrendered  to  the  Raja  of  Tan- 
jore,  in  May,  1752,  who  barbarously  put 
him  to  death  and  sent  his  head  to  Muham- 
mad Ali. 

CHANDRA,   BHOLANATH  (1822-        ) 

Born  1822  :  educated  at  the  Hindu 
College  :  in  1843  became  a  clerk  in  the 
Union  Bank,  Calcutta ;  afterwards  ap- 
prenticed to  Messrs  Haworth,  Hardman 
&  Co.  :  appointed,  in  1845,  their  agent 
fortheu:  Cossipur  Sugar  Refinery:  servedfor 
30  years  :  began  to  publish  his  "  Travels  " 
serially  in  the  Englishman's  Saturday 
Journal  in  1866-7:  issued  together  in 
2  vols,  in  1869,  in  England,  with  an  intro- 
duction by  J.  T.  Wheeler  (q.v.) :  published, 
in  1894,  a  life  of  Raja  Digambar  Mitra, 
C.S.I.  :  an  auther  of  undoubted  literary 
ability  and  powers  of  observation. 

GANESH  (1855-    ) 

Educated  at  Elphinstone  College,  Bom- 
bay :  pleader  of  the  Bombay  High  Court 
and  Judge  of  that  Court  since  1901  : 
succeeded  Mr.  Justice  Ranade  as  leader 
of  the  Indian  Social  reform  movement. 


Born  1766  :  at  first  a  subordinate  in 
the  Customs  Department  at  Hyderabad 
under  his  uncle,  Rai  Nanak  Ram  :  in  1806 
Peshkar,  and,  after  Mir  Alam's  death, 
became  the  real  Minister  of  the  Nizam's 
Government,  though  Munir-ul-mulk  was 
Diwan  :  was  highly  regarded  by  Henry 
Russell,  the  Resident  at  Hyderabad  from 
18 1 1-20.  Chandu  Lai  ruled  Hyderabad 
for  about  35  years :  retired  Sep.  1843, 
from  the  Peshkarship,  on  a  monthly 
pension  of  Rs.  30,000  :  died  April  15,  1845. 


(1840-         ) 

General :  born  1840 :  son  of  Henry 
Chapman  :  entered  the  Bengal  Artillery, 
1858  :  served  in  the  Abyssinian  war,  1867- 
8  :  accompanied  Sir  Douglas  Forsyth  as 
Secretary  to  Yarkand  in  1873-4  :  in  the 
Afghan  war,  of  1878-80,  was  Chief  of  the 
Staff  in  Sir  F.  Roberts'  march  from 
Kabul  to  Kandahar  :  C.B  :  and  Brevet  Lt- 
Colonel :  in  Burma  campaign,  1885-6  : 
Military  Secretary  to  Sir  Donald  Stewart, 
when  C.  in  C.  in  India  :  Q.M.G.  in  India  : 
Director  of  Military  Intelligence,  189 1-6  : 
commanded  the  Scottish  District,  .1896- 
1901  :  Colonel  Commanding  Royal  Artil- 
lery :  F.R.G.S:  A.D.C.  to  Queen  Victoria, 


(1829-    ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Nov.  21,  1829  :  son  of 
Jonathan  Chapman  :  educated  at  Hailey- 
bury  :  entered  the  Bengal  Civil  Service, 
1849 :  and  rose  to  be  Secretary  to  the 
Government  of  India  in  the  Finance 
Department,  1869-81,  when  he  retired  : 

CHASTENAY,  HENRY  (1794-1822) 
B.C.S.  :  arrived  in  India  as  a  writer  in 
Bengal,  Nov.  181 1  :  served  always  at  the 
headquarters  of  the  Government :  Private 
Secretary  to  the  Marquess  of  Hastings, 
when  Governor  -  General :  died  May  2, 
1822  :    buried  at  Calcutta. 



Bengali  noveUst  and  prose  writer  :  son 
of   Jadab    Chandra   Chatterji,    a   Deputy 



Magistrate  :  born  June  27, 1838  :  educated 
at  the  Midnapur  School,  Hughli  and 
Presidency  Colleges  :  in  1858  he  was  the 
first  native  of  India  to  take  the  B.A. 
degree,  Calcutta :  at  once  appointed  to  be 
a  Deputy  Magistrate,  and  became  a 
prominent  member  of  the  Provincial 
service,  acting  for  a  time  as  Assistant 
Secretary  to  the  Bengal  Government. 
His  reputation  was  made  in  literature, 
as  the  Bengali  novelist  of  his  time  :  his 
novels  were  numerous,  and  are  said  to  be 
still  popular  :  he  brought  out  a  Uterary 
magazine,  1872,  and  wrote  the  first  Ben- 
gali historical  novel,  under  the  title  of 
Diirges  Nandini.  This  was  followed  by 
Kapala  Kandala,  Mrinalini,  and  Bisha 
Brikka,  which  was  translated  into  English 
and  very  favourably  criticised  by  Pro- 
fessor Darmesteter :  Debt  Chandurani, 
Ananda  Matha,  and  Krishna  Kanter  Will : 
wrote  also  on  Hindu  religion,  Kirshna,  the 
Vedas,  and  Hindu  literature  :  made  Rai 
Bahadur  and  CLE  :  retired  from  Govern- 
ment service  in  189 1:  died  April  8,  1894. 

EYRE  (1863-         ) 

Born  July  22,  1863  :  son  of  A.  T.  Chat- 
terton :  educated  at  Haileybury  and 
Dublin  University :  ordained  1887  :  Head 
of  the  Dublin  University  Mission  to  Chota- 
Nagpur,  1 891-1900  :  Bishop  of  Nagpur, 
Central  Provmces,  1903  :  D.D  :  author  of 
The  Story  of  Fifty  Years'  Mission  in 
Chota-Nagpur  :    F.R.G.S. 

Born  Oct.  5,  1865,  at  Lyons  :  son  of 
Emile  Chavannes,  engineer  :  educated  at 
I'Ecole  normale  superieure  :  his  work  as  a 
scholar  has  dealt  principally  with  Chinese 
subjects,  often  in  relation  to  India  :  en- 
trusted with  a  scientific  mission  to  China, 
1889-93  :  appointed  Professor  of  the 
Chinese  Language  and  Literature  at  the 
College  de  France,  1893  :  Secretary  of  the 
Societe  Asiatique,  1895  :  Member  of  the 
Institute,  1903  :  The  following  works  by 
him  treat  of  the  travels  of  Chinese  Budd- 
hist pilgrims  in  India :  I-tsing,  Les 
religieux  eminenis,  1894  :  Voyage  de 
Song  Yun  dans  VUdyana  et  le  Gandhara, 
(a  translation)  in  the  Bulletin  de  VEcole 
francaise  d'Extreme  Orient,  1903,  etc.  : 
Documents  sur  les  Toii-kine  {Turks)  occi- 
dentaux,  1903,  treats  of  several  questions 
relating   to   India.     He   has   also  writte^i 

largely  in  the  Journal  Asiatique,  on  the 
Chinese  inscriptions  of  Bodh  Gaya  in  the 
Revue  de  VHistoire  des  Religions,  and  in 
other  periodicals. 

CHAVASSE,   WILLIAM   (1785-1814) 

An  ofificerof  the  E.I.  Co.'s  service,  who 
tried,  with  a  companion,  to  explore  the 
route  of  the  10,000  Greeks,  as  described 
in  Xenophon's  Anabasis.  They  were 
taken  prisoners  by  a  local  chief  near 
Bagdad,  but  released  on  payment  of 
ransom.     Chavasse  died  of  fever  there. 

CHEAPE,  SIR  JOHN  (1792-1875) 
Son  of  John  Cheape  :  born  in  1792  : 
educated  at  Woolwich  and  Addiscombe  : 
joined  the  Bengal  Engineers  in  1809, 
rose  to  be  Maj-General  in  1854:  was  under 
Lord  Hastings  in  the  Pindari  war,  in  the 
Nerbudda  Field  Force,  1817  :  at  the  siege 
of  Asirghar  and  in  the  Burmese  war, 
1824-6  :  was  Chief  Engineer  at  the  siege 
of  Multan,  1848,  and  at  Gujarat  in  the 
Panjab  campaign  :  C.B.  :  in  the  second 
Burmese  war  of  1852-3,  was  second 
in  command  under  General  Godwin  at 
first,  and  later,  in  1853,  commanded,  and 
took  Pegu  :  the  provinces  of  Pegu  and 
Tenasserim  were  annexed  :  K.C.B  :  A.D.C. 
to  Queen  Victoria  :  retired,  1857  :  Colonel 
Commandant  of  Engineers,  1862  :  G.C.B., 
1865  :  General,  1866  :  died  March  30, 


Born  May  31,  1827  :  son  of  first  Baron 
(Lord  Chancellor,  1858-9)  :  educated  at 
Eton  :  succeeded  to  title,  1879  :  entered 
the  Army  in  the  Grenadier  Guards,  1844  : 
served  in  the  Crimea :  Lt. -Colonel  in  the 
95th  regt.  in  the  mutiny,  in  Central  India  : 
Adjutant-General  in  the  Abyssinian  cam- 
paign,1867-8  :  C.B.  and  A.D.C.  to  Queen 
Victoria :  Adjutant-General  in  India  : 
commanded  the  forces  in  the  Kafir  war, 
1878  :  succeeded  his  father,  Oct.  1878  : 
at  Isandhwala,  Gingilhovo,  Ulundi  : 
Lieutenant  of  the  Tower,  1884-9  •  General, 
1888  :  G.C.B.  :  G.C.V.O  :  died  April  9, 


B.C.S. :  son  of  George  Cherry :  born  1761  : 
entered  the  Bengal  Civil  Service,   1778  :. 



accompanied  Lord  Cornwallis  as  his 
Persian  Secretary  to  Madras,  where,  in 
1792,  peace  was  made  with  Tippoo  at 
Seringapatam  :  Cherry's  picture  of  Tippoo 
is  at  the  India  Office  :  appointed  Resident 
at  Benares,  1793  :  there  murdered  by 
Wazir  Ali,  the  reputed  son  of  the  late 
Nawab  Asaf-ud-daula  of  Oudh,  on  Jan. 
14,  1799- 


Born  Sep.  1837  :  entered  the  Bengal 
Medical  Service,  1859  :  Deputy  Surgeon- 
General,  1889  :  did  excellent  service  at 
Mian  Mir  and  Umritsar  in  the  cholera 
epidemic  of  1861  :  in  the  Hazara  Field 
Force,  1868  :  Black  Mountain  expedition  : 
Lushai  expedition,  1871-2  :  Afghan  war, 
1878-80  :  from  Ali  Masjid  to  Gandamak, 
1878,  to  Kabul  1879  :  in  the  Kabul- 
Kandahar  march  :  in  the  battle  of  Mazra, 
near  Kandahar  :  in  the  expedition  against 
the  Marris  :  Deputy  Surgeon  -  General, 
Lahore,  1889-94  :  when  he  retired  :  died 
x\pril  12,  1904. 


Son  of  Capt.  Charles  Cornwallis  Chesney 
of  the  Bengal  Artillery  :  born  April  30, 
1830 :  educated  at  Blundell's  school, 
Tiverton,  and  Addiscombe  :  entered  the 
Bengal  Engineers,  1848,  and  became 
General  in  1882  :  went  to  India  in  1850  : 
in  the  P.W.D.  until  the  mutiny  :  in  the 
Badli-ka-sarai  action,  June,  8,  1857  :  at 
the  capture  of  the  ridge  at  Delhi :  Brig- 
Major,  R.E.  at  Delhi :  in  the  assault  on 
Sep.  14  :  was  President  of  the  Engineering 
College  at  Calcutta,  and  head  of  the  P.W.D. 
Account  Department  in  i860  :  President 
of  the  Royal  Indian  Civil  Engineering 
College  at  Cooper's  Hill,  1871-80,  of 
which  he  had  prepared  the  constitution, 
etc.  :  Secretary  to  the  Government  of 
India  in  the  Military  Department,  1880- 
6 :  Military  Member  of  the  Supreme 
Council,  July,  1886-April,  1891  :  M.P.  for 
Oxford,  1892  :  C.S.I.  1883  :  CLE.  1886  : 
C.B.  1887  :  K.C.B.  1890  :  died  March  31, 
1895.  He  wrote  a  number  of  books : 
the  principal  were   Indian   Polity  :     The 

Pie  of  Dorking,  a  military-political 
azine  article  which  made  a  great 
ation :  The  True  Reformer,  The 
mma,  The  Private  Secretary,  besides 
r  articles  in  Magazines  and  Reviews. 


Son  of  an  indigo  merchant :  joined  his 
father  in  trade  and  amassed  a  large 
fortune  at  the  time  of  the  American  war  : 
founded  the  Madras  Native  Association, 
of  which  he  was  President :  opposed  the 
proselytizing  tendencies  of  the  missionaries 
and  successfully  resisted  the  attempt 
made  to  introduce  the  Bible  as  a  text-book 
in  Government  Schools  in  1843  •  was 
forward  in  the  agitation  carried  on  in 
1853-5  regarding  the  grievances  of  the 
natives,  which  led  to  the  Torture  Com- 
mission :  after  incurring  much  odium  as  a 
seditious  person,  in  1861  he  was  made  a 
C.S.I.  :  he  next  directed  his  attention  to 
the  affairs  of  Mysore  and  the  Tanjore 
widows  :  lost  most  of  his  fortune  and  died 
a  poor  man,  leaving  a  name  for  patriotism 
and  self-sacrifice. 

CHIBU,  LAMA  (  ?  -1866) 
Was  sprimg  from  an  old  and  respectable 
Sikhim  family  of  Tibetan  origin  :  dwelt 
at  Tumlong  near  the  Raja  of  Sikhim  : 
was  early  a  man  of  influence  and  mark, 
learnt  Hindustani,  a  qualification  which 
gave  him  much  political  importance. 
When  Sir  Joseph  Hooker  and  Dr.  Campbell 
were  imprisoned  by  the  Sikhim  Court,  he 
befriended  them  throughout,  and  as  a  re- 
ward obtained  a  very  large  estate  of  about 
75,000  acres  near  Darjeeling,  on  the 
annexation  of  Sikhim  territory.  In  1864 
he  accompanied  Sir  Ashley  Eden  through 
out  his  mission  to  Bhutan  and,  with  con- 
siderable personal  danger,  exerted  himself 
to  bring  the  negotiations  to  a  successful 
issue  :   died  in  1866. 

CHINNERY,  GEORGE  (1766-1852) 
Artist :  exhibited  in  the  Royal  Academy, 
1790-1846  :  painted  in  Dublin  and  London 
and  went  to  China,  from  which  country  he 
visited  India  :  he  "  made  spirited  sketches 
of  scenes  in  India" :  was  at  Madras,  1802-7 
or  8,  and  afterwards  painted  many  pictures 
at  Calcutta  :  was  at  Canton  in  1830  and 
died  at  Macao  in  1852  :  references  to  his 
works  in  India  occur  in  Indian  literature : 
his  name  and  his  skill  are  remembered 
there  to  this  day, 


(1863-         ) 
Born  1863  :    Hony.  Magistrate  :    Presi- 
dent of  the  Nagpur  District  Council  since 




1888:  and  of  the  Nagpur  Municipality  since 
1894  :  represented  the  Central  Provinces 
as  Member  of  the  Governor-General's 
Legislative  Council,  1893-5  :  leader  of 
the  Prabhu  community :  guest  of  the 
nation,  representing  the  Central  Provinces, 
at  H.M.  the  King's  Coronation,  1902 : 
CLE.,  1895. 

CHRISTIE,    JOHN    (1805-1869) 

Entered  the  Indian  Army,  1822,  and 
the  3rd  Light  Cavalry,  1823  :  at  the 
capture  of  Bhartpur,  1826  :  was  selected 
by  the  C.,Sir  Henry  Fane,  to  raise,  for 
Shah  Shuja's  force,  the  ist  Irregular 
Cavalry,  later  known  as  Christie's  Horse, 
which  he  commanded  to  the  end  of  the 
first  Afghan  war,  1839-42  :  was  at  the 
occupation  of  Kandahar  and  pursuit  of 
the  Sirdars  to  the  Helmund  under  Sir 
Robert  Sale  :  at  Ghazni,  and  Kabul  in 
1839  :  accompanied  Outram  in  pursuit  of 
the  Amir  Dost  Muhammad  across  the 
Hindu  Kush  :  in  the  Kandahar  Division 
under  Sir  W.  Nott  in  1842  :  at  the  occupa- 
tion of  Ghazni  and  Kabul,  the  taking  of 
Istalif,  and  the  final  march  through  the 
Khyber  to  India:  was  at  the  battle  of 
Punniar,  1843  :  in  the  Satlaj  campaign 
of  1845-6,  at  Mudki,  Firozshahr  and 
Sobraon  :  Brevet-Major  :  throughout  the 
Panjab  campaign,  including  Chilianwala 
and  Gujarat,  and  the  pursuit  of  the 
Sikhs  and  Afghans,  always  in  command 
of  his  regiment :  Brevet-Lt-Colonel : 
returned  from  England  to  India  on  the 
outbreak  of  the  mutiny,  commanded  the 
Dinapur  Brigade,  and  kept  Patna  per- 
fectly quiet :  afterwards  in  command 
at  Barrackpur  and  Berhampur :  com- 
manded the  3rd  Bengal  Cavalry :  Maj- 
General,  1861  :  joined  the  Bengal  Staff 
Corps,  1866:  C.B.,  1867:  and  A.D.C.  to 
Queen  Victoria :  received  many  medals  and 
the  Order  of  the  Durani  for  his  services  in 
Afghanistan  :  died  at  San  Remo,  May  7, 
1869  :    bvuried  there. 

CHRISTIE,    S.  T.  (  ?  -1876) 

Lt-General :  entered  the  Army,  1836  : 
served  with  the  80th  regt.  in  the  Burmese 
war,  1852-3  :  commanded  the  storming 
party  at  Martaban :  at  the  operations  at 
Rangoon  :  at  the  capture  of  Prome  :  in 
the  Indian  mutiny  commanded  a  mov- 
able column  :  at  Fatehpur  :  at  the  siege 
of  Lucknow  :  commanded  a  Field  Force  in 

the  Oudh  campaign,  wounded  :    C.B.  :  Lt- 
General  1876  :  died  Oct.  5,  1876. 

HENRY  SPENCER  (1849-1894) 

Son  of  the  sixth  Duke  of  Marlborough  : 
born  Feb.  13,  1849  :  educated  at  Eton, 
and  Merton  College,  Oxford :  M.P.  for 
Woodstock,  1 874-1 885 ;  for  South  Padding- 
ton,  1885  to  his  death.  The  greater  portion 
of  his  career  in  politics  and  the  House  of 
Commons  had  no  connexion  with  India. 
He  made  a  tour  in  that  country  in  the 
cold  weather  of  1884-5,  in  which  he 
studied  its  administration,  and  gained 
experience  which  was  valuable  to  him 
when  he  was  Secretary  of  State  for  India 
from  June  24,  1885,  to  Feb.  5,  1886.  In 
that  post  he  made  a  reputation  for  his 
administrative  capacity,  his  industry, 
knowledge  of  details,  and  despatch  of 
business.  He  sanctioned  the  Burmese 
war  of  1885-6  and  the  annexation  of  Upper 
Biurma,  and  concluded  the  Russo-Afghan 
Frontier  negotiations.  He  also  sanctioned 
Mr.  Colman  Macaulay's  visit  to  Pekin, 
with  a  view  to  a  subsequent  mission 
to  Lhasa,  which  was  afterwards  stopped. 
He  was  on  a  sea  voyage  round  the  world 
for  his  health,  when  he  had  to  leave  Madras 
and  return  to  England,  and  died  there, 
Jan.  24,  1894. 


Captain :  Master-attendant  at  Cal- 
cutta: went  to  sea  in  1808  in  the  E.  I.  Co.'s 
mercantile  service  :  served  in  the  expedi- 
tions against  the  Isle  of  France  and  J  ava  : 
commanded  merchant-ships  to  and  from 
Calcutta  for  years ;  "no  man  in  the 
country's  service  ever  bore  a  higher 
character."  He  safely  rounded  Cape 
Horn,  with  a  lascar  crew,  in  1822-3  - 
having  served  as  second  and  first  Assistant, 
he  became  Master-attendant,  1840-2,  and 
was  confirmed  in  1847,  but  died,  Sep.  20. 
He  was  at  various  times  Judge  Advocate 
of  the  Marine  Committee  of  Enquiry : 
regarded  as  a  tried  and  valuable  officer 
of  the  Company,  and  much  esteemed  in 

EARL  OF  (1792-1851) 
Governor  :  born  June  10,  1792  :  son  of 
the  first  Earl,  Lord  Chancellor  of  Ireland  : 



succeeded  his  father  in  1902  :  educated 
at  Christ  Church,  Oxford  :  Governor  of 
Bombay,  March  21,  1831,  till  March  17, 
1835  :  Privy  Councillor,  1830 :  G.C.H., 
1835  :    K.P.,  1845  :    died  Aug.  18,  1851. 

CLARKE,  SIR  ALURED  (1745  ?-1832) 

Field-Marshal:  born  about  1745  :  entered 
the  Army,  1759 '  served  in  Germany, 
Ireland,  America :  was  Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor of  Jamaica,  1782-90 :  on  the  way 
to  India,  in  1795,  he  co-operated  with  Lord 
Keith  in  the  capture  of  Cape  Town  from 
the  Dutch  E.  I.  Co.  :  in  India  was  C  in  C. 
in  Madras,  Jan.,  1796  till  March,  1797  : 
Member  of  the  Supreme  Council  and 
provisional  C.  in  C.  Bengal  from  April,i797, 
and  confirmed  in  the  Chief  Command  in 
India  in  May,  1798,  retaining  it  tiU  July, 
1 80 1.  He  was  in  command  of  the  force 
with  Sir  John  Shore  when  the  latter,  as 
Governor-General,  went  to  Lucknow  to 
depose  Wazir  Ali  and  set  up  Saadat  Ali  as 
Nawab  of  Oudh  in  Jan.  1798.  He  acted  as 
Governor-General  from  the  resignation  of 
Sir  John  Shore  in  March,  1798,  till  the 
arrival  of  Lord  Mornington  in  May,  1798. 
He  was  K.B.  in  1797  :  General  in  1802  : 
G.C.B.,  1815  :  Field-Marshal  in  1830,  and 
died  Sep.  16,  1832. 

CLARKE,    SIR   ANDREW   (1824-1902) 

Son  of  Col.  Andrew  Clarke  :  born  1824  : 
educated  at  King's  School,  Canterbury, 
and  Woolwich :  entered  the  Royal 
Engineers,  1844  :  was  A.D.C.  to  Sir  W. 
Denison,  Governor  of  Tasmania,  1849-53  • 
in  the  Maori  war,  New  Zealand  :  on  the 
Staff  of  Sir  George  Grey :  Surveyor- 
General  of  Victoria  :  Minister  for  Public 
Lands  in  the  Legislative  Assembly  at 
Melbourne  :  nine  years  Director  of  Works 
for  the  Navy  :  Governor  and  C.  in  C.  of  the 
Straits  Settlements,  1873-5  :  P.W.D. 
Member  of  the  Supreme  Council  of  the 
Governor-General,  1875-80 :  Comman- 
dant of  the  School  of  Military  Engineer- 
ing at  Chatham,  1880-2  :  Inspr-General 
of  Fortifications,  1882-6  :  retired  in  1886 
asLt-General :  K.C.M.G.,  1873  :  G.C.M.G., 
1885  :  Col.  Commandant  R.E. :  unsuccess- 
fully contested  Chatham  in  1886  and 
1893  :  Agent-General  to  the  Colony  of 
Victoria  for  many  years  :  died  March  29, 
1902  :    also  C.B.  and  CLE. 


(1832-  ) 
Born  June  17,  1832  :  son  of  Tvurner 
Poulter  Clarke :  educated  at  King's 
College,  London,  Trinity  and  Queen's 
Colleges,  Cambridge :  third  wrangler, 
1856  :  Mathematical  Lecturer  at  Queen's 
College,  1857-65  :  joined  the  Education 
Department  in  Bengal :  Inspector  of 
Schools,  1866-87:  retired  1887:  F.R.S. : 
an  ardent  Botanist :  has  written  numerous 
papers  on  Botany,  also  on  Anthropology, 
Geography,  and  Music  :  and  Speculations 
from  Political  Economy,  1886. 

BARONET  (1839-  ) 
General :  son  of  Sir  Charles  Clarke, 
second  Batt.  :  born  Dec.  13,  1839  : 
entered  the  Army  in  1856  :  served  in  New 
Zealand,  South  Africa,  War  Office,  Ireland 
and  at  Aldershot :  commanded  the  Colonial 
Forces  at  the  Cape,  1880-2  :  C.  in  C.  in 
Madras,  1893-8  :  Q.M.G.,  1899-1903  : 
Governor  of  Malta  since  1903  :  G.C.B.  in 

CLARKE.  LONGUEVILLE  (  ?  -1860  ?  ) 
For  many  years  a  prominent  barrister 
of  the  Supreme  Court,  Calcutta  :  where, 
it  is  stated,  he  founded  the  Ice  House, 
the  Bar  Library,  and  the  Metcalfe  Hall. 

CLARKE,   TREDWAY  (1764-1858) 

General :  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  military 
service  in  1780  :  on  arriving  in  Madras 
was  engaged  in  the  war  against  Hyder 
Ali :  wounded  at  the  storming  of  Chil- 
lumbram :  in  command  of  the  Artillery  at 
Fort  St.  George  from  1783  :  under  General 
Medows  and  Lord  Cornwallis  in  the  fight- 
ing with  Tippoo  in  1790-2,  including 
Bangalore,  Seringapatam,  Pondicherry 
and  the  hill-forts :  from  1798,  Head 
Commissary  of  Ordnance  at  Fort  St. 
George  :  returned  to  England  in  1811  : 
offered  the  command  of  the  Artillery  at 
Madras  in  1820  :  prevented  by  ill-health 
from  accepting  it :    died  in  1858. 

CLARK-KENNEDY,   JOHN    (1817- 

Son  of  Lt-General  Sir  A.  K.  Clark- 
Kennedy  :  born  in  1817  :  entered  the 
Army  in  1833  :  served  in  China  :  at  the 
sieges  of  Multan  in  1848,  and  the  battle  of 
Gujarat  :  at  the  pursuit  and  surrender  of 
the   Sikhs,   and  defeat   of   the  Afghans  : 



with  Colin  Campbell  (Lord  Clyde)  at  the 
occupation  of  Peshawar,  March  21,  1849  : 
served  in  the  Crimea  :  Maj -General :  died 
at  Cairo  on  Dec.   18,  1867. 

CLAVERING,    SIR    JOHN    (1722-1777) 

Son  of  Sir  James  Clavering  :  born  in 
1722  :  entered  the  Guards,  was  Brig- 
General  in  the  attack  on  Guadaloupe  in 
1759  '  Horace  Walpole  wrote  "  Clavering 
was  the  real  hero  of  Guadaloupe.  He 
has  come  home  covered  with  more  laurels 
than  a  boar's  head "  ;  he  was  sent  to 
Hesse-Cassel  in  1760  :  became  Lt-General 
in  1770  :  in  1774  went  to  India  :  C.  in  C.  in 
India  and  one  of  the  four  Members  of  the 
Supreme  Council  under  the  Regulating  Act 
of  1773  :  lived  at  Calcutta  in  Mission  Row  : 
he,  Francis,  and  Monson  opposed  Warren 
Hastings  and  Barwell  in  the  Supreme 
Council.  He  was  made  K.B.  on  Nov. 
9,  1776  :  he  fought,  in  April,  i775>  a  duel 
with  Barwell :  he  supported  Nuncomar 
in  his  charges  against  Warren  Hastings. 
When  Warren  Hastings'  resignation 
was  tendered  by  his  agent  in  England 
— but  repudiated  in  India  by  Hastings — 
Clavering  claimed  to  be  Governor-General, 
but  his  claim  was  rejected  by  the  Supreme 
Court.     Clavering  died  Aug.  30,  i777- 

CLARKE    (1820-1895) 

Born  1820  :  his  father  was  Adminis- 
trator-General in  the  Supreme  Court, 
Madras  :  educated  at  Edinburgh  and  St. 
Andrew's  :  went  to  Madras  in  the  medical 
service,  1842  :  Professor  of  Botany  in  the 
Madras  University,  1852  :  entrusted  by 
the  Governor  of  Madras,  Lord  Harris,  to 
form  a  Government  Forest  Department : 
became  Inspr-General  of  Forests  and 
established  an  excellent  system  of  con- 
servancy and  management  :  retired, 
1869  :  for  many  years  he  selected  the 
candidates  for  the  Indian  Forest  Service  : 
died  May  16,  1895  :   LL.D.  :    F.R.S.E. 

CLEGHORN,  JAMES  (1841-        ) 

Son  of  John  Cleghorn  :  born  1841  : 
educated  at  Edinburgh  University  and 
Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  Edinburgh  : 
M.D.  St.  Andrew's :  entered  Indian 
Medical  Service,  1865  :  served  in  the 
Bhutan  campaign,  1864-5  :  and  rose  to 
be  Director-General  of  the  I. M.S.  and 
Sanitary  Commissioner,  1895  :    Fellow  of 

the  Allahabad  University  :  retired,  1898  • 
published  various  medical  papers  :  Hony. 
Surgeon  to  H.M.  the  King  :    C.S.I. 



I.C.S.  :  son  of  John  Clerk  :  educated 
at  Haileybury:  entered  the  Service  as 
"  writer  "  in  1817  :  after  holding  some 
unimportant  appointments  in  Bengal,  he 
entered  the  Political  Department :  was  in 
the  Secretariat,  in  Rajputana,  at  Delhi, 
Political  Agent  at  Umbala  and  Ludiana : 
Envoy  at  Lahore,  1842  :  Agent  to  the 
Governor-General  on  the  North-Western 
Frontier  during  the  first  Afghan  war, 
in  which  capacity  he  pushed  forward  rein- 
forcements with  energy,  and,  after  the 
massacre  of  the  Army,  urged  a  policy  of 
retribution.  He  was  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  the  N.W.P.,  June  to  Dec.  1843  : 
Provisional  Member  of  the  Supreme 
Council,  1844:  twice  Governor  of  Bombay, 
from  1847  to  1848  :  K.C.B.  :  and  from 
1860-2.  He  refused  the  government  of 
the  Cape,  but  served  there  on  boundary 
and  political  work,  1853-4  :  was  Under 
Secretary  and  Secretary  to  the  Board  of 
Control  in  1856-8,  and  permanent  Under 
Secretary  of  State  for  India,  1858-60. 
He  was  a  Member  of  the  Council  of  India, 
1863-76  :  K.C.S.I.,  1861  :  G.C.S.I.,  1866  : 
died  July  25,  1889. 

CLERK,  SIR   GODFREY  (1835-         ) 

General :  son  of  Sir  George  Russell 
Clerk  {q.v.),  the  Governor  of  Bombay  : 
born  Oct.  25,  1835  :  entered  the  Army, 
1851  :  served  with  the  Rifle  Brigade  in 
the  Indian  mutiny  and  N.W.  Frontier 
campaign  :  Adjutant-General  of  the  Mad- 
ras Army,  1880-5  '•  Assistant  Military 
Secretary  at  Headquarters,'i886-7  :  D.A.G. 
to  the  Forces,  1887-92*:  commanding  Bel- 
fast District,  1892-3  :  Lieutenant  of  the 
Tower  of  London,  1897-1900  :  Groom  in 
Waiting  to  Queen  Victoria,  and  to  H.M 
the  King  :  C.B.  :   K.C.V.O.  in  1902. 

CLEVELAND,  AUGUSTUS  (1755-1784) 

Of  the  Bengal  Civil  Service  :  said  to 
have  been  a  cousin  of  Lord  Teignmouth 
{q.v.)  :  was  Collector  and  Judge  of  the 
Diwani  Adalat  (Civil  Court)  of  the  dis- 
tricts of  Bhagalpur,  Monghyr  and  Raj- 
mahal :  proceeding  in  the  Atlas  Indiaman, 
to  the  Cape  for  his  health,  he  died  at  sea^. 




Jan.  12  or  13,  1784  :  his  remains  were 
brought  back  to  Calcutta,  and  interred  in 
the  South  Park  Street  Cemetery.  Warren 
Hastings  had  a  monument  erected  to  him 
with  a  lengthy  inscription :  another 
monument  was  put  up  by  his  native  subor- 
dinates and  others  at  Bhagalpur.  The 
inscription  on  the  latter  runs  :  "  Who, 
without  bloodshed  or  terrors  of  authority, 
employing  only  the  means  of  conciliation, 
confidence  and  benevolence,  attempted 
and  accomplished  the  entire  subjection  of 
the  lawless  and  savage  inhabitants  of  the 
jungle-territory  of  Rajmahal,  who  had 
long  infested  the  neighbouring  lands  by 
their  predatory  incursions,  inspired  them 
with  a  taste  for  the  arts  of  civilized  life, 
and  attached  them  to  the  British  Govern- 
ment by  a  conquest  over  their  minds,  the 
most  permanent  as  the  most  rational 
mode  of  dominion."  He  has  been  called 
"  the  dulce  decus  of  the  early  Civil  Ser- 
vice." This  was  the  voyage  of  the  Atlas 
in  which  Mrs.  Warren  Hastings  returned 
to  England. 



Son  of  the  19th  Baron  :  born  1834  : 
educated  at  Eton,  and  Christ  Church, 
Oxford  •  M.P.  1857-66,  when  he  suc- 
ceeded to  the  peerage  :  Under  Secretary 
of  State  for  India,  1867-8  :  Charity 
Commissioner  :    died  March  29,  1904. 

OLIVE,  ROBERT,  BARON  (1725-1774) 

Governor  of  Bengal :  son  of  Richard 
Clive  :  born  Sep.  29,  1725  :  educated  at 
Lostock,  Market  Drayton.  Merchant  Tay- 
lors' and  Hemel  Hempstead  :  his  youth 
marked  by  energy,  courage,  and  adven- 
ture :  reached  Madras  as  a  "  writer  "  in 
the  E.  I.  Co.'s  Civil  Service  in  1744  :  in 
the  capitulation  of  Madras,  1746  :  escaped 
to  Fort  St.  David :  obtained  military 
employ  in  1848  :  at  Boscawen's  siege  of 
Pondicherry  :  fought  at  Devikota,  1749, 
on  behalf  of  the  Tanjore  ruler  :  at  the 
flight  at  Valkonda :  seized  Arcot  on 
Aug.  31,  1 75 1,  to  divert  Chanda  Sahib 
from  besieging  Muhammad  Ali  at  Trichino- 
poly  :  was  himself  besieged  with  his  small 
party  in  the  fort  of  Arcot  for  50  days  by 
Chanda  Sahib's  superior  force,  which  he 
beat  off  successfully  :  one  of  the  most 
L  brilliant  feats  in  history  :    defeated  Raja 

Sahib  and  the  French  at  Caveripak,  1752  : 
destroyed  the  town  of  Dupleix  Fatehabad  : 
defeated  French  Army  near  Trichinopoly  : 
took  Covelong  and  Chingleput  :  in  Eng- 
land, 1753-6  :  returned  to  India  as  Lt- 
Colonel :  on  his  way  out  through  Bombay 
captured,  on  Feb.  13,  1756,  Gheria,  the 
stronghold  of  the  pirate  Angria  :  became 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  Fort  St.  David, 
June  20,  1756  :  after  the  Black  Hole 
tragedy,  Clive  was  sent  up  to  Bengal  in 
Oct.-Dec.  1756  :  took  Calcutta  and  Hughli 
from  the  Nawab  Suraj-ud-daula:  again 
defeated  him  and  took  Chandernagore : 
through  Omichund,  whom  he  deceived  by 
the  fraud  of  two  copies,  one  of  them  being 
fictitious,  of  the  treaty,  made  a  treaty 
with  Mir  J  afar  to  desert  the  Nawab: 
fought  the  battle  of  Plassey,  June  23,  i757 ; 
routed  the  Nawab,  who  fled  and  was 
killed  :  installed  Mir  J  afar  as  Nawab,  and 
received  large  siuns  from  him :  made 
Governor  of  Bengal :  asserted  himself 
against  his  colleagues  in  the  Government : 
defeated  the  Dutch  near  Chinsiura  :  sent 
Colonel  Forde  to  the  N.  districts  of  Mad- 
ras :  to  England  again,  1760-5  :  made 
Baron  Clive  of  Plassey  in  1762  :  K.C.B.  in 
1764  :  M.P.  for  Shrewsbury :  described 
as  a  "  heaven-born  General  "  :  quarrelled 
with  Sullivan,  Chairman  of  the  E.  I.  Co.'s 
Directors,  and  defeated  him  :  reappointed 
Governor  of  Bengal  and  C.  in  C.  to  reform 
the  abuses  prevailing  there  in  his  absence  : 
held  office  May  3,  1765,  till  Jan.  1767  : 
obtained  from  the  Emperor  of  Delhi,  Shah 
Alam,  the  "  diwani,"  i.e.  authority  to 
administer  the  Civil  Government  and 
collect  the  revenue,  of  Bengal,  Bihar  and 
Orissa,  Aug.  12,  1765  :  restored  Oudh  to 
Shuja-ud-daula :  reformed  the  adminis- 
tration, checking  malpractices  and  giving 
adequate  salaries  :  measures  of  retrench- 
ment provoked  mutiny,  which  he  promptly 
repressed  :  finally  retired  in  1767,  poorer 
than  in  1765  :  a  £70,000  legacy  from  Mir 
Jafar  he  devoted  to  "  the  Clive  Fund  " 
for  military  men  :  attacked  in  England 
by  numerous  enemies,  his  administration 
subjected  to  Parliamentary  inquiry : 
partly  condemned,but  it  was  finally  decided 
that  Clive  had  rendered  great  and  meritori- 
ous services  to  his  country  :  worn  out  by 
ill-health  and  persecution,  he  took  his  own 
life,  Nov.  22,  1774.  His  character  much 
discussed  :  his  bravery,  ability,  master- 
fulness, power  of  leading  and  governing 
are  generally  admitted  :   but  his  deceit  of 



Omichund  cannot  be  justified,  and  his 
acceptance  of  large  presents  from  Mir 
J  afar  can  only  be  excused  by  special 
considerations  of  contemporary  custom, 
and  their  openness. 


Appointed  to  the  Madras  Army  in 
1771  :  besieged  at  Tellicherry  in  1780  by 
Hyder  All's  troops  :  conducted  boundary 
negotiations  with  Tippoo's  Commissioners  : 
was  present  at  the  sieges  of  Seringapatam 
in  1792  and  1799,  as  Deputy,  and  Assist- 
ant Adjutant-General :  his  services  warm- 
ly acknowledged  by  the  C.  in  C,  General 
Harris  :  appointed  Resident  of  Mysore  in 
1799,  and  Resident  of  Poona  in  1801, 
remaining  there  for  ten  years.  He,  there, 
as  Resident,  negotiated  the  Treaty  of 
Bassein  of  Dec.  31,  180:?,  with  the  Peshwa, 
Baji  Rao  :  retired  to  England  in  181 1  : 
created  a  Baronet :   died  April  20,  1813. 


Field-Marshal,  son  of  Colin  Macliver,  a 
carpenter :  took  his  mother's  name  of 
Campbell :  born  Oct.  20,  1792  :  entered 
the  Army  in  1808 :  served  in  Portugal 
under  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley  and  Sir 
John  Moore  :  was  in  the  expedition  to 
Walcheren,  1809  :  served  in  the  Penin- 
sular from  1810  to  1813,  distinguishing 
himself  by  his  gallantry  :  Captain,  1813  : 
was  in  Nova  Scotia,  at  Gibraltar,  in  the 
W.  Indies  :  Major,  1825  :  Lt-Colonel, 
1832  :  in  the  China  war  of  1842  :  C.B.  : 
to  India  in  1846  :  Brigadier  at  Lahore  : 
was  engaged  in  the  second  Sikh  war,  at 
Ramnagar,  Chilianwala  and  Gujarat : 
commanded  the  Peshawar  Division : 
K.C.B.  in  1849  :  commanded  the  Highland 
Brigade  in  the  Crimea  at  Alma,  Bala- 
clava :  G.C.B.  in  1855  :  Lt-General, 
1856  :  D.C.L.  of  Oxford  :  went  out  at  a 
day's  notice  in  July,  1857,  to  be  C.  in  C.  in. 
India  during  the  mutiny,  hurried  up  rein- 
forcements to  Cawnpur,  and  thence,  in 
Nov.  1857,  relieved  Lucknow,  carrying 
off  the  garrison,  defeated  the  rebels  at 
Cawnpur,  and,  in  March,  1858,  besieged 
and  took  Lucknow  on  the  19th  :  subse- 
quently he  reduced  the  rebels  of  Northern 
India  to  submission  :  General,  and  made 
Lord  Clyde  of  Clydesdale,  in  1858  :  and 
received  a    pension  from  the  E.I.  Co.  : 

returned  to  England  in  i860  :  was  one  of 
the  first  Knight  Commanders  of  the  Star 
of  India  in  1861  :  was  made  Field-Marshal 
in  1862  :  died  on  Aug.  14,  1863,  and  was 
buried  in  Westminster  Abbey.  His  mili- 
tary career  was  one  of  the  greatest  of  the 
century  :  his  victories  in  India  and  his 
modest  and  exemplary  character  made 
him  a  hero  to  the  public. 

COBB,  JAMES  (1756-1818) 
Appointed  a  clerk  in  the  Secretary's 
office  at  the  India  House,  March  28,  1771  : 
became  Assistant  Secretary,  June  2,  1802  : 
Secretary,  Jan.  7,  1814  :  between  1779 
and  1809,  he  wrote  a  large  number  of 
pieces  of  various  kinds  for  the  stage  : 
died  1818. 

COCKBURN,  THOMAS  (1763-  ?  ) 

Appointed  a  writer  at  Fort  St.  George, 
1779  :  Member  of  the  Board  of  Revenue 
in  1793  :  in  1798  Lord  Mornington 
strongly  recommended  him  to  the  second 
Lord  Clive,  then  Governor  of  Madras  : 
in  1 801  he  was  induced  by  the  Court  of 
Directors  not  to  retire  :  was  employed  in 
settling  the  affairs  of  the  Nawab  of  Arcot, 
and  gave  evidence  before  the  House  of 
Commons  Committee  on  the  affairs  of 
the  E.  I.  Co.,  in  1812.  In  1813  he  pub- 
lished a  brochure  in  the  form  of  an 
imaginary  speech  to  be  delivered  by  an 
M.P.  on  Legislative  Interference  in  the 
Conversion  of  the  Indian  Population  to 

NET (1768-1835) 

Son  of  Colonel  James  Cockburn  :  born 
in  a  camp  in  1768  :  entered  the  Army 
when  only  10  years  old  :  in  the  American 
war,  and  a  captain  at  15  :  in  India  1790- 
1802 :  in  the  first  Mysore  war,  and  at 
Seringapatam  in  1792,  where  he  acted  as 
Engineer  :  Lt-General,  1821  :  died  March 
19.  1835. 

(1833-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Sep.  19,  1833  :  educated 
at  Eton  and  Haileybury,  185 1-2  :  went 
out  to  Lower  Bengal,  1853  :  officiating 
Chairman  of  the  Calcutta  Corporation  and 
Commissioner  of  Police,  1869  and  1872  : 
Commissioner  of  several  Divisions  :  Secre- 
tary to  the  Bengal  Government,  Judicial 
and     Political     Departments,     1877-82  : 



Member  of  the  Board  of  Revenue,  1S82- 
87  :  acting  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Bengal, 
Aug.  II  to  Sep.  17,  1885  :    C.S.I.  :    retired 



I.C.S. :  son  of  the  Hon.  Philip  James 
Cocks  :  born  April  18,  18 19  :  educated  at 
Haileybury :  went  to  India  in  1837  : 
served  in  Sind  under  Sir  C.  Napier  :  in 
the  Pan  jab  campaign  was  Political  Officer 
to  Lord  Gough  at  Ramnagar,  Chilianwala, 
Gujarat  :  after  the  annexation  in  1849 
served  in  the  Panjab  :  in  the  mutiny  was 
Judge  of  Mainpuri :  served  in  the  volun- 
teers at  Agra,  and  in  the  Alighar  district : 
C.B.,  1S60  :   retired,  1863  :    died  Aug.  29, 


Born  May  5,  1837  :  son  of  Rev.  T.  S. 
Codrington,  Vicar  of  Wroughton,  Wilts  : 
educated  at  the  Royal  Free  Grammar 
School,  Marlborough,  and  the  London 
Hospital :  M.D.  :  F.S.A.  :  in  the  Army 
Medical  Department,  June,  1859-1885  : 
served  in  the  N.  Zealand  war,  1864-6  : 
retired  with  honorary  rank  of  Deputy 
Surgeon-General :  formerly  Secretary  of 
the  Bombay  Asiatic  Society,  now  Hony. 
Librarian  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  and 
Royal  Numismatic  Societies  :  has  written 
a  Manual  of  Musulman  Numismatics  and 
various  papers  on  Oriental  Numismatic 
and  Archaeological  subjects. 



Son  of  Capt.  Coffin,  R.N.  :  born  1800: 
reached  India  in  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  Army  in 
1819  :  joined  at  Madras  in  1821  :  served 
in  the  first  Burma  war,  1824,  and  at  sta- 
tions held  by  the  Madras  Army  :  com- 
manded, from  1855,  the  Hyderabad 
subsidiary  force  :  and  a  Division  of  the 
Madras  Army  in  1859-64 :  K.C.S.I., 
1866  :  Lt-General,  1869  :  died  Oct  i,  1872. 

COGHILL,  KENDAL  (1832-  ) 
Colonel :  son  of  Admiral  Sir  J .  Coghill, 
Bart.  :  born  Oct.  21,  1832  :  educated  at 
Cheltenham :  joined  the  Indian  Army, 
1851  :  served  in  Burma,  1853-5  : 
Adjutant  of  his  regt.  (2nd  European 
Bengal  Fusiliers)  during  the  mutiny,  1857- 
8 :    present  at  Badli-ka-sarai    and    siege 

of  Delhi,  and  several  subsequent  actions  : 
Brig-Major  at  Cawnpur  and  Barrackpur  : 
Assistant  A.G.  at  Lucknow  and  Cal- 
cutta :  and  of  the  Presidency  Division, 
1861-1870  :  exchanged  to  19th  Hussars, 
which  he  commanded  in  Egyptian  cam- 
paign, 1882  :    C.B. 

General :  son  of  Captain  J.  Coghlan, 
C.B.,  R.N.  :  joined  the  Artillery  in  India, 
1820  :  in  the  Kolapur  Field  Force,  1826-7  : 
Brig- Major  of  Artillery  in  Sind  and 
Afghanistan  in  1838-40 :  at  Ghazni 
Kabul,  Kandahar,  capture  of  Kelat : 
Political  Resident  and  Commandant  at 
Aden,  1854-63  :  he  carried  out,  1856-7, 
the  occupation  of  Perim  (previously  taken 
possession  of  in  1799)  as  suggested  by 
Lord  Elphinstone  {q.v.) :  commanded 
against  Arabs,  1858  :  stormed  the  fort 
of  Shekh  Othmar :  K.C.B.,  1864 :  died 
Nov.  25,  1885. 

COKE,  SIR  JOHN  (1806-1897) 
Maj -General :  son  of  the  Rev.  F.  Coke  : 
born  1806 :  entered  [E.I.  Co.'s  Service, 
1823  :  served  in  the  loth  Bengal  N.I. : 
raised  the  ist  Panjab  Infantry  at  Pesha- 
war, 1849  :  commanded  it  till  1858  :  in 
the  Indian  mutiny  was  in  14  engagements, 
including  the  siege  of  Delhi :  Sheriff  of 
Herefordshire,  1879  :  died  Dec.  18,  1897  : 

COLE,  SIR  CHRISTOPHER  (1770-1836) 
Captain,  R.N.  :  son  of  Humphrey 
Cole:  born  June  10,  1770:  entered  the 
Navy,  1780 :  went  to  India,  1789^  under 
Commodore  William  Cornwallis,  and 
again  in  1804  in  the  Culloden  under  Sir 
Edward  Pellew  :  C.  in  C.  in  the  E.  Indies  : 
took  Sir  John  Malcolm  on  his  mission  to 
Persia,  via  Bushire,  1808 :  relieved  the 
garrison  of  Amboyna,  1810:  captured 
Neira,  the  principal  of  the  Banda  islands  : 
thanked  by  the  Governor-General  of 
India  :  served  on  the  Malabar  coast,  18 11, 
and  against  Java :  D.C.L.  of  Oxford : 
knighted,  1812  :  K.C.B.,  1815  :  M.P.  for 
Glamorganshire,  1817-30  :  died  Aug.  24, 


Son   of   Sir   George   Colebrooke,  Bart., 
Chairman  of  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Directors  in 



1769  :  born  June  15,  1765 :  privately 
educated:  went  to  India  in  1782-3.  In 
his  early  years,  as  Assistant  Collector  in 
Tirhut  and  Purnea,  he  took  keenly  to 
sport :  his  first  literary  work  was  on  the 
Agriculture  and  Commerce  of  Bengal,  in 
which  he  opposed  the  monopoly  policy  of 
the  E.  I.  Co.  At  first  he  disliked  Oriental 
literature,  but  feeling  compelled,  in  the 
exercise  of  his  duties,  to  learn  law  through 
the  Sanskrit  language,  he  published  a 
translation  of  a  Digest  of  Hindu  Law,  1791, 
in  which  his  appointment  in  1795  to 
Mirzapur,  near  Benares,  facilitated  his 
Sanskrit  studies :  also  wrote  in  the 
Asiatic  Researches,  his  first  paper,  in  1794, 
being  "  On  the  Duties  of  a  Faithful  Hindu 
Widow  "  :  also,  on  the  "  Origin  of  Caste  "  : 
was  sent  on  a  mission  to  the  Raja  of 
Berar  at  Nagpur  in  1799-1801,  without 
success  :  appointed  in  1801  to  be  a  Judge 
of  the  Sadr  Diwani  Adalat,  and  foiu:  years 
later  became  the  Head  of  that  Court : 
was  also,  unsalaried.  Professor  of  Hindu 
Law  and  Sanskrit  at  the  College  of  Fort 
William,  Calcutta  :  was  a  Member  of  the 
Supreme  Council  from  1807  to  18 12,  re- 
taining his  seat  in  the  Sadr  Court  :  after 
his  5  years  in  Council,  Colebrooke  returned 
to  the  Court,  and  next  became  a  Member 
of  the  Board  of  Revenue,  till  the  close  of 
1814 :  was  President  of  the  Asiatic 
Society  of  Bengal  from  1807  to  18 14,  when 
he  left  India.  He  made  a  voyage  to  the 
Cape  on  business  in  1821-2  :  after  his 
return  thence,  he  became  Director  of  the 
Royal  Asiatic  Society,  which  he  helped  to 
found  in  1823  :  became  totally  blind,  and 
died  March  10,  1837.  His  literary  and 
scientific  labours  were  immense.  A  great 
mathematician,  a  zealous  astronomer  and 
profound  Sanskrit  scholar,  his  writings 
always  commanded  the  highest  attention  : 
he  has  been  described  as  facile  princeps 
among  Sanskrit  scholars.  He  wrote  also 
on  the  Vedas,  on  Sanskrit  grammar,  and 
a  lexicon,  on  the  Sect  of  Jains,  on  Indian 
Jurisprudence  and  Roman  law,  besides 
other  papers  on  Hindu  Law,  philosophy 
and  customs,  Indian  algebra,  on  astrono- 
my, the  height  of  the  Himalayas,  botany, 
geology,  comparative  philology,  etc., 
in  contributions  to  the  Transactions  of  the 
learned  Societies — the  Astronomical,  Lin- 
naean.  Geological  and  Asiatic — to  which 
he  belonged,  as  well  as  to  the  Royal 
Societies  of  London  and  Edinburgh  :  he 
was  a  Member  of  several  foreign  Acade- 

mies also  :  he  gave,  in  1818,  his  valuable 
collection  of  Sanskrit  MSS.  to  the  E.  I. 
Co.'s  Library. 

WARD, BARONET  (1813-1890) 

Son  of  Henry  Thomas  Colebrooke  (^.v.)  : 
bom  in  Calcutta  in  1813  :  succeeded  as 
Baronet  in  1838  :  was  nearly  40  years 
M.P.  for  Taunton  and  Lanarkshire  :  was 
not  a  scholar,  but  was  in  sympathy  with 
Oriental  scholars  and  with  research  :  was 
President  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society, 
1864-6,  1875-7,  1881  :  published  the  Life 
of  Mountstuart  Elphinstone,  Essays  by 
H.  T.  Colebrooke,  The  Creeds  of  India,  a 
pamphlet :  edited  and  published  a  third 
volume  of  Elphinstone's  India :  died 
Jan.  II,  1890. 

COLEMAN,    JAMES    GEORGE    (1824- 

Born  1824  :  was  originally  in  the  Marine 
Service  :  became  partner  with  Mr.  Mac- 
dowell,  and  later  sole  proprietor  in  a  firm 
at  Madras,  which  by  great  industry  and 
application  he  made  a  flomishing  and 
profitable  business :  did  much  for  the 
social  and  public  welfare  of  the  conunun- 
ity  :  joined  the  Volunteer  movement  at 
its  commencement ;  became  its  Lt-Colonel 
and  commanded  the  Duke's  Own  Artillery 
Corps :  was  an  active  member  of  the 
Municipal  Corporation  :  and  a  member  of 
the  Madras  Legislative  Council  from  1879  : 
contributed  largely  to  charitable  institu- 
tions ;  died  at  Royapuram,  Madras.  Dec. 
14,  1883  :  one  of  the  foremost  of  the 
Eurasian  Community  of  Madras. 

D.D.  (1824-         ) 

Born  in  Ireland,  April  i,  1824  :  edu- 
cated at  Navan  and  Maynooth  College  : 
arrived  in  India,  1844 :  held  various 
appointments  in  Madras  until  he  became 
Vicar  Apostolic,  titular  Bishop  of  Aurelio- 
polis  :  and  Archbishop  in  1886  :  Personal 
Assistant  to  the  Pontifical  Throne,  1894  : 
a  FeUow  of  the  Madras  University  :  pul)- 
lished  works  on  Roman  Catholicism. 

HAYTER  (1843-        ) 

Born  June  17,  1843  :  son  of  Henry 
Collen  :  Maj-General :  educated  at  Royal 
Military    Academy,    Woolwich  :     entered 


the  Royal  Artillery,  1863  :  served  in  the 
Abyssinian  war,  1868  :  Secy,  to  the  Indian 
Army  Commission,  1879  :  Afghan  war, 
1880  :  Soudan,  1885  :  Secretary  to  the 
Government  of  India,  Military  Depart- 
ment, 1887-96  :  Military  Member  of 
Governor-General's  Supreme  Council,  1896 
-1901  :  CLE.,  1889  :  C.B.,  1897  :  K.C.I.E., 
1893  :    G.C.I.E.,   1901. 

COLLETT,  SIR  HENRY  (1836-1901) 

Lt-General  :  born  1836 :  son  of  the 
Rev.  W.  Collett  :  educated  at  Tonbridge : 
entered  the  Bengal  Army  in  1855  :  saw 
much  service  :  was  in  the  Sitana  campaign 
under  Sydney  Cotton,  1858  :  in  the  Oudh 
campaign  in  1858-9  :  in  the  Khasia  and 
Jaintia  rebellion,  1862-3  '•  severely 
v/ounded  at  Oomkrong  :  in  the  Abyssinian 
campaign,  1868 :  in  the  Afghan  war, 
1878-80  :  at  Peiwar  Kotal,  in  the  Khost 
valley,  the  Kabul-Kandahar  march  and 
the  battle  of  Kandahar :  C.B.  :  com- 
manded a  Brigade  in  the  Bmrma  expedi- 
tion, 1886-8  :  commanded  the  E.  Frontier 
district  with  the  Chin-Lushai  expedition- 
ary force,  1889-90 :  commanded  the 
Manipur  Field  Force,  1891  :  K.C.B.  :  was 
a  botanist  with  considerable  knowledge, 
and  wrote  on  the  flora  of  Simla  :  died 
Dec.  21,  1901. 


(18  35-1881 

Maj-General :  son  of  'the  Hon.  George 
Francis  CoUey.who  was  originally  Pomeroy: 
born  Nov.  1835  :  educated  at  the  R.M.C. 
Sandhurst  (highly  distinguished),  joined 
the  2nd  Queen's  in  1852  :  served  at  the 
Cape,  and  held  a  Border  Magistracy  there, 
1857-8  :  served  in  China,  was  at  the  action 
of  the  Taku  forts  and  the  advance  on 
Pekin  :  Brevet  -  Major,  1863  :  entered 
the  Staff  College  and  passed  with  distinc- 
tion :  appointed  Professor  there,  and  wrote 
articles  on  the  Army  in  the  Encyclopcedia 
Britannica :  in  the  Ashanti  campaign, 
1873  :  went  to  Natal  on  a  special  mission, 
to  the  Transvaal,  and  Swaziland :  was 
?*Iilitary  Secretary  to  Lord  Lytton  when 
Viceroy  and  Governor-General  of  India, 
I S 76-8  :  Private  Secretary,  1878-80,  but 
during  1879  was  Chief  on  the  Staff  to 
Sir  Garnet  Wolseley  in  Zululand  and  the 
Transvaal,  until  recalled  late  in  that  year 
to  India.  He  was  C.B.,  1873  :  C.M.G., 
1878  :     K.C.S.I.,    1879.     Early    in     1880 

he  was  appointed  High  Commissioner  for 
South  Eastern  Africa,  and  Governor  and 
C.  in  C,  Natal :  in  the  fighting  with  the 
Boers  which  ensued,  Colley  was  defeated 
at  Laing's  Nek,  and  was  killed  in  the 
Boers'  attack  on  Majuba  Hill,  Feb,  26, 
1881.  Colley  had  studied  deeply  the 
questions  of  the  Indian  frontier  and  Cen- 
tral Asia,  and  exercised  much  influence  on 
the  military  and  political  policy  of  Lord 
Lytton's  administration. 

HAMMOND  (1834-        ) 

Son  of  John  Collins  :  born  1834  : 
called  to  the  bar  from  Gray's  Inn,  i860  : 
Q.C.  and  Bencher,  1877  :  also  a  barrister 
of  the  Middle  Temple  :  Recorder  of  Poole, 
1873-9,  and  of  Exeter,  1879-85  :  Chief 
Justice  of  the  High  Court,  Madras,  1885- 
99  :  knighted,  1885  :  Vice-Chancellor  of 
the  Madras  University,  1889-99. 

COLLINS,  JOHN  (  ?  -1807) 

Colonel :  joined  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  Bengal 
Infantry,  1770  :  Major  in  1794  :  appointed 
Resident  at  the  Court  of  Daulat  Rao 
Sindia  {q.v.),  1 795-1 803,  but,  though  he[had 
much  power  over  him,  failed  to  dissuade 
him  from  fighting  against  the  English  : 
Collins,  therefore,  in  1803  left  Sindia,  who 
was  defeated  at  Assaye  and  Argaum  in 
that  year.  Collins  was  also  sent  on  a 
mission  to  Jaipur  in  1799.  After  the 
Mahratta  war,  Collins  was  Resident  at 
Lucknow,  at  the  Court  of  the  Nawab 
Wazir,  and  died  there  June  11, 1807.  He 
was  called  "  King  Collins,"  and  is  de- 
scribed as  "  cold,  imperious,  and  over- 
bearing," so  that  Metcalfe  {q.v.)  declined 
to  remain  under  him. 


(1848-         ) 

Son  of  Dr.  Archibald  Colquhoun, 
H.E.I.C.S.:  educated  at  Edinburgh  Univer- 
sity and  abroad :  entered  the  Indian 
Public  Works  Department,  1871  :  ex- 
plored from  Canton  to  Bhamo  for  best 
railway  route  between  Burma  and  China, 
1 88 1-2  :  Deputy  Commissioner  Upper 
Burma,  1885-9  '•  Administrator  in  Mas- 
honaland,  1890  :  retired,  1894  :  travelled 
extensively  in  Siberia,  Mongolia  and 
China,  etc.,  1900-3  :  author  of  Across 
Chryse,  1883  ;  Amongst  the  Shans,  1885  ; 
The  Key  of  the  Pacific,  1895  ;  Russia  against 



India,  1900,  etc.  etc.  :  F.R.G.S.  :  Times 
Correspondent  on  several  occasions : 
has  written  a  number  of  geographical  and 
political  papers. 


Son  of  Andrew  Wedderburn  Colvile : 
born  1810  :  educated  at  Eton,  and  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge :  called  to  the  bar 
from  the  Inner  Temple  in  1835  :  was 
appointed  in  1845  to  be  Advocate-General, 
Bengal :  made  a  Puisne  Judge  of  the 
vSupreme  Court,  Calcutta,  1848  :  knighted  : 
Chief  Justice,  1855-9,  when  he  retired  : 
was  President  of  the  Council  of  Education, 
and  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal, 
1848-59  :  also  Vice-President  of  the 
Governor-General's  Legislative  Council : 
after  his  retirement,  he  was  Privy  Coun- 
cillor, and  first  Assessor,  and,  later.  Mem- 
ber of  the  Judicial  Committee  :  F.R.S.  : 
died  Dec.  6,  1880. 

COLVILLE,  SIR  CHARLES  (1769  1843) 

Entered  the  Army,  1781,  in  28th  regt.  : 
Lt-Colonel  in  13th  foot  in  1796  :  served  in 
the  Irish  rebellion,  1798  :  in  Egypt, 
1 80 1-2  :  commanded  his  regiment  to 
Bermuda,  1808  :  Brigadier  in  the  Penin- 
sula, 1810-14  :  commanded  a  Division 
at  Waterloo  :  C.  in  C.  at  Bombay,  Oct. 
9,  1819  to  1826  :  Colonel  of  5th  Fusiliers, 
1835  :  General,  1837  :  G.C.B.  :  G.C.H.  : 
died  March  27,  1843. 

COLVIN,  SIR  AUCKLAND  (1838-        ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  John  Russell  Colvin  {g.v) : 
born  1838  :  educated  at  Eton  and  Hailey- 
bury,  1855-7  :  served,  chiefly  in  the 
N.W.P.,  1858-79  :  officiating  Secretary 
to  N.W.P.  Government,  1873,  1875  = 
Comptroller-General,  Egypt,  1880-2  : 
/  K.C.M.G.,  1881  :  Financial  Adviser  to 
the  Khedive,  1882-3  :  Financial  Member 
of  the  Supreme  Council,  1883-7  :  Lieuten- 
ant Governor  of  the  N.W.P.  and  Oudh, 
1887-92  :  retired,  1892  :  K.C.S.L,  1892  : 
CLE.  :  Chairman  of  the  Burma  Railways 
Co.  :  and  of  the  Egyptian  Delta  Light 
Railways  Co.  :  wrote  [ohn  Russell  Colvin, 
in  the  "  Rulers  of  India  "  series,  1895. 

HOUN  (1870-        ) 
Major  :     son   of   J.    C.    Colvin,    B.C.S  : 
born  Aug.  26,  1870  :   educated  at  Charter- 
house :  joined  the  Royal  Military  Academy, 

Woolwich  :  joined  the  Royal  Engineers, 
1888  :  served  in  the  Chitral  Relief 
expedition,  1895,  and  in  the  Malakand 
Field  Force,  1897,  where  he  won  the  V.C, : 
in  South  Africa  in  1901-2  :  Intelligence 
Department,  India  :  vStaff  Captain  for 
Mobilisation,  1903. 

COLVIN,  JOHN  RUSSELL  (1807-1857) 

Lieutenant-Governor  :  I.C.S. :  son  of 
James  Colvin,  Calcutta  merchant  :  born 
in  Calcutta,  May  29,  1807  :  educated  at 
St.  Andrews  and  at  Haileybury  :  went 
to  Bengal  in  1826,  to  Hyderabad  in  1827  : 
was  Assistant  and  Deputy  Secretary  in 
the  Judicial  and  Revenue  Departments  of 
the  Government  of  India,  1831-5 : 
Secretary  to  the  Board  of  Revenue,  1835  : 
Private  Secretary  to  the  Governor- 
General,  Lord  Auckland,  1836-42  ;  and 
is  said  to  have  exercised  considerable 
influence  over  the  latter's  Afghan  policy. 
He  was  Resident  in  Nipal,  1845,  Commis- 
sioner of  Tenasserim,  1846  :  Judge  of  the 
Sadr  Court  at  Calcutta :  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  the  N.W.P.  from  Nov.  7, 
1853.  It  was  said  that  Colvin  "  over- 
governed  "  :  he  worked  with  extraordi- 
nary industry,  and  greatly  increased  the 
business  of  the  Government :  his  action 
in  the  mutiny  has  been  the  subject  of 
controversy  :  he  issued,  in  May,  a  pro- 
clamation which  was  not  entirely  approved: 
the  violence  of  the  outbreak  fell  upon  him 
without  warning,  and  the  forces  at  his 
disposal  were  inadequate  to  meet  it.  He 
was  "  worn  out  by  the  unceasing  anxieties 
and  labours  of  his  charge" — so  ran  Lord 
Canning's  notification  of  his  death  :  he 
fell  ill,  became  worse,  and  died  in  canton- 
ments on  Sep.  9,  1857  :  and  was  buried 
in  the  fort  at  Agra.  Sir  Auckland  Colvin, 
in  his  life  of  his  father,  J.  R.  Colvin,  in 
the  "  Rulers  of  Ifidia "  series,  has  ex- 
hausted the  subject. 


(1829-  ) 

Born  Aug.  4,  1829  :  son  of  Rev.  Robert 
Smith,  D.D.  of  Old  Macker,  Aberdeen  : 
educated  at  Grammar  School  and  King's 
College  and  University,  Aberdeen  :  M.D. 
of  Aberdeen  :  and  L.R.C.S.  Edinburgh : 
entered  the  Madras  Army,  185 1  :  served 
in  second  Burma  war,  1852-3,  and  in  the 
Indian  mutiny,  1857-9  :  Principal 
medical  officer  with  Indian  Contingent 
in  Egyptian  campaign,  1882  :   C.B.,  1882  ; 




present  at  Tel-el- Kebir  and  Zagazig : 
retired  in  1884  :  Honorary  Surgeon  to  the 
late  Queen  and  to  H.M.  the  present  King  : 
K.C.B.  in  1903. 

FIRST   VISCOUNT  (1773-1865) 

Field-Marshal :  son  of  Sir  R.  S.  Cotton, 
fifth  Baronet  :  M.P.  :  born  Nov.  1773  : 
educated  at  Westminster,  and  at  a  private 
Military  Academy  in  Baysvvater  :  entered 
the  Army  in  1790,  in  the  23rd  Fusiliers  ; 
served  in  Flanders  :  was  Lt-Colonel  of 
a  Cavalry  regt.  at  the  Cape  on  his  way 
to  India,  where  he  was  engaged  in  1799 
against  Tippoo,  being  at  MalvaUli  and 
Seringapatam :  returned  to  England, 
1800 :  was  M.P.  for  Newark,  1806-14  : 
as  Ma j -General  he  commanded,  first  a 
Brigade  in  the  Peninsula,  from  1808,  and 
later  the  whole  cavalry  Division  :  suc- 
ceeded as  Baronet  in  1809  :  was  at 
Talavera  and  Salamanca :  K.C.B.  in 
1812  :  and  at  other  engagements,  including 
the  Pyrenees  campaign  and  Toulouse : 
was  made  Baron  Combermere  in  May, 
1 814,  and  received  a  pension.  He  com- 
manded the  allied  cavalry  in  France  in 
1 8 15-6 :  was  Governor  of  Barbados 
1817-20,  and  Commander-in-Chief  in 
Ireland,  1822-5  :  as  C.  in  C.  in  India, 
1 825-1 830,  he  Ijesieged  and  took  Bhartpur 
on  Jan.  18,  1826,  and  was  made  Viscount 
in  1827  :  Constable  of  the  Tower,  1852  : 
Field-Marshal,  1855  :  he  was  G.C.B.  in 
1815  :  G.C.H.  in  1817  :  D.C.L.  in  1830  : 
Privy  Councillor,  1843 :  K.C.S.I.,  1861  : 
died  Feb.  21,  1865. 

DRAPER  (1770-1846) 
Son  of  Walter  Abingdon  Compton : 
entered  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Army  as  a  private 
soldier  :  went  to  India  :  bought  himself 
out  of  the  Army  :  articled  himself  in  an 
office  in  Madras :  returned  home,  and 
wrote  for  newspapers  in  London  :  called 
to  the  bar  at  Lincoln's  Inn  in  1808  : 
joined  the  Madras  bar,  and  became 
Advocate-General  there,  and  at  Calcutta  : 
was  knighted  and  made  Chief  Justice  of 
the  Bombay  Supreme  Court,  April  11, 1831: 
retired  in  1839,  and  died  Jan.  14,  1846. 


Son  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Comyn  :   born 
Oct.   26,   1792  :    educated    at    Merchant 

Taylors'  School  and  St.  John's  College, 
Oxford  :  called  to  the  bar  at  Lincoln's 
Inn  in  1814  :  appointed  a  Puisne  Judge 
of  the  Calcutta  Supreme  Court  in  1825  : 
knighted  :  Chief  Justice  of  Madras  from 
July  I,  1835,  until  March  11,  1842  :  D.C.L. 
Oxford  :  Bencher  of  the  Middle  Temple  : 
died  May  23,  1853.  He  wrote  on  legal 
and  historical  subjects. 

FIRST    BARON    (1827-1902) 

Governor  :  born  June  11,  1827:  son  of 
fifth  Earl  of  Mayo,  brother  of  sixth  Earl 
of  Mayo  (q-v.),  Viceroy  and  Governor- 
General  :  educated  at  Enniskillen  and 
Trinity  College,  Dublin :  called  to  the 
bar  at  the  Inner  Temple,  1852  :  M.P.  for 
King's  Lynn,  1868,  1874  :  Under  Secre- 
tary for  Foreign  Affairs,  1874-80 :  and 
again  1885-6  :  P.C,  1880  :  Governor  of 
Madras,  Dec.  8,  1886-Dec  i,  1890: 
G.C.I.E.  :  made  a  Peer,  May  12,  1887  : 
died  Sep.  3,  1902. 

CONOLLY,  ARTHUR  (1807-1842  ?) 

Son  of  Valentine  Conolly  :  born  July 
2,  1807  :  educated  at  Rugby  and  Addis- 
combe  :  went  to  India  in  the  same  ship 
as  Bishop  Heber :  joined  the  Bengal 
Cavalry,  1823  :  at  Bhartpur,  1826  : 
from  leave  in  England  he  returned  to 
India  through  Central  Asia,  via  St.  Peters- 
burg, Tiflis,  Teheran,  Astrabad:  nearly 
killed  by  the  Tmrcomans  on  his  way  to 
Khiva  :  from  Astrabad  to  Mashad,  Herat, 
Kandahar,  Sind  :  wrote  an  account  of  his 
journey  :  was  in  the  Political  Department 
in  Rajputana,  1834-8  :  Captain :  made 
another  journey  via  Vienna,  Constanti- 
nople, Bagdad,  Teheran  and  Herat :  joined 
Macnaghten's  Staff  at  Kabul,  1840 : 
in  Sep.  he  was  sent  as  Envoy  to  Khiva, 
via  Merv,  and  to  Khokand,  and,  on  the 
invitation  of  the  Amir  NasiruUa  of  Bok- 
hara, sent  through  Stoddart,  went  on 
there,  but  was  treacherously  imprisoned, 
in  Oct.  or  Dec.  1841  :  he  and  Stoddart 
were  executed  in  captivity,  probably  on 
June  17,  1842.  His  few  letters  described 
their  sufferings  in  their  dungeon :  his 
prayer-book,  full  of  his  writing,  was 
delivered  to  his  sister  in  London  in  1862. 

CONOLLY,    EDWARD    BARRY  (1808- 
Brother  of  Arthur  Conoll5'^(^.i^.)  :    was 
Captain  in  the  Bengal  Cavalry  and  Com- 



mandant  of  Sir  W.  Macnaghten's  escort 
at  Kabul,  when  he  was  killed,  fighting  in 
the  Kohistan  under  Sir  R.  Sale,  on  Sep. 
29,  1840:  he  had  written  papers  for  the 
Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal. 



I.C.S.:  brother  of  Arthur  ConoUy 
(q.v.) :  educated  at  Rugby,  went  to  Madras, 
1824  :  served  in  Bellary,  and  for  many 
years  as  District  Officer  of  the  Malabar 
district  :  he  was  murdered  in  his  own 
house  by  Moplah  fanatics  on  Sep.  11, 
1855 :  he  had  been  nominated  to  be 
provisional   Member  of  Council,   Madras. 

CONRAN,  HENRY  (1738-1810) 
Major  :  served  in  the  American  war, 
1755-6  :  under  Wolfe,  at  Quebec,  in  1759  = 
returned  to  England  and  retired  as  Major 
about  1780 :  went  to  India  by  way  of  Aleppo 
and  the  desert  with  a  packet  from  the 
Court  of  Directors  to  the  Bengal  Govern- 
ment:  appointed  to  the  Staff  of  Warren 
Hastings,  on  whose  retirement,  in  1785, 
Conran  remained  in  Calcutta  and  died 
there.  May  15,  1810. 

SET (  ?  -1837) 
Brig-General  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s 
military  service  in  1793  =  reached  Madras, 
1795  :  in  the  expedition  to  Ceylon,  1796  : 
in  that  to  Manilla,  1797 :  in  several 
campaigns :  in  Mysore,  1799  :  in  the 
Ceded  Districts,  1 801-2  :  Mahratta  war, 
1803-6  :  under  Sir  T.  Hislop,  1815  :  in 
the  Pindari  war,  1 817-8  :  Adjutant- 
General  of  the  Madras  Army,  from  1809  : 
C.B.,  1819  :  employed  on  a  military  mission 
to  Bengal,  1828-30  :  appointed  to  com- 
mand the  Hyderabad  Subsidiary  Force  : 
died  of  cholera.  May  14,  1837. 


OF  (1862-         ) 

Born  Oct.  4,1862  :  succeeded  his  father 
in  1863,  the  State  being  under  official 
management  diuring  his  minority  :  edu- 
taced  at  the  Wards'  Institute,  Benares, 
and  at  Bankipur,  Patna :  Maharaja 
Bahadur,  1880  :  installed  in  1883  as  a 
Ruling  Chief :  G.C.I.E.,  1887  :  Hony. 
Lt-Colonel  of  the  6th  Bengal  Cavalry  : 
through  the  Tirah  campaign  on  the  Staff  of 

General  Yeatman-Briggs :  present  at  Dargai 
and  Samana  :  C.B.,  1898  :  Hony.  A.D.C 
to  H.M.  the  King  :  married  in  1878  the 
daughter  of  Keshab  Chandra  Sen  {q.v.). 
The  Maharaja  has  visited  England 
several  times  :  he  is  a  keen  sportsman 
and  has  excelled  in  polo,  tennis,  and  other 
games.  The  Maharani  Sunity  Devi  has 
been  a  Member  of  the  Imperial  Order  of 
the  Crown  of  India  since  1887. 

COOKE,  EDWARD  (1772-1799) 

Son  o^  Colonel  Cooke :  became  a 
Captain  in  the  Royal  Navy :  appointed  to 
the  Syhille  in  1795,  served  in  her  at  the 
Cape,  and  in  the  East  Indies  :  off  the 
Sandheads,  in  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  the 
Syhille  fought  between  9  p.m.  on  Feb. 
28,  1799,  and  2.30  a.m.  on  March  i,  the 
French  ship  Forte,  a  much  larger  and  better 
armed  frigate,  and  captured  her  in  the 
Balasore  roads,  150  of  the  Forte's  men 
being  killed  and  wounded.  Cooke  re- 
ceived very  severe  wounds,  of  which  he 
died  at  Calcutta,  May  23,  i799-  The 
E.I.  Co.  erected  a  monument  to  him  in  the 
South  Park  Street  Cemetery,  Calcutta. 

COOKE,  THEODORE  (1836-        ) 

Born  1836  :  son  of  Rev.  John  Cooke, 
Rector  of  Ardinan,  Co.  Tipperary : 
educated  at  Dublin  University,  highly 
distinguished  :  went  to  India  as  Engineer 
of  the  Bombay-Baroda  line,  i860 : 
erected  the  Bassein  bridge,  1865  :  Princi- 
pal of  Civil  Engineering  College  at  Poona, 
1865  :  acted  as  Director  of  Public  Instruc- 
tion in  Bombay  :  Director  of  Botanical 
Survey  of  Western  India,  and  Director  of 
Agriculture :  Fellow  of  the  Bombay 
University :  retired  in  1893,  and  was 
Sub-Director  of  the  Imperial  Institute : 
author  of  Manual  of  Heat,  Manual  of 
Geology,  Flora  of  Bombay  Presidency  : 
CLE.  in  1891. 


Born  Sep.  15,  1845  :  educated  at  Sir 
Jamsetji  Jijibhai's  Institution  and  the 
Elphinstone  College,  Bombay :  head- 
master of  the  Fort  High  School,  Bombay, 
for  nearly  20  years  :  the  pioneer  of  higher 
education  by  private  non-missionary  enter- 
prise in  Western  India.  Sir  W.  W. 
Hunter,  President  of  the  Education 
Commission  of  1882,  stated  that  had  there 



been  others  like  Cooper  in  the  chief 
centres  of  India,  the  Commission  would 
never  have  been  appointed,  because  his 
work  had  solved  the  problem  of  the  Com- 
mission :  the  first  Parsi  schoolmaster  to 
visit  England,  1875,  to  study  the  educa- 
tional systems  of  the  West  and  apply  them 
to  his  work  in  India.  He  was  a  house- 
hold word  among  Bombay  students : 
was  popularly  known  as  Manackji  Master  : 
his  High  School  officially  bore  the  highest 
reputation :  he  edited  Pope's  Homer's 
Iliad  :  died  Aug.  4,  1904. 


Traveller:  son  of  John  J.  Cooper: 
born  Sep.  13,  1839  :  educated  at  Bishop- 
wearmouth.  When  he  was  on  a  voyage 
to  Australia  for  his  health,  the  crew 
mutinied  :  he  went  to  India,  1859:  joined 
the  firm  of  Arbuthnot  &  Co.  at  Madras  : 
travelled  to  Rangoon  and  on  to  Shanghai : 
fought  against  the  Taiping  rebels  :  in 
1868,  he  tried  to  travel  from  Hankow, 
through  Tibet,  to  India,  was  stopped  at 
Batang  and  near  Weisi  and  imprisoned, 
and,  vid  the  Yangtsze,  reached  Hankow 
in  Nov.  1868:  in  1869,  trying  to  reach  China 
from  Sadiya  in  Assam  was  stopped  at  Prun. 
The  India  Office  employed  him  with  the 
Panthay  mission  to  London  :  he  was  then 
made  Political  Agent  at  Bhamo  :  returned 
home  for  his  health  :  attached  to  the  India 
Office  :  reappointed  in  1876  to  Bhamo, 
and  was  murdered  there  by  one  of  his  own 
guards,  April  24,  1878.  He  wrote  Travels 
of  a  Pioneer  of  Commerce  in  Pigtail  and 
Petticoats,  1871  :  and  Mishmee  Hilh,  1873. 

COOTE,  SIR  EYRE  (1726-1783)' 

Born  in  1726:  fourth  son  of  the  Rev. 
Dr.  Chidley  Coote  :  entered  the  Army 
in  1745  :  went  to  India  in  1754  with  the 
39th  regt.  and  became  Captain  on  June 
18,  1755.  Part  of  this  regiment  was 
included  in  the  force  dispatched  from 
Madras  to  Bengal  in  1756  against  the 
Nawab  Surajuddaula,  after  his  capture 
of  Calcutta.  Coote  was  present  at  its 
recapture,  at  the  taking  of  Chander- 
nagore,  and  at  the  victory  of  Plassey,  on 
I  June  23,  1757  :  Clive,  it  is  said,  acted 
on  his  advice  among  others  to  give  im- 
mediate battle.  In  Jan.  1759,  he  was 
gazetted  Lt-Colonel  of  the  84th  regt., 
and  to  command  the  troops  in  Madras. 
In    the    war    with     the    French,    under 

Lally,  he  took  Wandiwash,  Nov.  30, 
1759,  and  the  fort  of  Carangooly,  relieved 
Trichinopoly,  defeated  the  French  at 
Wandiwash,  Jan.  22,  1760,  and  took 
Arcot.  He  besieged  Lally  in  Pondicherry, 
while  a  naval  force  attacked  it  by  sea.  On 
its  surrender  in  Jan.,  1761,  the  French 
power  in  India  completely  collapsed : 
Coote  returned  to  England  in  1762,  and 
was  received  with  honour :  became  a 
Colonel  on  April  4,  1765,  and  M.P.  for 
Leicester.  In  1769  he  was  reappointed 
to  command  the  troops  in  Madras,  but 
resigned  and  returned  to  England  in 
Oct.  1770,  where  he  was  made  K.B. 
Aug.  31,  1771 :  Maj-General  Sep.  29, 
1775  :  Lt-General  on  Aug.  29,  1777 :  and 
Commander-in-Chief  in  India,  on  April  17, 
1777.  He  succeeded  General  Clavering 
as  Member  of  the  Supreme  Council  at 
Calcutta  on  March  24,  1779.  When 
Hyder  Ali  of  Mysore  declared  war,  invaded 
the  Carnatic  in  1780  and  defeated  Colonel 
Baillie  at  Perambakam,  Warren  Hastings 
despatched  Coote  to  Madras,  which  he 
reached  on  Nov.  5,  1780.  Early  in  1781 
Coote  took  the  field  against  Hyder,  raised 
the  siege  of  Wandiwash,  marched  on 
Cuddalore,  attacked  Chelambakam  and 
won  a  decided  victory  at  Porto  Novo,  July 
I,  1 78 1,  besides  defeating  Hyder  at 
Perambakam,  Aug.  27,  effecting  the 
relief  of  Vellore  and  the  capture  of  Chittore. 
His  last  encounter  with  Hyder  was  the 
indecisive  skirmish  at  Arnee,  June  2,  1782. 
Coote's  failing  health  compelled  him  to 
resign  the  command  in  Madras  and  take 
a  change  to  Calcutta.  Only  partially 
recovered,  he  rettu:ned  to  Madras  early 
in  1783,  but  on  the  voyage  was  chased  by 
the  French.  The  anxiety  and  exposure 
produced  a  relapse,  which  proved  fatal  on 
April  28,  1783,  two  days  after  his  arrival 
at  Madras.  His  body  was  taken  to 
England  and  interred  at  Rockburne,  in 
Hampshire.  A  monument  in  Westmin- 
ster Abbey  was  erected  to  him  by  the  East 
India  Company.  His  military  capacity 
has  been  highly  praised,  as  also  his  patience,, 
temper,  activity  and  energy,  valour  and 
coolness.  His  enforcement  of  discipline 
was  tempered  by  kindness,  which  endeared 
him  to  his  soldiers. 

STEPHEN  (1845-         ) 
Son  of  Rev.  R.  E.  Copleston  :  educated, 
at    Merton   College,    Oxford :     married   a. 



•daughter  of  the  late  Archbishop  Trench  : 
Fellow  and  Tutor  of  St.  John's  College, 
Oxford  :  was  appointed  Bishop  of  Colombo 
in  1875  :  translated  to  Calcutta  and  became 
Metropolitan  of  India  in  1902.  Author 
■of  Buddhism  :  Primitive  and  Present. 

CORBETT,  SIR  STUART  (  ?  -1865) 
Commanded  the  25th  N.I.  in  the  Pan- 
jab  campaign  of  1848-9,  at  Sadulapur, 
Chilianwala  and  Gujarat  :  C.B.  :  in  the 
mutiny  was  Brig-General  commanding 
at  Mianmir :  co-operated  boldly  and 
•successfully  with  the  civil  authorities  in 
totally  disarming  the  native  troops  there 
•on  parade,  May  13,  1857,  seizing  the  Fort 
at  Lahore,  and  sending  English  troops 
!to  secure  Umritsar :  K.C.B.  :  died  at 
Naini  Tal,  Aug.  i,  1865. 

CORDERY,    JOHN    GRAHAM    (1833- 

I.C.S.  :  educated  at  Rugby  and  Balliol 
•College,  Oxford  :  went  out  to  the  Panjab 
in  1856  :  while  at  Peshawar,  he  translated 
the  Iliad  into  English  verse  :  served  in 
Berar  :  was  D.P.I,  in  the  Panjab  in  1872  : 
Commissioner  of  Peshawar  :  Resident  at 
Hyderabad,  1883  :  C.S.I.  :  retired,  1888  : 
•translated  the  Odyssey  :  died  April  8,  1900. 

CORNISH,  HUBERT  (1757-1823) 

Son  of  James  Cornish  of  Teignmouth  : 
born  1757  :  was  Private  Secretary  (1793-8) 
to  his  brother-in-law.  Sir  John  Shore 
(Lord  Teignmouth),  during  the  whole 
term  of  his  Governor-Generalship  (a 
younger  brother,  George  Cornish,  being 
at  the  same  time  A.D.C.)  :  they  both  re- 
turned to  England  with  Sir  J.  Shore  in 
1798  :  Hubert  settled  at  Exeter  :  a 
lawyer  by  profession  and  an  accomplished 
artist  and  musician  :    died  1823. 

CORNISH,  HUBERT  (1776-1832) 

Son  of  James  Cornish,  M.D.  :  born 
1776  :  a  nephew  of  Sir  John  Shore  (q.v.)  : 
went  to  India  in  the  Civil  Service,  1797  : 
was  stationed  at  Benares  in  1797.  when 
Cherry  {q.v.)  the  A.G.G.,  and  other  officers 
and  Europeans  were  murdered  treacher- 
ously by  the  orders  of  Wazir  Ali  [q.v.)  :  he 
jumped  upon  a  horse  which  Sir  J.  Shore 
had  given  him,  and  was  one  of  the  few 
civilians  who  escaped  :  became  a  Judge 
in  Bengal :  retired  about  1830  to  his  estate 
near  Totnes  :   died  Aug.  25,  1832. 


Educated  at  St.  George's  Hospital : 
entered  the  Madras  Army  as  Assistant 
Surgeon,  1854  :  Secretary  to  the  Director-  1 
General,  Medical  Department,  1860-70 : 
Sanitary  Commissioner  to  Madras  Govern- 
ment, 1870-80  :  did  good  service  during 
the  famine  of  1877  :  CLE.  :  Surgeon- 
General  in  1880  :  retired,  1885  :  Member 
of  the  Legislative  Council,  Madras,  1883  : 
Fellow  of  the  Madras  University,  1867  : 
wrote  on  medical  subjects :  died  Oct. 
19,  1897  :  F.R.C.S. 

MARQUIS  (1738-1805) 

Governor-General :  son  of  Charles, 
first  Earl :  born  Dec.  31,  1738  :  educated 
at  Eton  :  entered  the  Guards,  1756 : 
studied  at  the  Military  Academy,  Turin  : 
served  in  Germany,  1758-62  :  at  Minden  : 
M.P.  for  Eye  :  became  Earl  in  June, 
1762  :  Lord  of  the  Bedchamber  :  Con- 
stable of  the  Tower,  1770  :  Maj-General, 
1775  :  served  in  the  American  war,  1776  : 
second  in  command  in  1778  to  Sir  H. 
Clinton  :  forced  to  capitulate  at  Yorktown 
on  Oct.  19,  1781,  no  blame  attaching  to 
him  :  in  1782,  and  1785,  he  refused  to  go 
to  India,  but,  against  his  will,  accepted 
the  Governor-Generalship  in  1786  :  held 
the  appointment  from  Sep.,  1786,  being 
also  C.  in  C.  :  and  K.G.  :  he  reformed 
both  the  civil  and  military  services  :  in 
Dec.  1790,  he  took  the  command  in  Madras 
against  Tippoo  :  captured  Bangalore, 
March  21,  1791  :  defeated  Tippoo  near 
Seringapatam :  took  Nandidrug,  Oct.  19  : 
Savandrug,  Dec.  21  :  besieged  Seringapa- 
tam, Feb.  1792,  when  Tippoo  submitted, 
and  signed  peace,  ceding  territory  and 
paying  a  large  indemnity :  Cornwallis 
created  a  Marquis,  Aug.,  1792-  He 
then  announced  the  permanent  settlement 
of  the  land  revenue  to  be  paid  by  the 
zamindars  in  Bengal,  1793,  acting  against 
the  advice  of  Sir  J  ohn  Shore  :  he  reformed 
the  Law  Courts  :  he  sailed  for  Madras  to 
attack  Pondicherry,  but  it  had  surrendered 
before  his  arrival :  he  left  Madras,  home- 
wards, on  Oct.  10,  1793-  From  England, 
he  was  sent  to  military  service  on  the 
continent  :  was  Master-General  of  the 
Ordnance  from  i795  =  when  military 
questions  caused  anxiety  in  Bengal,  Corn- 
wallis was  re-appointed  Governor-General 



on  Feb.  i,  1797  :  did  not  proceed  to 
India :  his  services  were  required  as 
Viceroy  and  C.  in  C,  Ireland,  to  crush  the 
rebellion  of  1798  :  defeated  the  French 
there  under  General  Humbert  :  supported 
the  Act  of  Union,  but  resigned  the  Vice- 
royalty  in  1 801,  when  the  King  declined 
to  agree  to  Catholic  Emancipation  :  de- 
puted to  negotiate  the  Peace  of  Amiens, 
1802.  In  1805  he  was  re-appointed 
Governor-General  and  C.  in  C.  in  India, 
and  assumed  charge  on  J  uly  30  :  sent 
out  to  inaugurate  a  pacific  regime  instead 
of  the  expansive  policy  of  Lord  Wellesley. 
But  it  was  too  severe  a  tax  on  his  age  and 
health.  On  his  way  up-country,  in  pursuit 
of  his  pacific  policy,  he  died  at  Ghazipur, 
Oct.  5,  1805.  Statues  were  erected  in  his 
honour  at  Calcutta  and  Madras. 

Son  of  Charles,  first  Earl  Cornwallis  : 
entered    the  Navy,   i755  =    engaged  con- 
stantly during  his  service,  in  N.  America, 
the  Mediterranean,  W.  Indies,  etc.,  until, 
in  1789,  he  went  out  to  India  as  naval  C.  in 
€.  :   in  1 79 1,  when  there  was  war  against 
Tippoo,  he  insisted  on  searching  French 
ships  for  contraband  of  war,  and,  when 
war  against  France  broke  out,  he  seized 
French  ships,  Chandernagore  and  Pondi- 
cherry:  returned   to   England,  i794»    and 
!■     saw  fiurther  service  in  the  Channel    and 
I      the  W.  Indies  :  G.C.B.  :  died  July  5.  1819- 



Bishop  :  son  of  John  Corrie  :  born 
April,  1777  :  educated  privately,  at  Clare 
Hall,  and  Trinity  Hall,  Cambridge  (Ex- 
hibitioner) :  ordained,  1802  :  went  to  Cal- 
"Cutta  as  a  Bengal  chaplain,  1806  :  appointed 
to  various  chaplaincies  up-country,  and  did 
mission  work  also  :  was  Senior  Chaplain 
in  Calcutta,  1817  :  Archdeacon  in  1823  : 
thrice,  as  Commissary,  carried  on  the 
administration  of  the  diocese  on  the 
deaths  of  Bishops  :  was  the  first  Bishop 
•of  Madras  from  1835  to  his  death  on  Feb. 
5,  1837 :  was  LL.D.  ;  Bishop  Corrie's 
Grammar  School  in  Madras,  and  his 
•statue  in  the  Cathedral  there  perpetuate 
his  memory.  He  was  a  friend  of  Charles 
Simeon  and  Henry  Martyn  at  Cambridge. 

MONTAGU  (1743-1822) 

Son  of  Captain  Alexander  Cosby  :  born 
in  1743  :  was  a  volunteer  at  the  capture 
of  Gheria,  the  fort  of  the  pirate  Angria, 
in  1756  :  was  in  Coote's  attack  on  Pondi- 
cherry,  1 760-1  :  at  the  captures  of  Vellore 
and  Madura,  at  Rajamundry,  at  the  Chen- 
gama  Pass,  Errore,  Arlier,  and  Vellore 
again  :  Adjutant-General :  at  the  siege 
of  Tanjore  in  1773  :  served  against  the 
Chitore  Poligars,  1777  :  commanded,  in 
1778,  the  Nawab  of  Arcot's  cavalry,  and 
led  it  against  Hyder  Ali  with  success  : 
made  prisoner  at  the  Cape  on  his  way  to 
England,  1782,  but  soon  released  :  knight- 
ed in  1782  :  Brig-General  in  India,  1784-6  : 
held  commands  at  Trichinopoly  and 
Tinnivelly :  to  England,  1786  :  Lt- 
General :    died  Jan.  17,  1822. 

COTES,  SARA  JEANETTE  (     ?  -        ) 

Born  in  Canada :  daughter  of  Charles 
Duncan,  merchant :  married  Everard 
Cotes,  Press  Correspondent  with  Govern- 
ment of  India,  Simla  :  was  on  the  staff  of 
Washington  Post,  Toronto  Globe,  and 
Montreal  Star.  Author  of  A  Social 
Departure  (Letters  from  Japan),  An 
American  Girl  in  London,  The  Simple 
Adventures  of  a  Mem-Sahib,  The  Story  of 
Sonny  Sahib,  On  the  other  Side  of  the 
Latch,  Those  Delightful  Americans,  His 
Honour  and  a  Lady,  etc.,  etc. 



Irrigation  Engineer :  son  of  Henry 
Calverley  Cotton  :  born  May  15,  1803  : 
educated  at  Addiscombe :  entered  the 
Madras  Engineers,  arriving  there  1821  : 
in  the  first  Burmese  war,  1825-6  :  led 
storming  parties  :  from  1828  employed 
upon  irrigation  works  in  Southern  India, 
in  the  Cavery,  Coleroon,  Godavery  and 
Krishna  rivers,  making  anicuts  (dams) 
on  the  Coleroon  (1835-6),  for  the  irriga- 
tion of  the  Tanjore,  Trichinopoly,  and 
South  Arcot  Districts  :  the  anient  on  the 
Godavery,  below  *Rajamimdry,  for  the 
irrigation  of  the  Godavery  district,  1847- 
52  :  he  projected  the  anient  on  the 
Krishna,  which  other  officers  carried  out. 
These  works  have  been  found  invaluable 
in  improving  the  condition  of  the  people 
and  the  food  supply,  and  averting  famine, 
besides  being  very  successful  financially  : 



other  smaller  works  have  followed  them. 
Chief  Engineer,  1852  :  Commandant  of 
Engineers,    1856 :     he    was    knighted    in 

1861,  made  K.C.S.I.  in  1866  :    retired  in 

1862,  and  continued  to  advocate  irrigation 
and  canals  as  preferable  to  railway  com- 
munication. He  had  a  controversy  with 
Sir  Proby  Cautley  {q.v.)  about  the  latter' s 
Ganges  Canal.  He  was  admittedly  the 
greatest  Indian  authority  of  his  age  on  the 
subject  of  irrigation  :  he  founded,  it  has 
been  said,  a  School  of  Indian  Hydraulic 
Engineering  in  the  officers  trained  under 
him :  General  in  1877  :  died  July  24, 
1899  :  wrote  a  book  on  Public  Works  in 

COTTON,  SIR  GEORGE  (1842-1905) 

Born  in  Ireland,  1842  :  educated  in 
England  :  went  to  Bombay  in  1863,  as 
Manager  of  East  Indian  Cotton  Agency. 
In  partnership  with  Mr.  James  Greaves 
commenced  the  firm  of  Greaves,  Cotton 
&  Co.,  Bombay,  and  James  Greaves  & 
Co.,  Manchester  :  Fellow  of  the  Bombay 
University,  Chairman  of  the  Municipal 
Corporation,  and  Sheriff  of  Bombay  in 
1897  :  knighted  in  1897  :  died  Feb.  5, 

EDWARD  LYNCH  (1813-1866) 

Bishop  of  Calcutta  and  Metropolitan  of 
India  and  Ceylon :  son  of  Captain  T. 
Cotton  :  born  Oct.  29,  18 13,  his  father 
dying  about  the  same  time  :  educated  at 
Westminster,  and  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge :  took  his  degree  in  1836  as  a  Senior 
Optime  in  mathematics,  and  eighth  in  the 
Classical  Tripos  :  appointed  in  1837  by 
Dr.  Arnold  to  a  mastership  at  Rugby  : 
became  Fellow  of  Trinity  :  left  Rugby  in 
1852  to  become  Head  Master  of  Marl- 
borough College,  where  he  effected  numer- 
ous improvements  :  consecrated  Bishop 
of  Calcutta  on  May  13,  1858  :  reached 
Calcutta  that  year.  He  acquired  universal 
confidence  and  respect  besides  influence 
with  the  Government,  so  that  he  was  able 
to  do  much  for  the  Church  of  England  and 
for  Anglo-Indian  education.  He  succeed- 
ed in  establishing  schools  at  the  chief  hill- 
stations  for  the  education  of  Anglo-Indian 
and  Eurasian  children,  whose  parents 
could  not  afford  to  send  them  to  England. 
He  maintained  his  position  and  principles 
as  Bishop  of  the  Church  of  England,  while 

assisting  missionary  work  and  other 
Christian  developments.  His  capacity 
as  an  administrator,  organizer  and  educator 
was  acknowledged.  He  made  the  long 
tours  required  by  the  size  of  his  metropo- 
litan charge  and  the  paucity  of  Bishops. 
Returning  from  one  of  them,  he  was 
drowned  at  Kushtia  on  the  Gorai  River  in 
Bengal,  on  Oct.  6,  1866,  while  re-embark- 
ing on  a  steamer.  He  lost  his  footing  on 
a  badly  constructed  platform,  fell  into  the 
river  and  disappeared.  His  loss  was 
regarded  as  a  public  calamity,  which  the 
Government  officially  announced. 


MAN  (1845-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  J.  J.  Cotton,  Madras 
Civil  Service  :  born  Sep.  13,  1845  :  edu- 
cated at  Magdalen  College  School,  Brighton 
College,  and  King's  College,  London  : 
entered  the  Bengal  Civil  Service,  1867  : 
held  numerous  appointments  until  he  be- 
came Secretary  to  the  Bengal  Government, 
Revenue  Department,  1888;  Secretary  in 
the  Financial  Department,  1889 ;  Chief 
Secretary,  189 1-6;  acting  Home  Secretary 
to  the  Government  of  India,  1896  :  Chief 
Commissioner  of  Assam,  1 896-1902,  when 
he  retired:  K.C.S.I.,  1902  :  has  since  sought 
to  influence  the  public  mind  by  his  letters 
to  the  Times  in  opposition  to  Lord  Curzon's 
policy  in  Tibet :  author  of  Neiv  India,  or 
India  in  Transition,  besides  official  publi- 


(1847-  ) 
Son  of  J.  J.  Cotton,  Madras  Civil  Ser- 
vice :  born  July  17,  1847  :  educated  at 
Magdalen  College  School,  Brighton  College, 
Winchester,  and  Trinity  College,  Oxford 
(Scholar)  First  Class  in  Moderations  and 
Final  Classical  School :  was  Editor  of  the 
Academy  :  is  now  employed  as  editor  in 
England  of  the  forthcoming  revised 
edition  of  the  Imperial  Gazetteer  of  India  : 
author  of  India  (Citizen  Series),  Mount- 
stuart  Elphinstone  ("  Rulers  of  India " 
Series),  Decennial  Report  on  the  Moral  and 
Material  Progress  of  India,  1885  :  Quin- 
qennial  Report  on  Education  in  India,  1898. 

COTTON,  JOHN  (1783-1860) 

I.C.S.  :  went  to  Madras  :  many  years 
Collector  of  Tanjore :  after  retirement 
from  India  he  was  Director  of  the  E.I~ 



Co.,    1833-53  :     Chairman   of   the   Court, 
1843  :    died  i860. 

COTTON,  JOSEPH  (1745-1825) 

Son  of  Dr.  Nathaniel  Cotton :  born 
March  7,  1745  :  entered  the  Royal  Navy 
in  1760,  which  he  left  for  the  E.I.  Co.'s 
marine  service :  commanded  an  East 
Indiaman  in  two  voyages  :  made  his  for- 
tune and  retired  :  was  Deputy  Master  of 
the  Trinity  House  for  20  years,  and 
Director  of  the  E.  I.  Co.  from  1795  to  1823, 
and  of  the  E.I.  Docks  Company  :  died 
Jan.  26,  1825. 

COTTON,  SIR  SYDNEY  (1792-1874) 
Son  of  Henry  Calverley  Cotton,  and 
brother  of  Sir  Arthur  T.  Cotton  {q.v.)  :  born 
Dec.  2,  1792  :  arrived  in  India  in  a  regi- 
ment of  Dragoons,  1810  :  served  in  the 
Madras,  Bombay,  and  Bengal  Presiden- 
cies for  many  years  :  in  the  Pindari  war, 
1817-8  :  in  Burma,  1828  :  in  Sind,  under 
Sir  C.  Napier,  1842-3  :  in  the  Carnatic 
and  Mysore  :  on  the  Staff  in  Madras  and 
Bangalore  :  commanded  in  various  sta- 
tions and  was  A.D.C.  to  Lord  Combermere 
and  Military  Secretary  :  commanded  on 
the  N.W.  frontier  in  1853,  in  the  Kohat 
Pass,  against  the  Afridis  and,  later,  the 
Mohmands  :  was,  in  the  mutiny,  Brig- 
General  at  Peshawar  and,  owing  to  his 
foresight  and  decision,  there  was  no  serious 
disturbance  there — "  the  right  man  for  the 
place  "  :  commanded  an  expedition  against 
the  fanatical  colony  of  Sitana  :  Maj- 
General  and  K.C.B.,  1858  :  commanded 
the  N.W.  district  in  England  :  Lt-General, 
1866 :  Governor  of  Chelsea  Hospital, 
1872  :  G.C.B.,  1873  :  died  Feb.  20,  1874  : 
he  was  "  a  thorough  soldier,  an  ofi&cer  of 
unuadal  energy  and  activity  "  :  he  wrote 
Nii4  Years  on  the  N.W.  Frontier,  1854-63, 
andlon  The  Central  Asian  Question. 

COWON,    SIR   WILLOUGHBY    (1783- 

Son  of  Admiral  Rowland  Cotton  :  cousin 
of  Lord  Combermere  :  born  in  1783  : 
educated  at  Rugby  (where  he  led  a  re- 
bellion):  entered  the  Guards,  1798  :  served 
in  Hanover,  1805:  Copenhagen,  1807; 
in  the  Peninsula,  1809-14  :  went  to  India 
in  1821 :  commanded  a  Brigade  in  the 
first  Burmese  war,  1825-6  :  Maj -General 
and  K.C.H.,  1830 :  commanded  in 
Jamaica,  1829-34  "•  commanded  the  Bengal 
■Division  of  the  Army  of  the  Indus,  1838- 

9  :  K.C.B.,  1838  :  at  Ghazni :  left  Kabul 
in  1839  for  another  command  :  G.C.B., 
1840  :  Lt-General,  1841  :  C.  in  C.  at 
Bombay,  April,  1847,  to  Dec.  1850  : 
General,  1854  :  Colonel  of  the  98th  foot  : 
and  later  of  the  32nd  foot :  died  May  4, 

COUCH,  SIR  RICHARD  (1817-  ) 
Son  of  Richard  Couch  :  born  July  11, 
1817  :  educated  privately  :  called  to  the 
bar  from  the  Middle  Temple,  1841  : 
Recorder  of  Bedford,  1858-62  :  Puisne 
Judge  of  the  High  Court,  Bombay,  1862-  6: 
Chief  Justice,  1866-70:  Chief  Justice 
of  Bengal,  at  Calcutta,  1870-5  :  presided 
at  the  trial  of  the  Gaekwar  of  Baroda, 
1875  :  Member  of  the  Judicial  Committee 
of  the  Privy  Council,  1881-1901  :  Privy 
Councillor,  1875, 

COUGHLAN,  CORNELIUS  (1828-        ) 

Son  of  Edward  Coughlan  :  born  June, 
1828  :  educated  at  Eyrecourt,  Co.  Gal- 
way  :  served  as  Private,  Corporal,  Ser- 
geant, Colour-Sergeant  and  Serg-Major 
in  the  75th  regt.  for  21  years  :  and  as  Serg- 
Major  in  the  Connaught  Rangers  for  21 
years  :  was  present  at  the  siege  of  Delhi 
(when  he  won  his  V.C.  for  several  acts  of 
bravery),  and  relief  of  Lucknow. 

WILSON,  BARONET  (1824-        ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Colonel  Sir  George 
Couper,  Bart.,  Comptroller  of  the  House- 
hold of  H.R.H.  the  Duchess  of  Kent  : 
born  1824  :  educated  at  Sandhurst  and 
Haileybury :  entered  the  Bengal  Civil 
Service  in- 1846  :  joined  the  Panjab  Com- 
mission in  1849  :  served  in  the  Indian 
mutiny,  through  the  siege  of  Lucknow 
under  Sir  Henry  Lawrence,  and  after  his 
death  under  Brig-General  Inglis  and  Sir 
J  ames  Outram  :  Chief  Commissioner  in 
Oudh,  1871-6 :  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  the  N.W.  Provinces,  1876 :  retured 
1882  :    C.B.  :    K.C.S.I.  :    CLE. 

COURT,  CLAUDE  AUGUSTE  (1793-  ?  ) 

General :  born  Sep.  26,  i793  '  educated 
at  the  Ecole  Poly  technique,  Paris,  1812-3  : 
entered  the  French  Army,  181 3:  saw 
active  service,  181 3-5  :  left  the  Army, 
1818  :  served  in  Persia,  and  joined  Ranjit 
Singh's    forces,    with    Avitabile    {q.v.)    in 



1827  :  improved  Ranjit's  Sikh  Artillery 
greatly  :  paid  much  attention  to  archaeo- 
logy and  coins  :  after  Ranjit's  death,  the 
Sikh  troops  attacked  Court,  who  was  pro- 
tected by  Ventura  {q.v.)  :  retired  from 
Lahore  to  France. 

COURTIN,  JACQUES  IGNACE  (  ?  -  ? ) 

Son  of  Franpois  Courtin,  Chevalier : 
Chief  of  the  French  Factory  at  Dacca  : 
received  for  two  months  the  members  of 
the  English  Factory  at  Dacca,  when  it  was 
seized  by  the  Nawab  of  Dacca,  after  the 
capture  of  Calcutta  by  the  Nawab  Surajud- 
daula,  1756  :  and  sent  them  to  the  English 
at  Fulta,  1756  :  he  left  Dacca,  with  35 
boats,  on  June  22,  i757.  and  wandered 
about  the  districts  of  Rangpur,  Dinajpur, 
Jalpaiguri:  received  an  Embassy  from  the 
King  of  Tibet :  fought  with  the  Faujdar  of 
Rangpur  :  arrived  at  Murshidabad,  March 
10,  1758,  to  surrender  to  the  English  : 
allowed  by  Clive  to  go  to  Chandernagore 
and  Pondicherry  :  Member  of  the  Supreme 
Council  there  :  in  the  capitulation  there, 
Jan.  1 761  :  went  to  France,  and  probably 
became  the  Conseiller  au  Conseil  des 


Born  Jan.  23,  1826 :  son  of  Charles 
Cowell :  educated  at  Ipswich  :  early 
attracted  to  Sir  W.  Jones'  works  :  studied 
Persian :  entered  a  merchant's  office : 
went  to  Magdalen  Hall,  Oxford :  first 
class,  1854  :  studied  from  1853,  under 
H.  H.  Wilson  (q.v.)  :  joined  the  Education 
Department  and  became  Professor  of 
History  and  Political  Economy  at  the 
Presidency  College,  Calcutta,  1856  :  also 
Principal  of  the  Sanskrit  College,  in  1858  : 
left  India,  1864  :  was  the  first  Professor 
of  Sanskrit  at  Cambridge,  1867  :  Fellow 
of  Corpus  Christi  *  College,  Cambridge  : 
LL.D.  of  Edinburgh  :  D.C.L.  of  Oxford. 
After  he  was  elected  Professor  of  Sanskrit, 
the  study  of  Oriental  languages  increased 
at  Cambridge :  the  Semitic  Languages 
Tripos  was  established,  1878  :  the  Indian 
Languages  Tripos,  1903  :  the  Oriental 
Languages  Tripos,  1895  :  a  Board  of 
Oriental  studies  was  formed,  and  a  Board 
of  I.C.vS.  studies  :  he  taught  Sanskrit, 
Indian  philosophy,  comparative  philology, 
Persian,  Pali,  Zend,  etc.  :  his  publications 
were  numerous.  From  early  days,  he 
wrote    on    Persian    poetry,    the    Hindu 

drama,  etc.,  in  the  Westminster  Review, 
also  in  the  Asiatic  Journal,  Journal  of 
Philology,  Gentleman's  Magazine,  J.A.S. 
Bengal,  Calcutta  Review  :  on  Prakrit 
Grammar  :  translated  and  edited  many 
Sanskrit  works,  both  at  Calcutta  and 
Cambridge  :  knew  also  modern  languages, 
including  Welsh,  and  the  classics  :  D.C.L., 
1896  :  received  the  Gold  Medal  of  the 
Royal  Asiatic  Society,  1898  :  died  Feb.  9, 

FIRST  BARON  (1773-1847) 

Born  Jan.  20,  1773  :  youngest  son  of 
the  first  Earl  of  Mornington  :  brother  of 
Marquess  Wellesley  [q.v.),  and  Duke  of 
Wellington  {q.v.)  :  served  in  the  Army, 
before  going  as  Secretary  of  legation  to 
Stockholm,  1792  :  Private  Secretary  to 
his  brother.  Marquess  Wellesley,  when 
Governor-General,  1798-1801  :  a  Com- 
missioner for  the  settlement  of  Mysore 
after  its  capture,  1799  :  sent  to  England  to 
explain  the  war  with  Tippoo  in  1 799-1 800  : 
sent  on  a  mission  to  Oudh,  negotiated 
treaty  for  cession  of  certain  districts  by 
the  Nawab  :  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the 
ceded  districts  of  Oudh,  1801-3  :  left 
India,  1803  :  M.P.  for  Eye,  1807-9  : 
Secretary  to  the  Treasury,  1808-9  =  P-C., 
1809  :  Secretary  to  Embassy  to  Spain, 
1809,  and  Ambassador,  181 1-22  :  knighted 
1812  :  G.C.B.,  1815  :  Ambassador  to 
Vienna,  1823-31  :  to  Paris,  1841-6  :  made 
Baron  Cowley,  1828  :  died  April  27, 

COX,  CHARLES  VYVYAN  (1819-  ) 
Maj -General  :  son  of  the  Rev.  John 
Cox,  Rector  of  Cheddington  and  Vicar  of 
Stockland  :  born  Sep.  24,  1819  :  educated 
at  King's  School,  Sherborne,  and  ^Military 
Academy,  Addiscombe  :  entered  the 
Bengal  Artillery,  1838  :  served  in  the 
Gwalior  campaign,  1843-4  =  Satlaj  cam- 
paign,  1845-6  :  present  at  the  battles  of 
Mudki,  Firozshahr  and  Sobraon  :  Pan  jab 
campaign,  1848-9  :  present  at  battles  of 
the  Chenab,  Chilianwala  and  Gujarat  : 
throughout  the  Indian  mutiny,  1857  : 
retired  in  1872  :    C.B.  in  1871. 

BARONET  (1856-         ) 

Son  of  the  14th  Baronet  :  born  1856  : 
educated    at    Marlborough    and    Trinity 



College,  Cambridge  :  appointed  Assistant 
Inspr-General  of  Police  in  Bombay,  1877  : 
author  of  Skort  History  of  the  Bombay 
Presidency,  Tales  of  Ancient  India. 

COX,  PERCY  ZACHARIAH  (1864-        ) 

Major  :  son  of  Arthur  Cox  :  born  Nov. 
20,  1864  :  educated  at  Harrow  and  Sand- 
hurst :  joined  the  Army  in  1884,  and  the 
Indian  Staff  Corps  in  1889  :  employed 
in  the  Political  Department  at  Zaila, 
Somali  coast,  1893  :  Berbera,  1894-5  : 
H.B.M.'s  Consul  and  Political  Agent, 
Muscat,  since  1899  :  CLE.  in  1902  : 
F.R.G.S.  :    F.Z.S. 

COXHEAD,  JAMES  ALFRED  (1851-     ) 

Colonel :  born  185 1  :  son  of  John  Cox- 
head  :  educated  at  Merchant  Taylors, 
Henley,  and  R.M.A.,  Woolwich  :  entered 
the  Royal  Artillery,  1872  :  was  Private 
Secretary  and  A.D.C.  to  Sir  Henry  Nor- 
man when  Governor  of  Jamaica,  1883-7  : 
served  at  the  Malakand  Pass,  1895,  and 
relief  of  Chitral  :  commanded  the  R.A. 
Indian  Contingent  in  S.  Africa  till  relief  of 
Ladysmith  :    C.B.  in  1900. 

CRAIG,  SIR  JAMES  HENRY  (1748-1812) 

Son  of  Henry  Craig  :  born  1748  :  entered 
the  30th  regt.  at  15,  completed  his  military 
education  on  the  Continent  :  served  in  N. 
America,  1774-81,  was  at  Bunker's  Hill 
and  other  actions  :  Adjutant-General  in 
the  Netherlands,  1794  :  Maj -General : 
commanded  a  force  to  capture  the  Cape 
of  Good  Hope :  on  the  arrival  of  Sir 
Alured  Clarke's  force  from  India  the 
Dutch  surrendered  :  Craig  commanded  at 
the  Cape,  1795-7  :  K.C.B.,  1797  :  com- 
manded the  Division  at  Benares,  1797- 
1802,  in  a  difficult  time,  during  the  mas- 
sacre there  :  Lt-General,  1801  :  command- 
ed in  Italy  and  Sicily,  1805-6  :  Governor- 
Xjeneral  of  Canada,  1 807-11  :  General, 
1812  :   died  Jan.  12,  1812. 


(1814-  ) 

Born  Oct.  i,  1814  :  son  of  John  Hardy, 
M.P.  :  educated  at  Shrewsbury  and 
Oriel  College,  Oxford :  Hon.  Fellow  of 
Oriel :  called  to  the  bar  at  the  Inner  Tem- 
ple, 1840  :  M.P.  for  Leominster,  1856-65  : 
for  Oxford  University,  1865-78  :  made  a 
Viscount,    1878  :    an  Earl,    1892  :    Under 

Secretary  for  the  Home  Department, 
1858-9,  Secretary,  1867-8  :  Secretary  for 
War,  1874-8  :  Secretary  of  State  for 
India,  March  30,  1878,  to  April  28,  1880  : 
President  of  the  Council,  1885  and  1886- 
92  :  G.C.S.L  :  P.C.  :  D.C.L.  :  LL.D.  : 
D.L.  :    J. P. 

CRAWFORD,  SIR  THOMAS  (1824-1895) 

Son  of  George  Crawford  :  educated  at 
Edinburgh :  M.D.  :  entered  the  Army 
Medical  Service,  1848  :  in  the  Burmese 
war,  1852-3,  at  the  capture  of  Rangoon 
and  Bassein,  and  other  actions  :  served  in 
the  Crimea  :  P.M.O.  in  the  N.  Mahratta 
country  and  the  Dekkan  in  1857-8  : 
Superintending  Surgeon  of  the  Sirhind 
circle  :  head  of  the  A. M.D.  in  Ireland  : 
Surgeon-General  in  India,  in  the  second 
Afghan  war :  Director-General  of  the 
Army  Medical  Service,  1882-9  '•  K.C.B., 
1885  :  LL.D.,  Edinburgh  :  died  Oct.  12, 

CRAWFURD,  JOHN  (1783-1868) 

Son  of  Samuel  Crawfurd  :  born  Aug.  13, 
1783  :  educated  at  Bowmore,  and  in 
medicine  at  Edinburgh :  from  1803, 
served  as  an  Army  medical  officer,  for  5 
years,  chiefly  in  Upper  India  :  transferred 
to  Penang :  studied  the  Malays :  was 
with  Lord  Minto  in  the  expedition  to 
Java,  181 1  :  employed  in  diplomatic 
offices  there,  181 1-7  :  wrote  a  History  of 
the  Indian  Archipelago,  1820 :  sent,  in 
1 82 1,  as  Envoy  to  Siam  and  Cochin  China  : 
administered  the  Government  of  Singa- 
pore, 1823-6 :  Commissioner  of  Pegu, 
1826  :  Envoy  to  the  Court  of  Ava  :  re- 
tired to  England,  1827  :  wrote  narratives 
of  his  missions,  A  Grammar  and  Dictionary 
of  the  Malay  Language,  1852  :  A  Descrip- 
tive Dictionary  of  the  Indian  Islands  and 
adjacent  Countries,  1856  :  also,  papers  on 
ethnology  for  scientific  journals  :  took  an 
active  part  in  Geographical  and  Ethnologi- 
cal Societies  :  was  an  unrivalled  authority 
on  the  Eastern  Archipelago  :  died  May  11, 

Son  of  William  Arthur  Crealock  :  born 
March  31,  1831  :  educated  at  Rugby 
entered  the  Army  in  the  90th  regt.,  1848 
served  in  the  Crimea,  1854-5  :  D.A.Q.M.G. 
and  in  China,  1857-8  :   was  in  the  Indian 



mutiny  campaigns  of  1858-9,  on  the  staff 
of  Sir  W.  R.  Mansfield  :  present  at  Bareli 
and  Shahjahanpur  :  served  again  in  China, 
Military  Secretary  to  the  Earl  of  Elgin, 
i860 :  at  St.  Petersburg  and  Vienna : 
and  commanded  a  Division  in  Zululand, 
1879  :  C.M.G.  :  was  a  Lt-Generalin  1884  : 
died  May  31,  1891  :  he  was  an  excellent 
artist  and  made  many  drawings  of  Indian 
and  Chinese  warfare  and  scenery. 


(1841-  ) 

Son  of  C.  H.  Croft  :  born  Feb.  7,  1841  : 
educated  at  Mannamead  School,  Ply- 
mouth, and  Exeter  College,  Oxford : 
entered  the  Bengal  Educational  Depart- 
ment, 1866  :  Director  of  Public  Instruction 
in  Bengal,  1877-97  :  Member  of  the 
Education  Commission,  1882-3  •  Member 
of  the  Bengal  Legislative  Council,  1887- 
92  :  President  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of 
Bengal,  1892-3  :  Vice-Chancellor  of  the 
Calcutta  University,  1894-6 :  Hon. 
LL.D.,    1897  :     K.C.I.E.,    1887. 

EARL  (1841-         ) 

Son    of    Henry    Baring,    M.P.  :     born 
Feb.    26,    1 841  :     educated    at    Ordnance 
School,    Carshalton,    and    R.M.A.,    Wool- 
wich :      entered     the     Roj^al     Artillery, 
1858  :  Major  in  1876  :  Private  Secretary 
to   Lord   Northbrook,   Viceroy   of   India, 
1872-6  :       Financial      Member     of      the 
Supreme  Council  of  the  Governor-General, 
1880-3  '     has    since    been    employed   in 
Egypt,  and  is  now  Minister  Plenipoten- 
tiary in  the  Diplomatic  Service  :    Agent 
and  Consul  General  in  Egypt  since  1883 
P.C.  :      G.C.B.  :      G.C.M.G.  :       K.C.S.I. 
CLE.  :     Baron,    1892  :     Viscount,    1898 
Earl,  1901. 

CROMMELIN,  CHARLES  (  ?  -  ?  ) 

Governor  :  son  of  Marc  Antoine  Crom- 
melin,  of  a  Huguenot  family  :  joined  the 
E.  I.  Co.'s  service  in  Bombay,  1732  : 
Governor  of  Bombay,  1760-7  :  returned 
to  England,  had  great  losses  in  trade, 
returned  to  India,  1772,  as  a  free  mer- 
chant :  was  residing  at  Canton,  1777  : 
was  British  Consul  at  Goa,  1784  :  it  has 
been  suggested  that  this  was  the  Charles 
Cromelin  {sic)  who  died  Dec.  25, 1788,  aged 
81,  and  was  buried  at  the  old  English 
Cemetery,   Kalkapur,  Murshidabad. 

CROOKE,  WILLIAM  (1848-        ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Aug.  6,  1848  :  educated 
at  the  Grammar  School,  Tipperary,  and  at 
Trinity  College,  Dublin  :  arrived  in  India, 
1871  :  served  in  the  N.W.P.  and  Oudh  : 
Magistrate  and  Collector  :  retired,  1896  : 
author  of  Rural  and  Agricultural  Glossary, 
N.W.P.  and  Oudh,  1888  :  an  Ethno- 
graphical  Handbook  for  the  N.W.P.  and 
Oudh,  1890  :  The  N.W.P.  of  India,  their 
History,  etc.,  1897  :  The  Popular  Religion 
and  Folklore  of  Northern  India,  1896  :  and 
a  Gazetteer  of  Jalesar  :  The  Tribes  and 
Castes  of  the  N.W.P.  and  Oudh,  1896  : 
also  of  a  revised  edition  of  Burnell's  and 
Yule's  Hobson-Jobson,  and  numerous 
papers  in  the  Journal  of  the  Anthropological 
Institute  and  Folklore  Society. 

CROSS,  JOHN  KYNASTON  (1832-1887) 

Son  of  Thomas  Cross :  head  of  the 
Firm  of  Crosses,  Winkworth  &  Co.  : 
Under  Secretary  of  State  for  India,  Jan., 
1883  to  June,  1885  :   died  March  20,  1887. 

VISCOUNT  (1823-         ) 

Born  May  30,  1823  :  son  of  William 
Cross  :  educated  at  Rugby  and  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge  :  called  to  the  bar  at 
the  Inner  Temple,  1849  :  M.P.  for  Preston, 
1857-62,  and  S.  Lancashire,  1868-86 : 
Home  Secretary,  1874-80  and  1885-6  : 
Secretary  of  State  for  India,  Aug.  4, 1886, 
to  Aug.  19,  1892  :  Lord  Privy  Seal, 
1895-1900  :  made  a  Viscount,  18S6  : 
P.C.  :  G.C.S.L,  1892  :  D.C.  L.  :  LL.D., 
Cambridge,  1878  :  G.C.B. ,  1880  :  F.R.S.  : 
author  of  legal  works. 

HAWKES  TODD  (1836-         ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Rev.  John  Clarke  Cros- 
thwaite  :  born  Dec.  25, 1835  :  educated  at 
Merchant  Taylors'  and  St.  John's  College, 
Oxford  :  entered  the  Bengal  Civil  Service, 
1857  :  served  chiefly  m  the  N.W.P.  : 
Chief  Commissioner  of  British  Burma, 
1883-4  '•  Chief  Commissioner  of  Central 
Provinces,  1885-6 :  Chief  Commissioner 
of  Burma,  1887-90 :  Member  of  the 
Governor  -  General's  Supreme  Council, 
1890-1,  and  in  1892  :  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  N.W.P.  and  Oudh,  1892-5  :  Member 
of  the  Council  of  India,  1895-1905  : 
author  of  Notes  on  the  N.W.  Provinces  of 
India,  1870:    K.C.S.I.,  in  1888. 




(1841-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Rev.  JohnC  Crosthwaite  : 
born  Jan.  17,  1841  :  educated  at  Merchant 
Taylors  and  Brasenose  College,  Oxford  : 
entered  the  Bengal  Civil  Service,  1863  : 
served  chiefly  in  the  N.W.P.  :  was  Judi- 
cial Commissioner  of  Burma  and  Central 
Provinces :  Agent  to  the  Governor- 
General  in  Central  India  and  in  Rajputana: 
called  to  the  bar  from  the  Middle  Temple, 
1868  :    K.C.S.I.  in  1897. 

Journalist,  art-critic,  and  diplomatist  : 
son  of  Eyre  Evans  Crowe  :  born  Oct.  20, 
1825  :  artist  of  Illustrated  London  News 
in  the  Crimea  :  present  at  the  engage- 
ments :  appointed  Superintendent  of  the 
"  Sir  Jamsetji  Jijihbai's  School  of  Design  " 
at  Bombay,  1857  :  Editor,  successively, 
of  the  Bombay  Gazette  and  Bombay  Stand- 
ard, and  correspondent  of  the  Daily  News 
and  Times  during  the  mutiny  :  Secretary 
of  the  Bombay  Chamber  of  Commerce  : 
left  India  owing  to  ill-health,  1859  : 
Times'  correspondent  in  Italian  war  of 
1859  :  present  at  Solferino :  appointed 
Consul- General  for  Saxony,  i860  :  entered 
diplomatic  service,  1880 :  Commercial 
Attache  for  Europe,  1 882-1 895  :  joint 
author  with  Cavalcasella  of  Histories  of 
Flemish  and  Italian  Painters,  Lives  of 
Titian  and  Raphael :  published  a  volume 
of  Reminiscences  :    died  Sep.  6,  1896. 



Traveller  and  student  of  philology  :  son 
of  Andrew  Csoma  :  born  April  4,  1784, 
at  Koros  in  Transylvania :  educated, 
1815-8,  at  the  College  of  Novo  Enyed  : 
Doctor  of  Medicine  at  Gottingen.  To 
ascertain  the  origin  of  his  countrjonen, 
the  Hungarians,  whose  primitive  seat  he 
expected  to  discover  in  the  heart  of  Cen- 
tral Asia,  he  left  Bucharest,  Jan.  i,  1820  : 
travelled  to  Constantinople,  Alexandria, 
Syria,  Bagdad,  Teheran,  Mashad,  Bokhara, 
Kabul,  Lahore,  Kashmir,  Leh  :  studied 
Tibetan  thoroughly  in  monasteries  in 
Ladak,  chiefly  at  Yangla,  in  Zanskar, 
1823-6 :  was  at  Sabathu,  1824-5  =  al- 
lowed Rs.  50  a  month  by  the  Government 
of  India  :  made  a  third  journey  to  Kanum 
in     Kunawar,     studying    Tibetan     at     a 

Buddhist  monastery  till  1830 :  reached 
Calcutta,  April,  1831  :  published  a 
Tibetan  grammar  and  dictionary,  vocabu- 
lary, etc.  :  made  Honorary  Member  of 
the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  1834 : 
studied  Sanskrit,  and  was  appointed 
Librarian  of  the  Society :  travelled, 
1836-7,  to  study  Oriental  languages,  to 
Jalpaiguri  and  Titalya  :  at  Calcutta  1837- 
42  :  started  for  Lhasa  in  1842  :  reached 
Darjeeling,  March  24 :  died  April  11  : 
and  was  buried  there  :  "an  indefatigable 
and  unpresuming  student  "  a  scholar  of 
extreme  modesty :  knew  17  languages, 
ancient  and  modern. 

CUBBON,  SIR  MARK  (1785-1861) 
Born  Sep.  8,  1785  :  went  to  India  in 
the  Madras  Infantry  in  1800  :  Captain  in 
1816  :  in  the  Commissariat  Department 
in  the  Pindari  war,  1817-8,  and  in 
Madras.  When  the  people  of  Mysore 
rebelled,  in  1831,  against  the  oppression 
and  bad  government  of  their  Hindu 
Raja,  Lt-Colonel  Cubbon  was  a  member 
of  the  Commission  of  Enquiry :  after 
which  the  Government  of  India  assumed 
the  administration  of  the  province  and 
Cubbon  was  made  Commissioner,  first 
joint,  and  in  1834  sole,  of  Mysore  :  and 
soon  afterwards  of  Coorg  also  :  this  post 
he  held  for  27  years,  governing  the  pro- 
vince despotically  but  successfully,  through 
native  agency,  and  exercising  a  profuse 
hospitality :  Lt-General,  1852  :  C.B., 
1856  :  K.C.B.,  1859.  He  never  married 
or  left  India  until  he  retired  in  1861,  after 
60  years'  service  in  India,  when  he  died  at 
Suez,  on  April  23.  His  equestrian  statue 
is  in  the  Cubbon  Park  at  Bangalore  :  when 
unveiled,  it  had  been  daubed  with  the 
three  Brahmanical  marks  on  the  fore- 

Colonel :  son  of  Major  W.  Cubitt  of  the 
Bengal  Army:  educated  at  Laleham : 
joined  the  13th  Bengal  N.I.,  1853  ^ 
served  in  the  Sonthal  campaign,  1855  : 
in  the  Dafla  expedition,  1874-5  :  Afghan 
war,  1878-80  :  Akha  expedition,  1883-4  : 
Burmese  expedition,  1886-7  ••  in  the 
mutiny  won  the  Victoria  Cross  at  Chinhut 
on  June  30,  1857,  for  saving  the  lives  of 
three  men  at  the  risk  of  his  own  :  in  the 
defence  of  the    Residency  at  Lucknow  : 



wounded :     D.S.O.    for    his    services    in 
Burma  :  retired  1892  :  died  Jan.  25,  1903. 


(1848-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Nov.  20,  1848  :  son  of 
Alexander  Cuningham :  educated  at 
Edinburgh  Academy  and  privately  :  went 
out  to  Bombay,  1870  :  served  as  Assistant 
to  the  Chief  Commissioner  of  Mysore  : 
Under  Secretary  to  the  Government  of 
India,  Foreign  Department,  1885  :  Secre- 
tary in  the  Foreign  Department,  1894- 
1901  :    C.S.I. ,  1894  :    K.C.S.I.,  1897. 


I.C.S.  :  son  of  Sir  Alexander  Cunning- 
ham, K.C.I.E.,  C.S.I,  {q.v.)  :  educated  at 
Kensington  Grammar  School  and  King's 
College,  London  :  went  to  the  Panjab  in 
1872  :  Political  officer  in  the  Khyber, 
1879  :  Under  Secretary  to  the  Panjab 
Government,  1884  :  Commissioner  and 
Superintendent  of  the  Peshawar  Division, 
1892,  and  from  1894  :  K.C.I.E.,  1901  : 



Son  of  Allan  Cunningham  :  born  Jan. 
23,  1814  :  educated  at  Christ's  Hospital 
and  Addiscombe :  obtained  an  Indian 
cadetship,  through  Sir  Walter  Scott  : 
reached  India  in  June,  1833  :  A.D.C.  to 
Lord  Auckland,  1836  :  Executive  Engin- 
eer to  the  King  of  Oudh,  1840  :  engaged 
in^suppressing  the  rebellion  in  Bundelkund  : 
was  at  Punniar,  Dec.  19,  1843  :  Executive 
Engineer  at  Gwalior,  1844-5  :  was  in  the 
first  Sikh  war,  1846,  as  field  engineer  : 
occupied  Kangra  and  Kulu  :  demarcated 
boundaries :  was  at  Chilian wal  a  and 
Gujarat  in  the  second  Sikh  war,  1848-9  : 
Chief  Engineer  in  Burma,  1856-8  :  and  in 
the  N.W.P.,  1858-61  :  retired  from  the 
Army  as  Maj-General  in  1861  :  he  v/as 
then  made  the  first  Archseological  Sur- 
veyor to  the  Government  of  India,  1 861-5  '• 
the  department  was  abolished  in  1865, 
but  revived  in  1870,  with  Cunningham 
as  Director  :  he  held  the  post  until  he 
retired  in  1885  :  C.S.I.  :  CLE.  :  and 
K.C.I.E.  in  1887.  Apart  from  his  official 
reports  of  his  annual  tours  and  his  occa- 
sional contributions  to  the  Asiatic  Society 
of  Bengal's  journals,  he  wrote,  inter  alia. 

on  Ladak,  The  Bhilsa  Topes,  The  Ancient 
Geography  of  India,  The  Buddhist  Period, 
Corpus  Inscriptionum  Indicarum,  The 
Stupa  of  Bharhat,  The  Book  of  Indian 
Eras,  Mahahodhi.  After  retirement,  he 
paid  much  attention  to  numismatics,  on 
which  he  was  an  eminent  authority : 
parted  with  his  coins  at  cost  price  to  the 
British  Museum  :    died  Nov.  28,  1893. 

CUNNINGHAM,   FRANCIS   (1820-1875) 

Son  of  Allan  Cunningham,  and  brother 
of  Sir  Alexander  {q.v.)  :  born  1820  : 
educated  at  Addiscombe :  joined  the 
Madras  Army,  1838  :  was  distinguished  as 
an  engineer  in  the  defence  of  Jalalabad, 
1842  :  served  in  the  Civil  Commission  in 
Mysore  under  Sir  Mark  Cubbon,  and  re- 
tired in  1 861.  He  edited  Marlowe, 
Massinger  and  Ben  Jonson,  by  which  he 
is  best  known  :  also  wrote  for  the  Saturday 
Review  :    he  died  Dec.  3,  1875. 

ART (1832-         ) 

Born  1832  :  son  of  Rev.  J.  W.  Cunning- 
ham, Vicar  of  Harrow  :  educated  at 
Harrow  and  Trinity  College,  Oxford : 
called  to  the  bar,  1859  :  Advocate-General 
in  Madras,  1872  :  Judge  of  the  Calcutta 
High  Court,  1877-87  :  Member  of  the 
Indian  Famine  Commission,  1878-9  : 
author  of  The  Chronicles  of  Dustypore, 
The  Heriots,  The  CcBruleans,  Sybilla,  and 
other  novels  :  also  Earl  Canning  ("  Rulers 
of  India  "  series).  He  married  in  1877  a 
daughter  of  Lord  Lawrence  :  K.C.I.E.  in 



Educated  at  Edinburgh  University : 
M.D.  :  entered  the  Bengal  Medical  Ser- 
vice, 185 1  :  Secretary  to  the  Sanitary 
Commissioner,  1866 :  Professor  of  Hy- 
giene, Calcutta  Medical  College,  1866  : 
Sanitary  Commissioner,  Bengal,  1869  : 
Sanitary  Commissioner  with  the  Govern- 
ment of  India,  1875-85,  and  Surgeon- 
General,  1880-5  :  retired,  1885  :  Member 
of  the  Army  Sanitary  Committee,  1891- 
96 :  author  of  Cholera — what  can  the 
State  do  to  Prevent  it  ?  represented  the 
Government  of  India  at  the  Paris  Inter- 
national Sanitary  Congress,  1894  :  C.S.I., 



1885  :    Honorary     Surgeon  to  the  Queen, 
1888:  died  June  26,  1905. 



Son  of  Allan  Cunningham  and  brother 
of  Sir  Alexander  {q.v.)  :  born  June  9,  1812  : 
educated  at  private  schools  and  at  Addis- 
combe,  where  his  career  was  very  dis- 
tinguished :  Sir  Walter  Scott  obtained  a 
cadetship  for  him  :  he  went  to  Chatham 
and  to  India  in  the  Bengal  Engineers  in 
1834  :  appointed  assistant  to  Colonel 
Claud  Wade  {q.v.),  the  Agent  on  the  Sikh 
frontier  :  fortified  Firozpur,  1837  :  was 
for  8  years  in  political  employ  :  at  the 
interview  with  Ranjit  Singh,  in  the 
Khyber,  at  Ludiana,  at  Peshawar,  with 
the  Amir  Dost  Muhammad  at  Jammu, 
agent  at  Bahawalpur :  Captain,  etc. 
1845  :  in  the  first  Sikh  war  was  at  Badiwal, 
Aliwal,  and  Sobraon  :  was  Political 
Agent  at  Bhopal,  1846  :  published  the 
History  of  the  Sikhs.  This  work,  though 
favourably  received  in  general,  gave 
offence  to  some  of  Cunningham's  superiors, 
as  he  stated  that  in  the  Sikh  war  two  of 
the  Sikh  generals  were  bought  :  this  was 
strenuously  denied  by  high  officers  :  the 
result  to  Cunningham  was  the  loss  of  his 
political  appointment  and  relegation  to 
ordinary  duty,  on  the  ground  of  having 
used  in  his  History  information  confiden- 
tially known  to  him  in  his  official  capacity. 
He  died  at  Umbala,  Feb.  28,  185 1. 

CURETON,  SIR  CHARLES  (1826-1891) 
Son  of  Charles  Robert  Cureton :  bom 
Nov.  25,  1826  :  joined  the  E.I.  Co.'s 
Army,  1843  :  eventually  became  General 
in  1888  :  served  in  the  first  Sikh  war,  was 
at  Aliwal,  Jan.  28,  1846  :  in  the  Panjab 
campaign,  1848-9,  was  A.D.C.  to  his 
father  :  and  in  the  N.W.  frontier  opera- 
tions of  1849-52  and  i860  :  helped  to 
subdue  the  Sonthal  rebellion,  1856  :  in 
the  Indian  mutiny  he  raised  and  com- 
manded Cvureton's  regiment  of  Multani 
native  cavalry,  was  present  at  an  action 
against  Sealkot  rebels  at  Trimmu  Ghat, 
and  a  number  of  actions  in  1858-9,  show- 
ing great  personal  bravery  :  in  charge  of 
Intelligence  Department  in  Rohilkund 
and  Oudh,  1858-9  :  commanded  the 
Oudh  Division  of  the  Bengal  Army, 
1879-S4  :  C.B.,  1869  :  K.C.B.,  1891  : 
died  July  11,  1891. 


Brig-General  :  born  in  1789  :  entered 
the  Shropshire  Militia,  1806 :  disguised 
as  a  sailor,  he  fled  from  creditors,  and 
enlisted  in  a  dragoon  regiment  in  1808  : 
served  in  the  Peninsula,  was  in  many 
actions,  Talavera,  Badajos,  Salamanca, 
Madrid,  Vittoria,  etc.:  gazetted  as  Ensign, 
1814  :  worked  up  to  Lt-Colonel  in  1846  : 
went  to  India  in  1822  :  was  at  the  siege 
of  Bhartpur,  Jan.  19,  1826  :  was  in  the 
Afghan  war,  1839,  under  Sir  J.  Keane, 
at  Ghazni,  July  23,  1839,  and  the  occupa- 
tion of  Kabul :  was  at  Maharajpur  on 
Dec.  29,  1843  :  C.B.,  1844  :  in  the  Satlaj 
campaign  was  under  Sir  Harry  Smith  : 
commanded  the  cavalry  at  Aliwal,  and  a 
Brigade  of  cavalry  at  Sobraon,  gaining 
the  highest  praise  as  a  cavalry  commander : 
made  A.D.C.  to  the  Queen  :  and  Adjutant- 
General  to  the  Queen's  forces  in  India, 
1846  :  in  the  second  Sikh  war  he  was 
killed  at  Ramnagar,  Nov.  22,  1848. 



Born  May,  1822  :  son  of  Brig-General 
C.  R.  Cureton  (q.v.)  :  Ensign,  13th  foot, 
1839  :  in  the  i6th  Lancers  in  the  battle 
of  Maharajpur,  Dec.  29,  1843  :  at  Mudki, 
Dec.  18,  1845  :  at  Sobraon,  Feb.  10,  1846  : 
in  the  Kafir  war,  185 1-3  :  in  the  Crimea 
from  July,  1855:  Lt-General :  retired, 
1881  :    died  Feb.  9,  1894. 



Born  1827 :  son  of  Raikes  Currie : 
educated  at  Eton:  entered  his  father's 
banking  business,  which,  in  1864,  was 
amalgamated  and  became  Gl^m,  Mills, 
Currie  &  Co. :  in  Dec.  1880,  was  ap- 
pointed a  Member  of  the  Council  of  India, 
re-appointed  1890,  served  till  1895  :  in 
1892,  represented  England  at  the  Inter- 
national monetary  conference  at  Brussels  : 
in  1893  was  member  of  Lord  Herschell's 
Committee,  which  decided  on  closing  the 
Indian  Mints  to  the  free  coinage  of  silver  : 
was  on  other  financ  ial  Commissions : 
initiated  in  1895  the  Gold  Standard  Defence 
Association :    died  Dec.  29,  1896. 



BARONET  (1799-1875) 

I.C.S. :  son  of  Mark  Currie  :  born  Feb.  3, 
1799  :  educated  at  Charterhouse  and 
Haileybury :  reached  India,  1820  :  was 
a  Judge  of  the  Sadr  Adalat  (court)  in  the 
N.W.P.,  1840  :  Foreign  Secretary  to  the 
Government  of  India,  1842  :  with  Sir 
Henry  Hardinge  in  the  first  Sikh  war, 
1845-6,  and,  after  Sobraon,  drew  up  the 
treaty  with  the  Sikhs  :  made  Baronet  in 
Jan.  1847  :  officiated  as  Member  of  the 
Supreme  Council,  April,  1847  to  Jan. 
1848  :  resigned  his  seat,  and  succeeded 
Sir  Henry  Lawrence  as  Resident  at  Lahore 
in  1848  :  accepted  the  resignation  of 
Mulraj,  the  Governor  of  Multan  :  con- 
firmed as  Member  of  Supreme  Council, 
resuming  his  seat,  March,  1849  :  retired 
in  1853  :  was  elected  a  Director  of  the 
E.I.  Co.  in  1854,  Chairman,  1857  :  Member 
of  the  Council  of  India  from  1858  :  D.C.L., 
Oxford  in  1866  :    died  Sep.  11,  1875. 

CURWEN,  HENRY  (1845-1892) 

Journalist  and  writer  :  born  in  1845  : 
son  of  Henry  Curwen :  educated  at 
Rossall :  followed  a  literary  career  in 
London  until  he  went  to  India  in  1876, 
as  Assistant-Editor  of  the  Times  of  India, 
Bombay,  of  which  he  became  Editor  in 
1880  and  joint-proprietor  in  1889  :  died 
on  board  ship,  Feb.  22,  1892,  on  his  way 
homewards :  wrote  several  novels,  and 
translations  of  French  poetry,  and  con- 
tributed articles  to  periodical  literature  : 
described  his  tour  in  the  famine  districts 
of  1876-7:  under  his  editorship  the  Times 
of  India  was  well  conducted  and  favour- 
ably regarded. 


(1859-    ) 

Viceroy  and  Governor-General :  born 
Jan.  II,  1859,  son  of  Rev.  fourth  Baron 
Scarsdale  :  educated  at  Eton  and  Balliol 
College,  Oxford  :  President  of  the  Union 
Society,  1880  :  Fellow  of  All  Souls'  College, 

1883  :     gained   the   Arnold   Essay    Prize, 

1884  :  Assistant  Private  Secretary  to  the 
Marquis  of  Salisbury,  1885  :  Under  Secre- 
tary of  State  for  India,  1891-2  :  for 
Foreign  Affairs,  1895-8  :  travelled  in 
Central  Asia,  Persia,  Afghanistan,  the 
Pamirs,    Siam,    Indo-China,    the    Korea : 

M.P.  for  Southport  Division,  1886-98 : 
published  Russia  in  Central  Asia,  1889  : 
Persia  and  the  Persian  Question,  1892  : 
Problems  of  the  Far  East,  1894  :  Viceroy 
and  Governor-General  of  India  from  Jan. 
6,  1899,  to  April,  1904  :  paid  much  atten- 
tion to  the  control  and  defence  of  the 
frontiers  of  India,  changing  the  policy  on 
the  N.W.  frontier :  created  a  Chief 
Commissionership  of  the  Trans-Indus 
districts  :  enforced  the  blockade  of  Wazir- 
istan :  showed  distrust  of  Russian 
objects  and  Russian  methods  :  visited  the 
Persian  gulf,  with  a  view  to  prevention  of 
any  enroachment  on  British  interest,  to 
increase  trade  and  maintain  sphere  of 
influence  in  Persia :  despatched  Tibet 
mission  to  carry  out  Anglo-Chinese  con- 
vention of  1890  and  trade  regulations  of 
1893,  and  check  Russian  influence  in 
Tibet :  the  mission  leading  to  war  with 
Tibet  and  the  treaty  of  Lhasa,  Sep.  1904  : 
examined  into  every  branch  of  the  admin- 
istration, to  introduce  improvements  : 
"  it  has  not  always  been  a  popular  policy  "  : 
appointed  several  Commissions,  on  the 
Universities,  to  reform  Higher  Education, 
on  Irrigation,  on  the  Police  :  had  to  deal 
with  a  famine  in  Bombay :  aimed  at 
improving  relations  with  the  native  Chiefs, 
and  the  character  of  their  rule  :  reformed 
the  four  Chiefs'  colleges :  founded  the 
Imperial  Cadet  Corps  :  settled  the  ques- 
tion of  the  Berars  :  set  on  foot  the  Vic- 
toria Memorial  Hall,  obtaining  large  sub- 
scriptions from  wealthy  natives  :  held  the 
Delhi  Coronation  Darbar  of  Dec.  1902- 
J  an.  1903  :  reduced  Lower  Bengal  by  three 
Divisions,  adding  them  to  Assam  to  make 
a  new  Lieutenant -Governorship  :  had  large 
financial  surpluses,  twice  reduced  the  Salt 
Tax,  and  removed  the  Income  Tax  on  the 
lowest  incomes  :  passed  some  important 
legislative  measures,  such  as  the  Universi- 
ties Act,  the  Oflicial  Secrets  Act,  the 
Indian  Mines  Act,  the  Ancient  Monuments 
Preservation  Act,  the  Co-operative  Credit 
Societies'  Act :  G.M.S.I.,  G.M.I.E.,  P.C, 
F.R.S.,  J.P.,  D.C.L.  :  re-appointed  Viceroy 
and  Governor-General  in  1904  :  returned 
to  India,  Dec.  1904  :  Lord  Warden  of  the 
Cinque  Ports,  1903-4  =  in  Aug.,  1905,  re- 
signed the  Viceroyalty  on  a  point  arising 
out  of  an  adverse  decision  of  the  Cabinet 
on  a  difference  of  opinion  between  the 
C.  in  C.  (Lord  Kitchener)  and  the  rest  of 
the  Government  of  India  regarding  mili- 
tary affairs  in  India. 




I.C.S.  :  son  of  Hon.  and  Rev.  H.  C- 
Cust,  brother  of  Earl  Brownlow  :  born 
Feb.  24,  1821  :  educated  at  Eton  and 
Haileybury :  entered  the  Bengal  Civil 
Service,  1843,  and  retired  in  1867  :  served 
in  the  N.W.P.  and  Panjab  :  present  at 
the  battles  of  Mudki  and  Firozshahr, 
1845,  and  Sobraon,  1846  :  called  to  the 
bar  from  Lincoln's  Inn,  1855  :  took  part 
in  the  settlement  of  the  Panjab  after  the 
mutiny,  1858  :  Home  Secretary  to  the 
Government  of  India,  1864-5  :  is  now 
Hon.  Secretary  of  the  Royal  Asiatic 
Society,  and  has  published  many  books 
on  the  religions  and  languages  of  the  world, 
the  two  last  being  Five  Essays  on  Religious 
Conceptions,  1897,  and  Life  Memoir, 
1899:    LL.D.  of '  Edinburgh,  1885. 

D'ACHE,    COMTE'(1700?     or    1716?- 

Vice- Admiral :  served  with  distinction, 
but  without  important  command,  up  to 

1757.  when  he  was  made  Commander  of 
the  French  Naval  forces  in  Indian  seas  : 
reached    the    Coromandel    coast,    April, 

1758,  commanding  the  squadron  which 
took  Lally's  expedition  to  India  :  beaten, 
off  Negapatam.,  by  the  English  Fleet 
under  Admiral  Pocock  :  declined  to  co- 
operate with  Lally  against  Madras : 
again  defeated  off  Tranquebar,  Aug.  i, 
1758  :  sailed  for  the  Isle  of  France  :  took 
for  his  fleet  a  million  francs,  intended  for 
Pondicherry  :  returned  after  a  year  from 
Isle  of  France :  defeated  off  Fort  St. 
David,  Sep.  10,  i759,  ^Y  Pocock  :  went 
to  Pondicherry,  but  abandoned  it  Sep. 
17,  and  never  returned,  staying  at  the  Isle 
of  France  :  thus,  inefficient  and  constantly 
defeated,  he  lost  in  a  few  months  the 
French  cause  in  South  India  :  the  com- 
merce of  the  Compagnie  des  Indes  was 
irretrievably  destroyed  :  on  his  return  to 
France,  he  received  promotion  in  the 
Navy  and  honours,  without  restoring  his 
reputation  by  any  distinguished  action  : 
became  an  accuser  of   Lally  :    died,  1775. 

DA   CUNHA,   J.   GERSON   (1842-1900) 

Doctor  :  born  in  Arpora,  Goa  :  claimed 
to  belong  to  a  family  of  Brahman  converts 
to  Christianity:  educated  at  Goa, 
Bombay,  and  in  Europe :  returned  to 
Bombay    as    a    medical    practitioner :     a 

man  of  letters  and  antiquarian  research  : 
Vice-President  of  the  R.A.S.,  Bombay, 
1892  :  Knight  of  several  foreign  orders  : 
read  many  valuable  papers  on  history, 
archaeology,  languages,  numismatics  be- 
fore the  R.A.S.  :  also  wrote  largely  :  a 
history  of  Chaul  and  Bassein,  and  the 
Origin  of  Bombay,  1900  :  on  the  subject 
of  Buddha's  Tooth  :  a  man  of  great  cul- 
ture and  a  keen  numismatist :  his  collection 
of  Indian  coins,  said  to  number  15,000, 
was  considered  one  of  the  finest  in  the 
world,  and  was  valued  at  several  lakhs  of 
rupees  :    he  died  July  3,  1900. 

LAWRENCE  (1821-  ) 
Born  1821  :  son  of  Lt-General  Sir 
George  D'Aguilar,  K.C.B.  :  educated  at 
R.M.A.,  Woolwich  :  entered  the  Royal 
Artillery,  1838  :  Military  Secretary  to  the 
Commander  of  the  China  Forces,  1843-8  : 
served  in  the  Crimea  and  in  the  Indian 
mutiny  :  General  commanding  Woolwich 
District,  1874-9  '■  Lt-General,  1877  : 
Col.  Commandant  R.H.A.  :    G.C.B.,  1887. 



Son  of  Capt.  Joseph  D'Aguilar  :  born 
Jan.  1784  :  joined  the  86th  regt.  in 
India,  1799  :  served  in  the  Mahratta  war 
of  1803-5  :  at  Bhartpur  in  1806  under 
Lord  Lake  :  to  England  in  1809  :  in  the 
Walcheren  expedition  :  in  Sicily  :  on  a 
special  mission  to  Constantinople :  in 
Spain  :  in  Flanders  :  C.B.  in  1834  :  com- 
manded in  China,  and  in  1847  Canton 
submitted  to  him  :  K.C.B.  in  1851  :  Lt- 
General  :  died  May  21,  1855  :  wrote 
military  manuals  and  treatises. 

DALGLEISH,  ANDREW  (  ?  -1888) 
An  energetic  pioneer  of  trade :  for 
years  he  journeyed  for  commercial  pur- 
poses between  Kashmir  and  Yarkand : 
joined  a  Central  Asian  Trading  Company  : 
went  with  a  party  to  Yarkand,  and  after- 
wards made  frequent  journeys  to  Kashgar  : 
in  1883  he  had  a  free  passport  from  the 
Chinese  to  enter  Chinese  Turkistan  :  went 
as  Turkish  interpreter  with  A.  D.  Carey 
(q.v.)  in  1885  from  Kashmir  round  Chinese 
Turkistan  and  along  the  frontier  of  Tibet : 
was  killed  near  the  Karakoram,  en  route  to 
Yarkand,  by  a  Kakar  Pathan  in  1888  : 
his  map  specially  acknowledged  by  the 
Geographical  Society. 



D.D.  (1837-         ) 

Second  Catholic  Archbishop  of  Bom- 
bay :  a  German,  born  in  Westphalia, 
April  20,  1837  :  entered  the  Society  of 
Jesus,  April  14,  1859  :  arrived  in  India, 
Jan.  28,  1866  :  ordained  priest,  Dec.  25, 
1868  :  held  several  posts  of  Superiorship 
at  Bandora,  St.  Xavier's  College,  Bombay, 
and  St.  Vincent's  High  School,  Poona  : 
as  Vicar-General,  on  the  death  of  Arch- 
bishop Porter,  administered  the  diocese  : 
Archbishop  of  Bombay,  Dec.  6,  1891  : 
consecrated  in  Bombay  Cathedral,  Jan. 
31,  1892  :  in  1891  visited  Europe,  and 
again  in  1895  ;  built  the  Church  of  the 
Holy  Name,  Bombay  (opened  Jan.  15, 
1905),  with  Archiepiscopal  Residence  and 
Convent  School  attached :  is  proprietor 
of  the  Bombay  Catholic  Examiner  (now 
called  the  Examiner),  a  weekly  religious 
paper  of  wide  circulation,  nov/  in  its 
fifty-fifth  year  :  still  at  work  in  his  69th 

NINTH  EARL  OF  (1770-1838) 

General :  son  of  the  eighth  Earl :  born  in 
1770,  entered  the  Army  in  the  Dragoon 
Guards  in  1789,  was  in  several  regiments : 
became  Maj-General  in  1805,  Lt-General, 
1813  :  G.C.B.  :  General,  1830  :  served 
at  Martinique,  1792  :  in  the  Irish  rebellion 
of  1798  :  in  Holland,  Egypt,  the  Peninsula 
and  France :  created  Baron  Dalhousie  in 
the  Peerage  of  the  United  Kingdom  in 
Aug.  181 5  :  Lt-Governor  of  Nova  Scotia, 
1816  :  Captain-General  and  Governor  of 
Canada,  Nova  Scotia,  etc.,  1819-28  :  and 
commanded  the  forces  from  1819  :  was 
C.  in  C.  in  the  East  Indies,  1829-32  : 
father  of  the  first  Marquis  of  Dalhousie 
{q.v.)  :    died  March  21,  1838. 

QUIS OF  (1812-1860) 

Governor-General :  third  son  of  the 
ninth  Earl,  C.  in  C.  in  India  [q-v.)  :  born 
April  22,  1812  :  educated  at  Harrow  and 
Christ  Church,  Oxford  :  M.P.  for  Hadding- 
tonshire, 1837 :  succeeded  his  father, 
March,  1838  :  Vice-President  of  the  Board 
of  Trade  in  Peel's  administration,  1843  : 
Privy  Councillor,  1843  :  President  of  the 
Board  and  in  the  Cabinet,  1845  :  declined 
a  seat  in  the  Cabinet  offered  him  in  July, 

1846,  by  Lord  John  Russell,  who  ap- 
pointed him  Governor-General  of  India 
in  1847  :  assumed  office,  Jan.  12,  1848. 
After  the  rebellion  of  Mulraj  at  Multan, 
the  second  Sikh  war  broke  out :  Dal- 
housie went  up  to  the  Panjab-Satlaj 
frontier  and  supervised  the  operations  : 
annexed  the  Panjab  in  March,  1849  :  was 
made  a  Marquis :  made  Sir  Henry 
Lawrence  President  of  the  Board  of  Ad- 
ministration, and,  in  1853,  made  Sir 
John  Lawrence  Chief  Commissioner  of 
the  Panjab :  his  controversy  with  Sir 
C.  J.  Napier,  the  C.  in  C,  regarding  cer- 
tain  new  regulations  affecting  the  grant 
to  the  Sepoys  of  compensation  for  dear- 
ness  of  provisions,  led  to  the  latter's 
resignation.  Dalhousie's  internal  adminis- 
tration of  the  country  was  thorough  and 
comprehensive  :  he  introduced  and  laid 
down  a  system  for  the  construction  of 
railways ;  joined  the  provinces  by  tele- 
graphs ;  organized  the  imperial  postal 
system ;  created  the  Departments  of  Public 
works.  Jails,  Forests,  Survey,  and  Edu- 
cation; dealt  with  the  strength  and  com- 
position of  the  Army  in  India ;  reorganized 
and  expanded  the  Legislative  Council ; 
created  a  separate  Lieutenant-Governor- 
ship of  Lower  Bengal  (to  relieve  the 
Governor-General  of  his  direct  personal 
charge  of  that  Province)  :  he  declared 
war  on  the  King  of  Burma  in  1852,  and 
supervised  it  himself,  visiting  the  country 
and  annexing  Pegu  :  made  treaties  with 
the  Khan  of  Kelat  and  Amir  of  Afghanis- 
tan :  the  Berars  were  assigned  for  the 
payment  of  the  Hyderabad  debts.  Dal- 
housie has  been  blamed  for  the  annexation 
of  Satara,  Nagpur,  Tanjore,  Jhansi, 
Oudh,  for  reducing  the  title  of  the  Nawab 
of  the  Carnatic  to  Prince  of  Arcot,  for 
terminating  the  ex-Peshwa's  pension 
the  fact  is,  that  where  annexations  were 
effected,  according  to  the  doctrine  of 
lapse,  i.e.  on  the  failure  of  natural  heirs, 
that  policy  was  not  Dalhousie's,  but  a 
policy  which  had  been  previously  declared 
and  acted  upon  and  was,  in  each  case, 
sanctioned  by  higher  authority  :  in  the 
case  of  Oudh,  he  personally  was  opposed 
to  annexation,  but  his  Council  advocated 
it  and  the  authorities  in  England  ordered 
it,  on  account  of  the  continued  malad- 
ministration by  the  King,  after  repeated 
warnings :  Dalhousie  restricted  the  ap- 
plication of  the  doctrine  of  lapse  to  cases 
of  Hindu  dependent  states.     He  was  also 



blamed  for  weakening  the  European 
Army  in  India  :  in  fact,  he  had  protested 
against  reduction  of  the  EngUsh  Army  in 
India  for  the  Crimean  and  Persian  wars, 
and  had  given  full  attention  to  military 
affairs  :  he  abolished  numerous  Boards 
and  established  responsible  Departments 
in  their  places  :  his  despatches  were  not 
attended  to  at  the  India  House,  and  he 
was  never  able  to  defend  himself  and  his 
administration.  He  suffered  from  ill- 
health,  during  the  prolongation  of  his  ap- 
pointment in  India,  and  was  too  ill  after 
his  retirement,  on  Feb.  29, 1856,  to  defend 
his  policy  :  and  the  English  Governments 
failed  to  support  him.  Thus  the  out- 
break of  the  mutiny  was  unjustly  attri- 
buted to  his  alleged  policy  in  respect  of 
annexation,  neglect  of  military  matters, 
and  the  reduced  strength  of  the  English 
Army  in  India.  His  assailants  have  been 
amply  refuted  by  his  later  biographers, 
especially  in  Sir  W.  Lee  Warner's  Life  of 
the  Marquis  of  Dalhousie,  1904.  The 
death,  from  exhaustion  after  sea-sickness, 
of  Lady  Dalhousie  in  1853,  in  sight  of 
England,  affected  him  deeply.  Always 
a  very  hard  worker,  he  sought  distraction 
in  "  work,  work,"'  and  in  his  public  duties. 
His  final  minute  of  Feb.  28,  1856,  contains 
a  summary  of  his  administration.  He  was 
masterful  in  character  and  impatient  of 
opposition.  "  In  the  three  words,  con- 
quest, consolidation  and  development, 
his  work  may  be  summed  up "  (Sir 
W.  W.  Hunter).  He  stands  out  as  "  the 
great  Proconsul  "  of  modern  times.  After 
retirement  he  held  no  office  but  that  of 
Lord  Warden  of  the  Cinque  Ports,  1852-60. 
He  died  Dec.  19,  i860.  His  statue  is  in 
Calcutta,  where  the  Dalhousie  Institute 
was  erected  in  his  memory. 



Son  of  Robert  Dallas :  born  April  6, 1758  : 
educated  at  Geneva :  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s 
civil  service  at  eighteen,  was  noticed  by 
Warren  Hastings,  appointed  Collector  of 
Rajshahi  :  returned  to  England  for  ill- 
health,  1788:  deputed  by  Calcutta  resi- 
dents to  present  a  petition  against  Pitt's 
East  India  Bill :  made  a  Baronet  in 
1798  :  M.P.,  1800-2,  for  Newport  :  wrote 
a  poem  The  India  Guide  :  a  pamphlet  in 
vindication  of  Warren  Hastings,  1789  : 
a  vindication  of  the  Marquis  Wellesley's 
wars  in  Hindustan  and  the  Dekkan,  1806, 

besides  papers  on  Ireland  and  France, 
and  on  Trade  between  India  and  Europe, 
in  which  he  advocated  a  greater  freedom 
and  liberality  in  trade  between  the 
countries  :    died  Jan.  14,  1833. 

DALLAS,  SIR  THOMAS  (  ?  -1839) 
Was  a  cavalry  officer  in  the  Carnatic, 
and  under  Colonel  Arthur  Wellesley,  and 
at  the  siege  of  Seringapatam :  distin- 
guished himself  :  K.C.B.  :  died  Aug.  12, 



Son  of  Sir  James  Dalrymple,  Bart. :  born 
July  24,  1737  :  went  out  to  Madras  in  the 
E.I.  Co.'s  Civil  service,  in  May,  1753  '• 
Lord  Pigot,  to  whom  he  had  been  reco- 
mended,  put  him  into  the  Secretariat  and 
taught  him  to  write  :  the  historian  Orme 
also  befriended  him  :  he  became  Deputy 
Secretary  :  in  1759-62  he  made  a  voyage 
to  the  Eastern  Archipelago  in  the  interest 
of  commerce  :  after  returning  to  Madras 
he  sailed  again  to  the  islands  and  reached 
Canton  in  1764.  He  returned  to  England 
in  1765  to  push  his  schemes  of  extending 
commerce  to  the  East,  but  received  no 
encouragement :  failed  to  obtain  the 
command  of  an  expedition  to  observe  the 
transit  of  Venus  in  1769  :  then  turned  his 
attention  to  geography  and  hydrography, 
and  published  a  Chart  of  the  Bay  of 
Bengal  in  1772  :  appointed  Member  of 
Council  in  Madras,  1775,  but  in  2  years  was 
recalled  on  an  unfounded  charge  of  mis- 
conduct :  in  1779  made  hydrographer 
to  the  E.I.  Co.,  and  in  1795  also  to  the 
Admiralty  :  dismissed  from  this  appoint- 
ment in  May,  1808:  died  of  vexation, 
June,  19,  1808  :  published  a  number  of 
works,  chiefly  on  voyages,  charts,  his- 
torical and  political  papers,  including 
the   Oriental  Repertory,    179 1-4. 

DALRYMPLE,  JAMES  (  ?  -1800) 
Commanded  the  29th  battalion  in 
Madras,  1788  :  at  the  storming  of  Gurrum- 
condah  in  Nov.  1791  :  took  Raichur  for 
the  Nizam  from  insurgents,  March,  1796  : 
in  the  Nizam's  contingent  under  General 
A.  Wellesley,  1799  :  in  the  assault  of 
Seringapatam,  May  4,  1799  :  after  the 
capture  commanded  the  Hyderabad  Sub- 
sidiary Force  :  took  several  forts  from 
Dhoondia    Waugh,    the    freebooter,    and 



defeated  him,  Aug.  17,  1799,  at  Shikarpur, 
expelling  him  from  Mysore  :  died,  much 
regretted  by  General  Wellesley,  at  Hydera- 
bad, Dec,  1800. 


(1816-  ) 

Born  June  29,  1845  :  educated  at  High 
School,  Edinburgh,  Wimbledon  and  Sand- 
hurst :  joined  44th  regt.,  1863,  and  88th 
Connaught  Rangers,  1864  :  passed  Staff 
College,  1873  :  served  at  Ashanti,  Ber- 
muda, D.A.A.,  and  Q.M.G.,  Northern 
District :  A.A.G.,  Colonial  Forces,  South 
Africa,  1878  :  Brig-Major  S.  Africa 
Field  Force,  1879  :  Military  Secretary  to 
Lord  Lytton  when  Viceroy  of  India,  1880  : 
A.Q.M.G.  of  India,  1883-4  :  D.Q.M.G., 
India,  189 1-3  :  Brig-General.  India, 
1893-8  :    C.B.,  1893  :    retired. 

DALTON,  EDWARD  TUITE  (1816-1880) 

Entered  the  Army,  1835  :  in  expedi- 
tions against  frontier  tribes  of  Assam, 
1839-40,  and  1842  :  commanded  an 
expedition  and  captured  the  Mishmi  chief 
who  had  murdered  the  French  missionaries 
Kirk  and  Bourry  on  the  Tibetan  frontier  : 
Commissioner  of  Chota  Nagpur  in  1858  : 
with  the  Field  Force  against  the  Palamau 
rebels,  and  in  1858-9  against  the  Singbhum 
insurgents  :  C.S.L  :  Maj-General,  1877  = 
died  Dec.  30,  1880  :  wrote  The  Descriptive 
Ethnology  of  Bengal,   1872. 

DALTON,  JOHN  (1725-1811) 
Son  of  Capt.  James  Dalton  of  the  6th 
regt.  :  born  1725  :  appointed  to  Hanmer's 
Marine  regt.,  1741  :  2nd  Lt.  of  Marines 
on  the  Preston,  1743  '  to  Fort  St.  David, 
1745  :  the  French  took  Madras,  1746  : 
the  Marine  regts.  being  reduced  at  the 
peace  with  France,  Dalton  joined  the 
Independent  Companies  under  Admiral 
Boscawen  {q.v.)  :  became  a  Captain  in 
the  E.I.  Co.'s  service  :  in  the  expedition 
to  Devikota,  1749  '•  Muhammad  Ali,  son 
of  Anwaruddin,  late  Nawab  of  the  Car- 
natic,  fled  on  his  father's  death  to  Trichino- 
poly  and  applied  to  the  English  for  help  : 
Dalton  was  in  the  force  sent  to  his  aid  : 
was  in  the  retreat  at  Volkonda,  June,  19, 
1751  :  at  Wootatoor  and  at  Kistnavaram  : 
in  the  fighting  on  behalf  of  Muhammad 
Ali  against  Chanda  Sahib  {q.v.)  near 
Trichinopoly  :  Dalton  made  Commandant 
there,  Jime,  15,  1752,  to  keep  it  for 
Muhammad  Ali  against   the  Dalwai  (the 

Regent  of  Mysore),  and  Morari  Rao  the 
Mahratta  :  defended  it  with  great  skill 
and  coiurage  against  famine,  treachery, 
blockade  and  the  French  also  :  relieved 
by  Major  Stringer  Lawrence,  May,  6, 
1753,  and  again  Sep.  21  :  resigned  the 
E.I.  Co.'s  service  March  i,  i754.  and  re- 
turned to  England  :   died  July  11,  181 1. 


(1846-  ) 

Born  Aug.  10,  1846 :  educated  at 
Brussels  and  Paris  :  LL.D.  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Glasgow :  Hibbert  Lecturer  at 
Oxford,  1891  :  accompanied  H.M.  King 
Edward  VII,  then  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of 
Wales,  on  his  Indian  tour  in  1875-6  : 
Author  of  Inde  et  Himalaye,  1877  :  Cdn- 
temporary  Evolution  of  Religious  Thought 
in  England,  America  and  India,  1885  : 
Ce  que  VInde  doit  a  la  Grece,  1897,  etc. 

Son  of  Lt-Colonel  Francis  Dermot 
Daly  :  born  Oct.  25,  1821  :  joined  the 
first  Bombay  European  regt.  in  1840, 
became  Adjutant,  was  present  at  the 
fighting  at  Multan  in  1848,  in  the  second 
Sikh  war,  at  Gujarat  on  Feb.  22,  1849, 
and  in  the  pursuit  of  the  Sikhs  :  in  1849 
he  raised  the  first  Panjab  Cavalry  and  saw 
service  on  the  frontier,  against  the  Afridis, 
and  under  Sir  Colin  Campbell  in  1852. 
In  the  mutiny  he  commanded  the  Guides' 
Cavalry  in  their  march  of  580  miles  in  22 
days  from  Mardan  to  Delhi :  was  at  the 
siege  of  Delhi,  at  the  capture  of  Lucknow 
in  March,  1858,  and  in  the  Oudh  campaign  : 
in  1 861  he  commanded  the  Central  India 
Horse,  and  in  1871  was  made  Agent  to  the 
Governor-General  for  Central  India : 
K.C.B.,  1875  :  CLE.,  1880  :  General 
in  1888  :  G.C.O.,  1889  :  retired  in  1882  : 
died  July  21,  1895. 

DALY,  HUGH  (1860-  ) 
Born  i860  :  son  of  Sir  H.D.  Daly  {q.v.)  : 
entered  Gloucestershire  regt.  1881  :  joined 
the  Indian  Staff  Corps  :  Captain,  1892  : 
served  in  Burmese  expedition,  1886-7  = 
Superintendent  of  the  Northern  Shan 
States,  1888  :  CLE.  :  Assistant,  and, 
later,  Deputy-Secretary  to  the  Govern- 
ment of  India,  Foreign  Department : 
Major  and  C.S.L,  1903  :  Agent  to  the 
Governor-General  for  Central  India,  1905- 



THER  (1831-1890) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Oct.  7,  1831 :  son  of  Colonel 
John  Dalyell :  educated  at  Cheltenham 
and  Haileybury  :  went  to  Madras  in  Jan., 
1851  :  became  Secretary  to  the  Board  of 
Revenue  in  1867,  Secretary  to  Govern- 
ment, Revenue  Department,  in  1868 : 
Chief  Secretary,  1870 :  Member  of  the 
Board  of  Revenue,  1873  :  made  a  special 
report  on  the  Excise  administration  in 
1874  :  Chief  Commissioner  of  Mysore  in 
1875-6,  and  additional  Member  of  the 
Governor-General's  Legislative  Council, 
1873-7  :  retired  from  India,  1877  : 
Member  of  the  Council  of  India,  1877-87  : 
C.S.I. ,  in  1879  :  K.C.I.E.,  1887  :  LL.D. 
of  St.  Andrews,  1885  :   died  Jan.  18,  1890. 

DAMANT,  GUYBON  HENRY  (1846-1879) 

I.C.S,  :  born  May  9,  1846 :  educated 
at  St.  Paul's  School,  London,  and  Christ's 
College,  Cambridge :  Scholar  and  Ex- 
hibitioner :  went  out  to  Bengal,  1869  : 
served  in  Cachar,  Assam,  and  on  special 
duty  to  Manipur,  1876 :  was  Deputy 
Commissioner  of  the  Garo  Hills,  1877,  and 
Political  Agent  in  the  Naga  Hills,  Assam, 
1878  :  on  his  way  to  Khonoma,  to  seize 
some  ammunition  which  the  Nagas  had 
stored,  was  killed  by  them,  Oct.  14,  1879  : 
took  keen  interest  in  literature  and 
philology :  wrote  on  folk-lore,  and  the 
Manipuri  language  in  the  J.A.S.B., 
J.R.A.S.,  and  the  Indian  Antiquary: 
most  of  the  MSS.  of  his  Manipur  Dic- 
tionary were  destroyed  by  the  Nagas  in  the 
stockade  at  Kohima. 

D AMPIER,  HENRY  LUCIUS  (1828-  ) 
I.C.S.  :  born  1828  :  son  of  W.  Dampier, 
I.C.S. :  educated  at  Eton  :  entered  the 
B.C.S.,  1848  :  Member  of  the  Orissa  famine 
Commission, 1 867:  Secretary  to  the  Govern- 
ment of  Bengal :  officiating  Home  Secre- 
tary to  the  Government  of  India,  1872  : 
Member  of  Bengal  Legislative  Council, 
1867-84  :  Member  of  the  Board  of  Rev- 
enue, 1877  :  President  of  Rent  Law 
Commission,  1881  :   retired,  1884  :   CLE. 

DANCE,  SIR  NATHANIEL  (1748-1827) 

Son  of  James  Dance:  born  June  20, 
1748,  entered  the  E.  I.  Co's  naval  service, 
1759  '•  was  in  command  of  a  ship  in  1787. 
As  Commodore  of  a  fleet  of  16  Indiamen 

and  some  country  ships  in  1804,  homeward 
bound  from  Canton,  he  fell  in  with  a 
French  squadron  off  Pulo  Aor,  near  the 
S.  end  of  the  straits  of  Malacca,  and  by  his 
skill  and  boldness  deceived  them  and  put 
them  to  flight  on  Feb.  15,  saving  his  own 
fleet  and  its  valuable  cargo.  He  was 
knighted  and  pensioned  by  the  E.  I.  Co.  : 
died  March  25,  1827. 


(1856-         ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  March  21,  1856  :  son  of 
Richard  Martin  Dane,  M.D.,  C.B.  : 
arrived  in  India,  1876  :  served  in  the 
Panjab  :  Private  Secretary  to  the  Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, 1S79-82  :  Officiating  Regis- 
trar of  the  Chief  Court,  1886 :  Settle- 
ment Officer,  Gurdaspur,  1887  :  Deputy 
Commissioner,  Peshawar,  1892  :  Chief 
Secretary  to  the  Panjab  Government,  1898: 
Resident  in  Kashmir,  1901  :  Foreign 
Secretary  to  the  Government  of  India^ 
1903  :  C.S.L,  1904  :  Head  of  the^Mission 
to  Kabifl,  1904-5,  to  negotiate  a"  Treaty 
with  the  Amir  of  Afghanistan :  made 
K.C.I.E.    on   his   return. 

DANIELL,  THOMAS  (1749-1840) 
Painter  :  son  of  an  innkeeper  :  born  in 
1749  =  was  in  India  painting  for  ten  years^ 
from  1784,  with  his  nephew  William  (q.v.), 
and  published  his  pictures  :  brought  out 
their  Oriental  Scenery  in  1808  :  Royal 
Academician  in  1799  :  F.R.S.,  F.R.A.S., 
and  F.S.A.  :  exhibited  his  pictures  at 
the  Academy  and  at  the  British  Institute  : 
published  other  collections  of  pictures  1 
died  March  19,  1840. 



Artist,  R.A :  at  14  accompanied  his 
uncle,  Thomas  Daniell  (q.v.),  also  an  artist, 
to  India  :  in  10  years  they  travelled  many 
thousand,  miles,  from  Cape  Comorin  to 
Srinagar,  and  on  their  return  published 
Oriental  Scenery,  in  6  volumes,  completed 
in  1808.  He  exhibited  largely  at  the 
Academy  and  the  British  Institute  r 
published  also  A  Picturesque  Voyage  to 
India,  Zoography,  The  Panorama  of 
Madras,  1832,  the  City  of  Lucknow,  and 
the  Oriental  Annual,  besides  other  pic- 
tures of  British  scenery.  He  was  made  a 
Royal  Academician  in  1822  :  died  Aug.  i6>. 
1837.  1  , 




(  ?  -  ) 
Educated  at  Merchant  Taylors'  School 
and  King's  College,  London  :  joined  the 
East  India  House  as  a  writer,  1853  :  and 
the  India  Office,  1858  :  Registrar  and 
Superintendent  of  Records,  1884  :  deputed 
to  Lisbon,  189 1-2,  to  examine  the  Portu- 
guese records  relating  to  India,  and  to  the 
Hague,  1893-4 :  wrote  extensively  on 
Indian  questions,  including  public  works, 
famines,  coal,  statistics,  agriculture,  on 
Chiefs,  Agents,  and  Governors  of  Bengal, 
1888  :  The  India  Ofice  Records,  1889  : 
on  the  Portuguese  records  and  A  History 
of  the  Portuguese  in  India,  1894. 

DANVERS,  SIR  JULAND  (1826-1902) 
Born  March  19,  1826:  son  of  Frederick 
Dawes  Danvers  :  educated  at  King's 
College,  London  :  entered  the  E.I.  Co.'s 
home  service,  1842  :  Private  Secretary 
to  two  Chairmen  of  the  Court,  1848-53  : 
on  the  transfer  of  India  to  the  Crown, 
Danvers  became,  at  the  India  Office,  Secre- 
tary in  the  Railway  and  Telegraph  Depart- 
ment, and  Deputy  Director  of  Indian 
Railways,  1858-61  :  Government  Director 
of  Indian  Railways,  1861-92  :  Secretary  in 
the  Public  Works,  Railway  and  Telegraph 
Departments,  1880-92  :  visited  India, 
1875-6  :  wrote  the  annual  official  reports 
on  Indian  railways  presented  to  Parlia- 
ment, 1859-82  :  was  constantly  examined 
before  Parliamentary  Committees  on  Rail- 
way and  Finance  questions :  K.C.S.I., 
1886:  retired  1892  :   died  Oct.  18,  1902. 


SINGH,  OF  (1856-1898) 
Elder  son  of  Maharaja  Maheswar  Singh 
of  Darbhanga  :  born  1856  :  educated  by 
an  English  tutor,  Chester  Macnaghten 
{q.v.)  :  occupied,  as  head  of  the  Maithili 
BrahminSj  a  Hindu  of  Hindus,  and  the 
possessor  of  very  large  estates  in  Bihar,  a 
very  important  position  in  Bihar  and  Ben- 
gal :  sincerely  devoted  to  religion  :  largely 
directed  the  management  of  his  property 
and  effected  great  improvements  :  made 
Maharaja  Bahadur  and  K.C.I.E.  :  a  Mem- 
ber of  both  the  Legislative  Councils  of 
Bengal  and  the  Governor-General  :  con- 
tributed handsomely  to  all  objects  of 
charity,  medical  aid,  educational  endow- 
ments and  objects  of  general  public 
utility  :  as  President  of  the  British  Indian 
and   other  Landowners'    Associations,    his 

influence  was  chiefly  felt  in  questions 
affecting  landed  property  :  died  Dec.  17, 


(1860-  ) 

Born  Jan.  16,  i860  :  younger  son  of 
Maharaja  Maheswar  Singh  :  educated  at 
the  Queen's  College,  Benares,  and  at 
home  by  Chester  Macnaghten  (q.v.)  :  in 
1878  was  appointed  by  Lord  Lytton  to  the 
Statutory  Civil  Service  :  served  as  Assist- 
ant Magistrate  of  Darbhanga,  Chapra 
and  Bhagalpur  :  resigned  in  1885  :  was 
created  Raja  Bahadur,  of  Bachaur  :  in 
1888  was  appointed  a  Member  of  the 
Bengal  Legislative  Council,  as  representa- 
tive of  the  landowners  of  Bengal  and 
Bihar  :  succeeded  to  the  Darbhanga  Raj 
on  the  death  of  his  elder  brother,  Maharaja 
Sir  Lachmeswar  Singh,  on  Dec.  17,  1898  : 
made  Maharaja  Bahadur  :  in  1899  and 
1904  was  elected  by  the  non-official  mem- 
bers of  the  Bengal  Legislative  Council  as 
their  representative  in  the  Governor- 
General's  Legislative  Council :  President 
of  several  Landowners'  Associations  : 
Kaisar-i-Hind  Gold  Medal,  1900  :  in  1902 
made  K.C.I.E.,  and  appointed  a  member 
of  the   Police  Commission. 

DARMESTETER,    JAMES    (1849-1894) 

Born  March  28,  1849,  in  Alsace,  of  a  poor 
Jewish  family  :  son  of  Cerf,  and  brother 
of  Arsene,  Darmesteter  :  delicate,  puny, 
and  almost  deformed  :  educated  at  the 
Lycee  Condorcet,  Paris :  Doctor  in 
Letters,  1877  :  devoted  himself  to  Oriental 
scholarship  and  literature  :  became  the 
greatest  authority  of  his  time  on  Zoro- 
astrian  literatiure  :  appointed  x\ssistant- 
Professorof  Zend  at  the  Ecole  des  Hautes 
Etudes,  1877  :  and  in  1892,  Director : 
was  appointed  Professor  of  Persian  at  the 
College  de  France,  1885,  and  Secretary 
of  the  Societe  Asiatique  :  wrote  Etudes 
Iraniennes,  1883,  and  on  the  language  and 
literature  of  ancient  Persia  :  travelled  in 
India,  to  study  his  subjects  locally  :  resid- 
ing there,  Feb.  1886— Feb.  1887,  chiefly 
at  Bombay,  Peshawar  and  Hazara : 
wrote  Letters  sur  ITnde,  1888,  The  Popular 
Songs  of  the  Afghans,  with  an  introduction 
on  their  language,  history  and  literature, 
1890  ;  a  complete  translation,  1892-3, 
of  the  Zendavesta,  published  in  the 
Sacred  Books  of  the  East :    and  Selected 



Essays,  published  1S95  :  was  an  Editor 
of  the  Revue  Critique,  and,  later,  of  the 
Revue  de  Paris  :  wrote  in  them,  and  in  the 
Journal  des  Debals,  critical  notices  of 
books  and  Oriental  essays  :  wrote  on  the 
mythology  of  the  Avesta,  1875  :  Ormuzd 
et  Ahriman,  iSyy  :  Essais  Orientaux,  1883  : 
also  on  the  History  of  the  Jewish  People, 
in  the  Nouvelle  Revue  :  and  the  Prophets 
of  Israel,  1892  :  died  at  Maisons-Lafitte, 
Oct.  19,  1894. 

DUR (1849-         ) 

Born  July  18,  1849  :  educated  at 
Chittagong  and  the  Calcutta  Presidency 
College  :  and  in  that  College's  Engineering 
Department  :  in  1874  was  appointed 
Head  Master  of  the  Bhutia  boarding 
school  at  Darjeeling :  began  to  study 
Tibetan  from  Lama  Ugyen  Gyatso,  a 
teacher  there  :  in  1878  the  latter,  on  a 
visit  to  Tashi  Lhumpo  (Teshu  Lumbo) 
in  Tibet,  obtained  an  invitation  and  pass- 
port for  Sarat  Chandra  to  visit  Lhasa  : 
in  June,  1879,  they  started  together  to 
visit  Lhasa  with  a  servant :  returned  after 
six  months  from  Tashi  Lhumpo  to  Dar- 
jeeling :  in  Nov.  1881,  they  again  went 
to  Tashi  Lhumpo,  and  on  to  Lhasa  : 
wrote  his  Narrative  of  a  Journey  to  Lhasa, 
and  Narrative  of  a  Journey  round  Lake 
Palti  (Yamdok),  and  in  Lhokha,  Yarlung 
and  Sakya  :  in  1884  Sarat  accompanied 
Colman  Macaulay  (q.v.)  to  the  Lachen 
Valley  in  Sikhim,  and  in  1885  went  with 
him  to  Pekin:  made  CLE.,  Jan.  1886  : 
received  a  reward  from  the  Royal  Geo- 
graphial  Society,  1887  :  founded  the 
Buddhist  Text  Book  Society,  1892  :  made 
Rai  Bahadur,  1896  :  the  Royal  Geo- 
graphical Society  published  His  Travels 
in  Tibet,  in  1899  :  completed  his  Tibetan- 
English  Dictionary  in  1902  :  from  Sep. 
1 88 1  served  the  Government  of  Bengal 
as  Tibetan  translator  :  retired  from  service 
July,  1904:  engaged  in  compiling  a  Sans- 
krit-English dictionary. 

DAUD  SHAH  (  ?  -1897) 

Of  the  Lahkan  Kheyl,  a  branch  of  a 
tribe  of  the  Ghilzais  :  at  the  age  of  20 
he  joined  the  Army  of  Amir  Dost  Muham- 
mad Khan  and  became  Akbar  Khan's 
orderly  officer.  Shir  Ali  made  him 
captain  for  services  rendered  at  the 
battle  of   Kajhbaz   on  June   6,    1865,   in 

which  Sirdar  Muhammad  Ali  Khan, 
eldest  son  of  Shir  Ali,  was  killed.  Daud 
Shah  showed  great  bravery  during  a 
campaign  at  Khost  and  was  raised  to  the 
rank  of  General:  he  defeated  Abdur 
Rahman's  forces  in  Turkistan,  and  settled 
the  country  in  Shir  All's  name,  but,  having 
quarrelled  with  General  Muhammad  Alam, 
he  was  recalled  to  Kabul  and  imprisoned 
by  Shir  Ali.  Soon  released,  he  acted  as 
Commander-in-Chief  when  Yakub  Khan 
rebelled  against  his  father  Shir  Ali,  and 
when  General  Faramurz  Khan,  command- 
ing the  Amir's  forces,  was  killed  by  Aslam 
Khan,  son  of  Amir  Dost  Muhammad. 
Upon  Yakub's  second  rebellion,  an  army 
was  sent  to  Herat  in  which  Daud  Shah 
was  given  a  command,  but  Shir  Ali, 
finding  no  General  at  Kabul,  recalled  him 
and  entrusted  him  with  all  army  affairs 
at  the  capital.  In  Jan.  1879,  when  Shir 
Ali  fled  to  Turkistan,  after  the  capture 
of  Ali  Masjid  and  the  Peiwar  Kotal  by 
the  British  troops,  Daud  Shah  was  left 
at  Kabul  with  Yakub  Khan  and  accom- 
panied him  to  meet  Sir  S.  Browne  at 
Gandamak.  He  was  Yakub's  Comman- 
der-in-Chief at  the  time  of  the  massacre  of 
Sir  Louis  Cavagnari  in  Sep.  1879,  and 
Yakub's  flight  to  the  British  camp. 
During  Sir  F.  Roberts'  tenure  of  Sherpur, 
at  Kabul,  Daud  Shah  was  arrested  about 
Dec.  18,  1879,  and  deported  to  India  : 
died  at  Rawul  Pindi,  Dec.  25,  1897. 

DAVIDS,  T.  W.  RHYS  (1843-  ) 
LL.D.,  Ph.D.  :  born  May  12,  1843  : 
son  of  Rev.  T.  W.  Davids  :  educated  at 
Brighton  School  and  Breslau  University  : 
entered  Ceylon  Civil  Service,  1866  : 
barrister,  Middle  Temple,  1877  :  delivered 
Hibbert  Lectures,  1881  :  author  of 
Buddhism,  1878  ;  Buddhism,  its  History 
and  Literature,  1896  :  Buddhist  India, 
1902,  and  numerous  other  works  connected 
with  Buddhist  Texts,  etc.  :  Secretary  and 
Librarian,  Royal  Asiatic  Society :  Pro- 
fessor of  Pali  and  Buddhist  Literatmre, 
University  College,  London. 

DAVIDSON,    ARTHUR    (  ?  -        ) 

Colonel :  son  of  W.  Davidson  :  edu- 
cated privately  at  Petersham  :  joined  the 
6oth  Rifles,  1876  :  served  in  Afghan  war, 
1878-80 :  at  Kandahar  and  Ahmad 
Kheyl :  A.D.C.  to  Sir  Donald  Stewart  at 
Kabul :    A.D.C.  to  Sir  John  Ross  in  Sir  F. 



Roberts'  march  from  Kabul  to  Kandahar 
and  the  battle  there:  served  in  Marri  expedi- 
tion under  General  Macgregor  :  in  Boer  war 
with  Natal  Field  Force,  1881,  and  in 
Egyptian  war,  1882  :  present  at  Tel-el- 
Kebir  :  served  under  Sir  Charles  Warren 
in  Bechuanaland,  18S4  :  A.D.C.  to  H.R.H. 
The  Duke  of  Cambridge,  1890-5  :  Equerry 
in  Waiting  to  Queen  Victoria,  1896-1901, 
and  to  the  King  :   C.B.  in  1902  :  C.V.O. 


DAVIDSON,  CUTHBERT  (1810-1862) 

Colonel :  born  May  24,  1810  :  son  of 
Sir  David  Davidson  :  educated  privately 
and  at  Edinburgh  :  went  to  India  as  a 
military  cadet,  1826 :  joined  the  16th 
N.I.  :  A.D.C.  to  Lord  W.  Bentinck  in  Ma- 
dras :  in  1836,  joined  Sir  R.  Grant's  Staff, 
when  Governor  of  Bombay :  commanded  a 
regiment  of  the  Nizam's  cavalry  :  first 
Assistant  at  Hyderabad  under  General 
Low  and  General  Eraser  :  Resident  at 
Baroda  for  3  years  :  Resident  at  Hydera- 
bad, 1857-62  :  helped  to  bring  Sir  Salar 
Jang  into  office  as  Prime  Minister  :  in 
the  formidable  attack  on  the  Residency, 
July  17,  1857  :  his  life  was  attempted  in 
the  Nizam's  Darbar,  March  15,  1859 : 
C.B.  after  the  mutiny  :  distinguished  for 
his  courage,  composmre  and  resolution  : 
died  Aug.  2,  1862. 

DAVIDSON,  JOHN  (1845-  ) 
Colonel :  son  of  Alexander  Davidson, 
M.D.  :  born  1845  :  educated  at  Winches- 
ter :  entered  the  Army,  1863  :  joined 
the  Panjab  Cavalry,  1866  :  A.A.G.  Pan- 
jab  Frontier  Force,  1875  :  served  in 
the  Jowaki-Afridi  expedition,  1877-8  : 
D.A.Q.M.G.,  Afghan  campaign,  1878-9  : 
A.Q.M.G.,  Waziri  expedition,  1880  : 
Military  Secretary,  Panjab  Government, 
1885-6  :  Colonel  on  Staff,  Chitral,  1896-8  : 
C.B.  :  Author  of  Notes  on  Bashgalt-Kafir 
Language,  1902. 


NESS  (1857-  ) 
Born  Nov.  29,  1857  :  son  of  Ma j -General 
Horatio  Nelson  Davies  :  educated  at 
Wellington  College  :  joined  the  Devon 
Regt.,  1876  :  served  asD.A.A.G.  in  Burma, 
1894-7  :  in  the  Afghan  war,  1880  :  the 
Wuntho  expedition  in  Burma,  1892  : 
commanded  the  Kachen  Hills  expedition  in 
Burma,  1893  :  in  the  Tirah  expedition, 
1897,  and  in  the  South  African  war,  1899- 

1902,     including    relief     of     Ladysmith  : 
Brevet   Lt-Colonel,   and  D.S.O. 


I.CS.  :  son  of  Sir  David  Davies, 
K.C.H.,  Physician  to  William  IV  : 
educated  at  Charterhouse  and  Haileybury, 
1 841 -3  :  went  to  the  N.W.P.  in  the  Civil 
Service,  1844  :  in  the  mutiny,  served  with 
the  troops  in  the  Benares  Division  :  was 
besieged  at  Azimghar,  while  Magistrate  : 
was  in  the  pursuit  of  Kooer  Singh  : 
Secretary  to  the  Panjab  Government,  1859: 
Financial  Commissioner  in  Oudh,  1864  : 
Chief  Commissioner  of  Oudh,  1865-71  : 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  Panjab,  Jan., 
1871,  to  April,  1877  :  K.C.S.1. 1874  :  CLE. 
1877  :  Member  of  the  Council  of  India, 
March,  1885-95  :    died  Aug.  23,  1902. 



Maj-General :  son  of  Dr.  S.  Davies  : 
educated  at  London  University  College 
School :  entered  the  Bengal  Army,  1839  : 
served  on  the  Peshawar  frontier  under 
Sir  Colin  Campbell :  appointed  Assistant 
Commissioner  in  the  Panjab  :  Financial 
Commissioner,  1883  :  Member  of  the 
Governor-General's  Legislative  Council : 
as  Commissioner  of  Delhi  was  President  of 
the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Imperial 
Assemblage,  1877  :  C.S.I.  :  retired,  1887  : 
K.C.S.I.  :  died  June  12,   1898. 

DAVIS,  GEORGE  M'BRIDE  (1846-        ) 

Born  March -29,  1846  :  son  of  Dr.  W.  A. 
Davis :  educated  at  Queen's  College, 
Belfast  :  entered  Bengal  Medical  Service, 
1869,  and  became  Surgeon-Colonel,  1897  : 
served  in  Mahsud-Waziri  expedition, 
1881  :  Miranzai  expedition,  1891  :  Hazara 
expedition,  1891  :  as  P.M.O.  in  Waziristan 
expedition,  1894-5  :  as  P.M.O.  in  Tirah 
expedition,  1897-8  :  was  present  at 
Dargai :  in  China  expedition,  1901  : 
C.B.  in  1898,  and  D.S.O.,  1895  :  is  Princi- 
pal Medical  Officer,  Panjab  Frontier 

DAVIS,  SAMUEL  (1760-1819) 

Went  to  Bengal  as  an  officer  of  En- 
gineers :  was  an  excellent  artist  :  accom- 
panied Turner's  Embassy  to  Tibet  in 
1783,   but   he   himself   did   not    advance 



beyond  Bhutan :  he  was  afterwards 
admitted  to  the  E.I.  Co.'s  civil  service  : 
was  District  Judge  and  Agent  to  the 
Governor-General  at  Benares  and  had  an 
observatory  there  :  as  a  mathematician 
and  astronomer,  he  identified  astronomical 
references  in  Sanskrit  works.  When 
Wazir  Ali,  the  deposed  Nawab  of  Oudh, 
revolted  in  Jan.,  1799,  and  murdered 
Mr.  Cherry,  then  the  Governor-General's 
Agent,  he  afterwards,  with  a  crowd  of 
followers,  attacked  Davis,  who,  on  Jan. 
14,  1799,  successfully  defended  himself 
and  his  family,  standing  at  the  top  of  a 
staircase,  pike  in  hand,  until  rescued  by 
British  troopers.  Davis  became  a  Direc- 
tor of  the  E.  I.  Co.,  from  1810  to  1819,  and 
wrote  the  well-known  Fifth  Report  on  the 
Permanent  Settlement :  F.R.S.  :  died 
June  16,  1819. 

DAVISON,  SIR  HENRY  (    ?  -1860) 

Was  a  Puisne  Judge  of  the  Supreme 
Court,  Madras,  Dec.  1856 :  succeeded 
Sir  W.  Yardley  as  Chief  Justice,  Bombay, 
in  April,  1858 :  transferred  in  April-May, 
1859,  to  be  Chief  Justice,  Madras,  in  suc- 
cession to  Sir  C.  Rawlinson :  died  at 
Ootacamund,  Nov.  3  or  4,  i860. 


(1859-  ) 

Born  1859  :  son  of  C.  G.  A.  Dawkins  of 
the  Foreign  Office:  educated  at  Cheltenham 
and  Balliol  College,  Oxford :  entered  the 
India  Office,  1884  :  Private  Secretary  to 
Lord  Cross,  Secretary  of  State,  1886,  and 
to  Mr.  Goschen,  Chancellor  of  Exchequer, 
1889  :  Under  Secretary  of  State  for 
Finance  in  Egypt,  1895  :  Financial  Mem- 
ber of  the  Supreme  Council  in  India, 
1 899-1 900 :  Partner  in  Messrs.  J.  S. 
Morgan  &  Co.  :  author  of  Appendix  to 
Milner's  England  in  Egypt :  C.B.  in  1901, 
and  K.C.B.,  1902. 

DAY,  FRANCIS  (1829-1889) 
Son  of  WilHam  Day :  born  March  2, 
1829  :  educated  at  Shrewsbury  and  St. 
George's  Hospital,  London :  joined  the 
E.I.  Co.'s  Medical  Service  at  Madras, 
1852  :  served  in  the  Burmese  war  of  1852- 
54  :  Surgeon-Major  in  1872  :  Deputy 
Surgeon-General  in  1876,  when  he  retired. 
An  eminent  naturalist  :  Ichthyology  was 
the  real  work  of  his  life :  he  investigated, 
for  Government,  the  condition  of  Indian 

fisheries  :  his  last  appointment  was  as 
Inspr-General  of  Fisheries  in  India,  where 
he  was  recognized  as  the  chief  authority 
on  Indian  fishes  and  piscicultvure.  After 
his  retirement,  he  pursued  his  studies  in 
the  same  subject,  gaining  medals  at 
several  exhibitions  between  1875  and  1883. 
He  was  made  CLE.  in  1885  :  LL.D.  of 
Edinburgh  in  1889 :  F.Z.S.,  and  F.L.S. : 
was  Indian  Commissioner  at  the  Fisheries 
Exhibition,  1883.  Collections  made  by 
him  are  at  Calcutta,  Cambridge,  London, 
etc.  He  wrote  extensively  on  Fish  and 
Fisheries,  in  separate  works  and  in  con- 
tributions to  the  Journals  of  learned 
Societies  :  v^Tote  The  Fishes  of  India,  The 
Fishes  of  Malabar,  The  British  and  Irish 
SalmonidcB,  The  Fishes  of  the  Andaman 
and  Nicobar  Islands,  The  Fishes  of  the 
Nilgiri  Hills  and  Wynaad,  The  Fishes  of 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland  :  also.  The  Land 
of  the  Perumals,  1863  :  Tropical  Fevers, 
etc.  :    died  July  10,  1889. 

DE,  REV.  LAL  BEHARI  (1826-1894) 

Educated  at  the  General  Assembly's 
Institution,  under  the  Rev.  Dr.  Duff :  at 
17  was  converted  to  Christianity :  in 
1 85 1  authorized  to  preach,  and  ordained 
in  1855  :  in  1857  he  gave  up  preaching, 
and  entered  the  Bengal  Educational 
Department :  spent  most  of  his  career 
at  Hughli  as  Professor  of  History  and 
English  Literature  :  he  retired  in  his  63rd 
year  :  died  about  Oct.,  1894 :  he  wrote 
against  Vedantism  and  the  preaching  of 
Keshab  Chandra  Sen  {q.v.),  and  conducted 
a  Joiurnal  to  diffuse  Christianity.  His 
novel,  Gobinda  Samanta,  a  tale  of  peasant 
life  in  Bengal,  and  other  writings,  attracted 
considerable  attention :  wrote  also  Re- 
miniscences of  Dr.  Duff,  1879. 

THOMAS,  D.D.  (1796-1861) 

Bishop  :  born  of  poor  parents  in  York- 
shire in  1796  :  went  up  to  St.  Catherine's 
Hall,  Cambridge,  as  a  pensioner  in  1825  : 
first  class  in  the  Law  Class  List,  1827-8  : 
LL.B.  in  1829  :  after  being  ordained, 
was  a  curate  at  Cambridge  and  came  under 
the  influence  of  the  Rev.  C.  Simeon,  who 
obtained  for  him  a  chaplaincy  in  the 
Bengal  Establishment.  Reaching  Cal- 
cutta in  1829,  he  was  appointed  to  the  old 
Mission  church,  and  remained  in  charge  of 
it  till  1835,  when  he  was  made  Archdeacon 




of  Calcutta:  held  the  post  till  his 
departure  to  England  in  1848.  He  was 
there  offered  the  Bishopric  of  Madras,  was 
consecrated,  became  D.D.,  and  returned 
to  Madras  as  Bishop  in  Feb.,  1850.  In 
the  latter  years  of  Bishop  Wilson,  who 
died  1858,  Dealtry  did  much  of  his  touring 
and  visitation  work  in  Upper  India  :  was 
an  active  and  liberal  supporter  of  Missions 
and  Missionaries  :    died  March  4,  1861. 

DEANE,  HAROLD  ARTHUR  (1854-  ) 
Lt-Colonel  :  born  April  i,  1854 :  son 
of  Rev.  Henry  Deane  :  educated  at  Ips- 
wich Grammar  School :  entered  the 
English  Army,  1874,  and  the  Indian  Staff 
Corps,  1877  :  served  in  the  Afghan  war, 
1879-80 :  District  Superintendent  of 
Police,  Andamans,  1880-5  :  entered  the 
Pan  jab  Commission  and  served  as  Assis- 
tant and  Deputy  Commissioner  till  1895  : 
Chief  Political  Officer  with  Chitral  Relief 
Force  :  Political  Agent  at  Malakand : 
Political  Resident  in  Kashmir,  1900-1  : 
Chief  Commissioner  and  Agent  to  the 
Governor-General,  N.W.  Frontier  Pro- 
vince, 1901  :   C.S.I. ,  1896. 

DEANE,  THOMAS  (1841- 

Colonel  :  born  May  12,  1841  :  son  of 
Sir  Thomas  Deane  :  educated  privately  : 
joined  the  Indian  Army,  1862,  in  Madras 
Cavalry :  attached  to  21st  Hussars, 
1863-9  :  Viceroy's  Bodyguard,  1869  : 
Military  Secretariat,  Government  of  India, 
1877 :  Staff  Officer  to  the  Controller 
General,  Supply  and  Transport,  Afghan 
war,  1879  :  Director  Army  Remount 
Department,  1887-8  :  and  again  1889-98  : 
on  special  service  in  S.  Africa,  1900-1  : 
Agent  in  England  for  Government  of 
India  Army  Studs  :   C.B.  in  1897. 


(1866-  ) 

Born  1866  :  son  of  Right  Hon.  Richard 
Deasy,  Lord  Justice  of  Appeal  (Ireland)  : 
educated  at  Bournemouth  and  Dublin  : 
joined  the  i6th  Lancers,  1888,  and  resigned 
his  commission,  1897  :  explored  Western 
Tibet,  1896  :  received  the  Founders' 
Gold  Medal  from  the  Royal  Geographical 
Society  for  exploring  and  survey  work  in 
Central  Asia  for  nearly  three  years : 
created  a  record  In  motoring,  by  driving 
450  miles  in  21  hours  :  author  of  In  Tibet 
and  Chinese  Turkistan,  1901. 


(1866-  ) 

Of  the  Sovabazar  Raj  family  (Kaisthya): 
great-grandson  of  Maharaja  Naba  Krishna 
Bahadur  (of  the  time  of  Clive  and  Warren 
Hastings)  :  and  son  of  Maharaja  Komul 
Krishna  Deb,  landowner  in  the  Tippera 
district :  born  Aug.  15,  1866  :  educated 
privately :  holds  various  honorary  ap- 
pointments in  Calcutta,  Municipal  Com- 
missioner, Member  of  the  District  Board, 
24  Parganas,  Governor  of  the  Mayo 
Hospital,  etc.  :  made  a  Raja  in  1895  for 
loyal  services  :  given  the  silver  Kaisar-i- 
Hind  medal,  1902  :  has  founded  and 
maintains  a  number  of  schools,  dispen- 
saries and  other  charitable  institutions  : 
promoted  philanthropic  objects  and  sport- 
ing clubs  :  has  written  Agra  Reflections 
and  the  Early  History  and  Growth  of  Cal- 
cutta, and  had  a  memoir  written  of  Mahara- 
ja Naba  Krishna  :  has  initiated  the  Hindu 
sea-voyage  movement,  founded  the  Sova- 
bazar Benevolent  Society,  and  encouraged 
literary  institutions  and  journalistic  enter- 

KRISHNA  (1808-1874) 

Second  son  of  Raja  Raj  Krishna  of 
Sovabazar,  and  grandson  of  Raja  Naba 
Krishna,  the  Diwan  of  Lord  Clive  :  was 
made  Raja  Bahadur  in  1833  :  from  1867 
was  the  leader  of  Hindu  Society  and  in 
the  van  of  all  movements  on  behalf  of 
the  native  community :  Fellow  of  the 
Calcutta  University:  J.P.  :  and  Vice- 
President  of  the  British  Indian  Associa- 
tion :  sincerely  advocated  female  educa- 
tion :  died  at  Benares  on  April  11,  1874. 

NARENDRA  KRISHNA  (1822-1903) 

Born  Oct.  10,  1822  :  son  of  Raja  Raj 
Krishna  Bahadur,  and  grandson  of 
Maharaja  Naba  Krishna  Bahadur,  of  the 
Sovabazar  family  :  educated  at  the  Hindu 
College  :  was,  for  a  short  time,  in  Govern- 
ment service  :  was  a  Municipal  Com- 
missioner of  Calcutta,  and  Justice  of  the 
Peace :  Honorary  Magistrate  :  several  times 
President  and  Vice-President  of  the 
British  Indian  Association  :  Fellow  of  the 
Calcutta  University  :  made  Raja,  1875  : 
Member  of  the  Governor-General's  Legisla- 
tive Council :  Maharaja,  1877  :  and 
K.C.I.E.,   in    1888:     Maharaja   Bahadur, 



i8g2  :    held  a  number  of  minor  honorary 
offices  :  died  March  20,  1903. 

DEB,    SIR    RADHA    KANTA,     RAJA 
BAHADUR  (1784-1867) 

Born  in  Calcutta,  March  II,  1784,  son  of 
RajaGopi  Mohan  Deb, and  great  grandson  of 
Munshi,  afterwards  Maharaja,  Naba  Krish- 
na Deb,  Persian  Secretary  and  Diwan  to 
Lord  Clive  :  received  his  English  education 
at  Cumming's  Calcutta  Academy  :  studied 
Sanskrit,  Arabic,  Persian :  his  life  was 
devoted  to  cultivating  and  disseminating 
knowledge  :  was  the  first  modern  Hindu 
to  advocate  home  female  education, 
zealously  established  native  schools,  and 
compiled  in  36  years  a  comprehensive 
Sanskrit  dictionary,  which  was  acknow- 
ledged by  learned  European  Societies,  and 
by  Queen  Victoria  with  a  medal.  In 
religion  he  was  rigidly  conservative  and 
strictly  orthodox,  while  devoted  to  the 
cause  of  education :  wrote  a  Bengali 
reader.  He  was  a  Director  of  the  Hindu 
College :  Secretary  of  the  School-book 
Society,  established  in  1818:  prominently 
connected  with  the  Government  Sanskrit 
College,  and  the  Bengal  Asiatic  Society : 
Honorary  Magistrate  and  Justice  of  the 
Peace  for  Calcutta  in  1855  :  President  of 
the  British  Indian  Association  from  1851 
until  his  death  at  Brindaban  on  April  19, 
1867  :  Raja  Bahadur  on  July  10, 1837,  and 
K.C.S.I.  in  1866  :  was  an  active  supporter 
of  all  public  movements. 


A  Savoyard:  born  at  Chambery  on 
March  8,  175 1  :  entered  the  French  Army 
at  17:  left  it  in  5  years  for  the  Russian 
service,  and  was  taken  prisoner  at  Tenedos. 
Being  released,  he,  travelling  via  Alexan- 
dria, Cairo,  and  Suez,  joined  the  6th 
Madras  N.I.  in  the  E.jl.  Co.'s  service  in 
1778,  at  Madras.  Fancying  himself  neg- 
lected, he  resigned,  and,  abandoning  his 
intention  of  making  a  journey  overland 
to  Europe,  joined  Madhava  Rao  Sindia, 
who  made  great  use  of  him  to  train  his 
troops  and  loaded  him  with  wealth.  He 
left  Sindia  in  1789,  and  entered  into 
trade,  but  rejoined  Sindia  in  1790  with 
greater  powers,  and  on  higher  terms : 
won  for  him  the  battles  of  Patau,  June  20, 
1790,  and  Merta  in  Sep.  1790,  defeating 
mixed  forces  of  Pathans,  Rajputs,  Moguls, 
etc.     He    became    C.    in    C.    of    Sindia' s 

army,  and,  during  Sindia's  absence  in  the 
Dekkan,  defeated  Holkar  at  Lakhairi  in 
Sep.  1793-  On  Sindia's  death,  in  1794,  De 
Boigne  continued  to  serve  his  successor, 
Daulat  Rao  Sindia.  He  resigned  his 
command  in  Dec.  1795,  on  account  of  ill- 
health.  He  had  a  house  at  Ahghar  from 
1783  until  he  left  India  in  Sep.  1796. 
He  lived  at  first  near  London,  and  then 
went  to  Paris.  It  was  alleged  that  he 
advised  and  assisted  Napoleon  Bonaparte 
in  his  designs  against  the  Enghsh  in  India. 
This  has  been  completely  contradicted 
by  his  grandson  :  De  Boigne  during  his 
career  in  India  maintained  friendly  rela- 
tions with  the  E.  I.  Co.  In  1803,  he 
settled  at  Buisson,  at  Chambery,  applying 
his  wealth  to  benevolent  and  patriotic 
purposes,  to  which  he  gave  3,678,000 
francs.  Honours  were  heaped  upon  him  : 
he  was  held  in  the  greatest  respect.  He 
died  June  21,  1830,  leaving  20  millions  of 

DE  BRATH  ERNEST,  (1858- 

Born  Dec.  12,  1858  :  son  of  Felix 
de  Brath  :  educated  privately  :  joined  the 
Buffs,  1876,  and  the  Indian  Staff  Corps, 
1879  :  served  in  the  Afghan  war,  1879-80  : 
Mahsud-Waziri  expedition,  1881  :  Hazara 
expedition,  1891 ;  Dongola  expedition, 
1896,  as  Brig-Major  at  Suakin  :  Brevet- 
Lt-Colonel :  Colonel,  1899 :  '  in  the 
Military  Secretariat  since  1892 :  Secre- 
tary Military  Department,  Government 
of  India,  since  1902 :  CLE.  in  1903  : 
Maj-General:    C.B. 


Son  of  Major  Henry  Delafosse,  C.B.  : 
born  1835  :  educated  at  Addiscombe  : 
entered  the  Army,  1854,  and  became  a 
Maj-General,  1887 :  served  in  Indian 
mutiny  :  was  at  Cawnpur,  as  Lieutenant 
in  the  53rd  N.I.  :  and  served  with  the 
Artillery  in  the  siege  there  :  on  June  22, 
1 85  7,  showed  great  bravery  in  extinguishing 
the  flames  of  a  burning  ammunition 
wagon,  which  was  under  severe  fire  :  and 
was  one  of  the  four  men  who  escaped  in  a 
boat  from  the  massacre  of  Evuropeans  at  the 
Sati  Chaura  Ghat  on  June  27,  1857  :  in 
Havelock's  relief  of  Lucknow,  and  the 
retaking  of  Cawnpur :  in  the  Sikhim 
expedition,  1861  :  in  the  Umbeyla  cam- 
paign, 1863  :  C.B.,  1887  :  retired,  1887  : 
died  Feb.  10,  1905. 





A  Flemish  soldier  of  fortune,  in  the 
service  of  Martanda  Varma  of  Travancore  : 
he  built  the  Travancore  lines  which  were 
captured  by  Tippoo  in  1790  :  also  the 
fort  of  Udayagiri,  38  miles  S.E.  of  Trivan- 
drum  :  remembered  among  the  natives 
as  Istach  (Eustache),the  Valiya  Kappithan, 
or  great  captain  :  died  i777>  buried  at 



Maj -General :  son  of  Theodore  de 
Meuron,  justicier :  born  May  6,  1738  : 
at  17  fought  in  a  body  of  Swiss  Marines 
for  the  French,  against  the  English  at 
Rochefort :  in  i757»  on  the  Florissant 
nearly  escaped  capture  by  the  English  : 
joined  the  Swiss  Guards,  1763  :  Captain 
and  Colonel,  1768  :  as  proprietary  colonel 
raised  in  1781  the  Neuchatel  regiment  de 
Meuron,  1,020  strong,  for  the  Dutch  E.I. 
Co.  :  reached  the  Cape,  Jan.  1782  :  sent 
on  to  Ceylon  to  reinforce  Suffrein  :  to 
Cuddalore,  June  1783  :  retmmed  to 
Ceylon  and  the  Cape,  and  again  Ceylon, 
where  he,  then  Colonel,  left  the  regiment, 
of  which  the  Commanding  Officer  was  his 
brother  Pierre  Frederich  {q.v.)  :  in  1795, 
C.  D.  de  Meuron  after  prolonged  negotia- 
tions ceded  the  regiment  to  England : 
the  transfer  was  ratified  at  Madras,  1797  : 
de  Meuron  went  to  England,  1797,  and 
was  occupied  in  recruiting,  and  in  the 
negotiations  for  completing  the  transfer, 
1798  :  was  made  a  British  Maj -General : 
retired :    died  at  Neuchatel  April  6,  1806. 



Brother  of  C.  D.  {q.v.)  :  born  1746  : 
commanded  the  regiment  de  Meuron  under 
the  Dutch  in  Ceylon  :  when  the  English 
invaded  Ceylon  in  August,  1795,  several 
detachments  of  the  regiment  were  defeat- 
ed :  that  under  P.  F.  de  Meuron  held 
out  :  on  its  cession  to  England,  in  1795,  it 
embarked  for  Tuticorin  :  where  de  Meuron 
was  made,  by  Lord  Hobart,  Military 
Governor  of  Ceylon,  1797-8  :  commanded 
the  troops  there  till  1799  :  then  command- 
ed at  Vellore,  and  Arnee,  while  the  regi- 
ment was  in  the  Mysore  campaign  of  1799  : 
took  the  regiment  from  Vellore  to  Madras, 
1 80 1,   and  left  for  London  :    he  retired. 

1807,  settled  at  Neuchatel,  died  there, 
March  30,  181 3  :  the  regiment  was  dis- 
banded in  1816,  after  14  years'  service 
under  the  Dutch,  21  years'  under  the 


(1858-  ) 

Born  July  9,  1858  :  son  of  Capt.  H.  L. 
Dempster  :  educated  at  Edinburgh  Aca- 
demy, the  Institution  and  University, 
and  at  Cooper's  Hill  College :  jomed  the 
Indian  Telegraph  Department,  1878  : 
served  in  the  Afghan  war,  1879-80 : 
Chin-Lushai  expedition,  1889  :  Chitral 
expedition,  1895  :  CLE.  1896 :  Super- 
intendent of  the  Indian  Government 

DENING,  LEWIS  (1848-        ) 

Entered  the  Army,  1867,  and  became 
Lt-Colonel,  1893  :  served  in  Afghan 
war,  1878-9  :  Burmese  expedition,  1886- 
88  :  Dongola  expedition,  1896,  and  N.W. 
Frontier,  1897 :  D.S.O.  1887,  and  C.B. 
1903  :  Colonel  on  StalBf,  commanding  2nd 
Class  District  in  India  since  1903. 



Governor,  and  Colonel :  son  of  John 
Denison :  born  May  3,  1804 :  educated 
at  Sunbury,  Eton,  and  the  R.M.A., 
Woolwich :  joined  the  R.E.  in  1826 : 
made  the  Rideau  Canal  in  Canada,  1827- 
31  :  employed  at  Woolwich,  Chatham, 
on  inspection  at  Bermuda  till  1847,  when, 
as  Captain  R.E.  he  went  to  Van  Diemen's 
Land  as  Lieutenant-Governor,  and  was 
knighted.  From  1854  to  1861  he  was 
Governor  of  New  South  Wales  and  titular 
Governor-General  of  Australia :  K.C.B., 
1856 :  Governor  of  Madras  from  Feb. 
1861  :  held  strong  views  on  military 
questions,  and  did  not  conceal  his  unfa- 
vourable estimate  of  the  character  of  the 
natives  of  India  :  was  opposed  to  their 
admission  into  the  Legislative  Councils 
and  to  the  establishment  of  subordinate 
Legislative  Councils  at  all :  his  previous 
experience  made  him  an  authority  on 
public  works,  roads,  railways,  etc.  While 
Governor  of  Madras  he  was  summoned'.to 
Calcutta  on  Lord  Elgin's  death  and  acted 
as  Viceroy  and  Governor-General  from 
Dec.  2,  1863,  until  Sir  John  Lawrence 
assumed  charge  on  Jan.  12,  1864.     Dur- 



ing  this  time,  he  arranged  for  the  con- 
tinuation of  the  Umbeyla  campaign 
against  the  Sitana  stronghold  of  Hindu- 
stani fanatics.considering  that  a  retirement 
from  the  expedition  would  be  unwise  : 
went  home  from  Madras  in  March,  1866  : 
died  Jan.  19,  1871  :  wrote  Varieties  of 
Viceregal  Life  and  essays  on  social  and 
educational  subjects. 

DENNEHY,  SIR  THOMAS  (1829-        ) 

Served  in  Sonthal  campaign,  1855-6  ; 
Indian  mutiny,  1857-8  :  Political  Agent, 
Dholpur,  Rajputana,  1879-85  :  extra 
Groom  in  Waiting  to  Queen  Victoria, 
1888,  and  to  H.M.  the  King,  1901  : 
K.C.I.E.,  1896. 


Born  about  1785  :  son  of  Henry  Den- 
nie  :  joined  the  22nd  regt.,  1802,  in  India  : 
served  in  Lord  Lake's  campaigns,  1804-5  : 
at  the  taking  of  the  Mauritius,  1810  :  in 
the  13th  regt.  in  the  first  Burmese  war : 
Brevet-  Lt-Colonel :  C.B. :  in  the  Afghan 
war,  1838-9 :  commanded  a  Brigade : 
led  the  storming  party  at  Ghazni:  to 
Kabul:  defeated  part  of  Dost  Muham- 
mad's army  at  Bameean,  Sep.  18,  1840 : 
after  which  the  Dost  surrendered:  went 
with  Sir  R.  Sale's  force  from  Kabul  to 
Jalalabad,  1841 :  in  the  siege  there,  Nov. 
1841-April  1842 :  commanded  after  Sale 
was  wounded :  was  fatally  wounded  in  a 
sortie  on  April  6,  1842  :  was  A.D.C.  to 
the  Queen :  his  services  inadequately 
recognized :  wrote  a  Narrative  of  Cam- 
Paigns  in  Sind,  Beluchistan,  and  Afghanis- 
tan, published  1843. 



Born  at  Russeignies,  in  Belgium,  Jan. 
28,  1822  :  entered  the  Society  of  Jesus, 
1842  :  educated  at  Belgium  Colleges  for 
5  years  :  ordained  :  took  his  last  vows, 
Oct.  1859  :  reached  Calcutta,  Nov.  1859, 
with  a  small  pioneer  Jesuit  mission  and 
leopened  St.  Xavier's  College,  Jan.  16, 
i860 :  was  military  chaplain  at  Fort 
William,  1860-4  :  when  he  returned  to 
St.  Xavier's :  as  Superior,  raised  the 
number  of  pupils  from  100  to  500  :  re- 
signed the  Rectorship'  of  St.  Xavier's, 
Oct.  1871  :  went  to  take  charge  of  the 
Mission  at  Midnapur,  but  was  transferred 

to  Bombay,  managing  for  6  years  a  new 
St.  Xavier's  there  :  to  Belgium  :  thence 
led  the  "Zambesi"  Jesuit  Mission  to  S. 
Africa,  1879 :  crushed  in  an  accident, 
1882  :  to  Belgium,  1883 :  returned  to 
India,  Jan.  1888,  to  be  the  Rector  of  St. 
Joseph's  Seminary  at  Darjeeling  :  erected 
the  St.  Joseph's  College  at  North  Point 
there,  and  was  its  Superior  till  his  death. 
May  26,  1900. 



Son  of  fourteenth  Earl  of  Derby,  thrice 
Prime  Minister  :  born  Jtily,  1826  :  edu- 
cated at  Rugby  and  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge  :  M.P.  for  King's  Lynn,  1848  : 
travelled  widely  in  N.  and  S.  America  : 
visited  India,  185 1-2  :  Under  Secy,  for  the 
Colonies,  1852  :  Secretary  for  the  Colonies, 
1858  :  was  in  charge  of  the  Bill  for  trans- 
ferring in  1858  the  Government  of  India 
from  the  E.  I.  Company  to  the  Queen  : 
Secretary  of  State  for  India  from  Sep.  2, 
1858,  to  June  18,  1859  :  made  Foreign 
Secretary  :  became  Earl  in  1869  :  again 
Foreign  Secretary :  resigned,  March, 
1878  :  Colonial  Secretary  in  Mr.  Glad- 
stone's Government :  presided  over  Royal 
Commissions  :    died  April  21,  1893. 

CASTRIOT  (1829-         ) 

Born  May  6,  1829  :  son  of  Thomas  De 
Renzy :  educated  at  Trinity  College, 
Dublin :  entered  the  Bengal  Medical 
Service,  1851  :  present  at  the  capture  of 
Rangoon,  1852  :  served  in  the  mutiny, 
1857-8  :  siege  and  capture  of  Lucknow, 
1858  :  Naga  campaign  and  capture  of 
Khonoma,  1879,  as  P.M.O.  :  First  Sanitary 
Commissioner  of  the  Panjab  :  Surgeon-Gen- 
eral :  retired,  1882  :  was  made  a  K.C.B. 
1902  :  author  of  several  Sanitary  Reports. 



Eurasian  poet  and  teacher :  born  in 
Calcutta,  April  10,  1809  :  son  of  Francis 
Derozio,  a  Calcutta  merchant :  educated 
at  Drummond's  Academy  in  Dharmtala  : 
left  school  at  14  for  commercial  work, 
which  he  gave  up,  joining  an  uncle  in 
indigo  at  Bhagalpur.  At  18  he  published 
a  volume  of  poems  and  obtained  a  teacher- 
ship    at    the   Hindu    College :     was   very 



successful  as  a  teacher  of  philosophy,  but 
lost  his  appointment,  though  the  charges 
against  him,  of  propagating  atheism  and 
encouraging  disobedience,  failed :  still 
continued  to  exercise  great  influence  over 
his  former  pupils,  many  of  whom  became 
distinguished  men  :  contributed  to  journa- 
lism and  established  a  newspaper,  the 
East  Indian.  His  name  is  still  revered  in 
his  community  as  a  great  teacher.  He 
died  of  cholera,  Dec.  23,  1831  :  he  wrote 
the  Fakif  of  Jungheera  and  other  poems. 

DE  SALIS,  RODOLPH  (1811-1880) 

Lt. -General :  son  of  Jerome,  Count  de 
Salis :  born  May,  181 1  :  entered  the 
Army  in  1830  :  Lt-Colonel,  1854  :  served 
with  the  8th  Hussars  in  Turkey  and  the 
Crimea,  in  all  the  battles  :  commanded 
the  regt.  in  the  mutiny,  in  Rajputana 
and  Central  India,  present  at  Kotah, 
Chandairi,  Kotahkasarai,  Gwalior,  Powri, 
and  several  other  engagements :  C.B., 
1861  :  Lt-General,  1877  :  died  March  13, 



Son  of  Laurence  de  Souza  :  educated 
at  Downside  College,  Somerset :  Consul 
for  Portugal  at  Calcutta,  1870-8,  Consul 
General,  1878-84 :  Member  for  West- 
minster on  the  London  County  Council, 
1895  :  very  philanthropic  and  munificent 
in  his  benefactions  to  charities,  for  which 
he  was  knighted,  1879  :  Count  of  the 
Roman  Empire,  and  held  other  foreign 
distinctions  :    died  April  13,  1897. 

DEUSSEN,  PAUL  (1845- 

Born  Jan.  7,  1845,  at  Oberdreis  near 
Coblenz  :  son  of  Adam  Deussen,  pastor  :' 
educated  at  Schulpforta  near  Naumburg  : 
studied  at  Bonn,  Tiibingen  and  Berlin  : 
Sanskrit  under  Lassen  and  Gildemeister, 
classical  philology,  theology :  Phil.  Dr. 
at  Marburg,  1869  :  teacher  at  the  Gym- 
nasiums at  Minden  and  Marburg,  1869-72, 
and  tutor  in  Russian  families  at  Geneva, 
Aix-la-Chapelle,  and  Terny  in  Russia, 
1872-80  :  taught  philosophy  (the  sub- 
ject to  which  he  was  chiefly  devoted)  and 
Sanskrit,  as  Privat-docent  at  the  Univer- 
sity of  Geneva  :  and  philosophy  at  the 
Polytechnical  School  at  Aix-la-Chapelle, 
1875-9.  While  at  Geneva,  his  resolution 
was  made  to  devote  his  life  to  the  study 

of  Indian  philosophy  (1873).  Since  his 
return  from  Russia,  and  residence  in 
Berlin,  from  1881  to  1889,  this  has  been 
his  main  work :  taught  philosophy  at 
Berlin  University,  first  as  Privat-docent, 
then  as  Professor  :  since  1889,  Ordinary 
Professor  of  Philosophy  at  the  University 
of  Kiel :  has  travelled  much  in  various 
parts  of  the  world :  over  the  greater 
part  of  India,  1892-3.  In  1904,  the 
Order  of  the  Red  Eagle,  4th  Class,  was 
conferred  upon  him.  Among  his  chief 
works  may  be  mentioned  :  Das  System 
des  Veddnta,  1883  :  Die  Sutras  des  Vedanta, 
1887  :  On  the  Philosophy  of  the  Vedanta 
in  its  relations  to  Occidental  Metaphysics, 
Bombay,  1893  ;  Sechzig  Upanishads  des 
Veda,  1897 :  Geschichie  der  Philosophie 
(I  and  II  on  the  Vedic  Hymns  and 
Upanishads  :  III-VI  in  preparation), 
1894,  1899  :  "  Outlines  of  Indian  Philo- 
sophy," in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  1902  : 
Erinnerungen  an  Indien,  1904. 

DEVIS,     ARTHUR    WILLIAM     (1763- 


Son  of  an  artist  :  born  Aug.  10,  1763  : 
at  the  age  of  20  appointed  by  the  E.  I.  Co. 
draughtsman  to  an  expedition  :  wrecked 
in  the  Antelope :  went  to  Macao  and 
Canton,  and  arrived  in  Calcutta  about 
1791  :  returned  to  England,  1795  : 
painted  a  picture  of  "  Cornwallis  receiving 
the  two  sons  of  Tippoo  Sahib  as  Hostages  " 
for  the  treaty  of  17^2  :  painted  30  pictures- 
of  Indian  subjects  :  also  the  death  of 
Nelson  in  the  Victory  :  exhibited  65  pic- 
tures in  the  Academy,  1 779-1 821  :  died 
Feb.  IT,  1822. 


OF  (1833-         ) 

Born  July  23,  1833  :  succeeded  his 
father  in  the  title,  1891  :  educated  at 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge :  M.P  from 
1857  :  held  a  number  of  appointments 
in  the  Governments  since  1862  :  as  Mar- 
quis of  Hartington  was  Secretary  of  State 
for  India  from  April,  1880,  to  Dec.  1882  : 
K.G.  :    P.C.  :    D.C.L.  :    LL.D. 

DEY,  RAJ  KRISHNA  (  ?  -1840) 

Doctor  :  was  the  first  Hindu  who  used 
a  dissecting  knife,  and  was  regarded^ 
therefore,  as  the  leader  of  a  reformation 
in  medical  science  among  his  countrymen  : 



educated  at  the  Hindu  College,  1833-7, 
and  at  the  Medical  College,  Calcutta, 
where  he  took  his  degree,  1838  :  accepted 
service  in  the  N.W.P.,  and  placed  in 
charge  of  the  Delhi  Dispensary,  Aug., 
1839  :    died  1840. 

DEY,  RAM  DULAL  (1759-1825) 
Born  near  Dum  Dum,  1759  :  employed 
in  a  subordinate  capacity  in  mercantile 
work,  as  a  bill-collector,  and  a  Sarkar  of 
ships  :  one  day,  on  behalf  of  his  master, 
he  bid  at  an  auction  for  a  lost  ship,  and 
bought  it  for  Rs.  14,000  :  he  immediately 
was  offered  one  lakh  more  for  the  same 
ship  :  his  master  gave  one  lakh  to  Ram 
Dulal,  who,  with  this  capital,  started 
business,  and  acquired  immense  wealth  : 
died  in  Calcutta,  in  1825,  leaving  property 
of  fabulous  amount :  remembered  as  the 
Bengali  millionaire. 

DICK,  GEORGE  (1739-1818) 

Entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  service  in  1759  : 
was  Accountant  and  Director  of  the  Com- 
pany's Bank  :  rose  to  be  the  Governor  of 
Bombay,  1792-5  :  never  left  Bombay  but 
once  for  a  trip  to  Bankot  :  died  May  9, 

DICK,    SIR   ROBERT   HENRY   (1785- 

Born  about  1785,  his  father  being  in 
the  E. I.]  Co.'s  medical  service  :  entered  the 
75th  regt.  in  1800 :  served  in  Sicily,  Egypt, 
the  Peninsula,  being  present  at  several 
battles :  C.B.,  1814  :  in  Flanders :  at 
Waterloo  :  K.C.H.  in  1832  :  Maj-General, 
1837 :  K.C.B.  in  1838  :  commanded  a 
Division  in  Madras,  1838,  and  acting  C.  in 
C.  there,  1 841-2  :  commanded  a  Division 
in  Bengal,  and  an  infantry  Division  in  the 
first  Sikh  war  :  was  killed  at  Sobraon, 
Feb.  10,  1846,  by  one  of  the  last  shots  of 
the  day. 

HENRY  (1851-1900) 

Lt-Colonel :  son  of  Sir  William  Hanmer 
Dick-Cunyngham,  Bart.  :  entered  the 
92nd  Highlanders,  1872  :  Lt-Colonel, 
1897,  in  the  Gordon  Highlanders  :  in  the 
Afghan  war,  1879-80,  in  Sir  Donald 
Stewart's  advance  to  Kandahar  :  in  the 
Thai  Chotiali  force  :  in  the  Kuram  Valley 
Field  Force  under  Sir  F.  Roberts :  at 
Ali  Khel :  at  Charasia  :  in  the  operations 
round  Kabul,  1879  :    gained  the  V.C.  for 

gallantry  in  an  attack  on  Dec.  13,  1879  : 
in  the  Kabul- Kandahar  march  and  sub- 
sequent battle  :  with  his  regt.  in  theBoer 
war:  killed  at  Ladysmith,  Jan.  6,  1900, 
while  commanding  the  2nd  battalion. 


(1834-        ) 

Colonel :  born  March  19,  1834  :  son  of 
Stephen  Dickens,  M.D.,D.I.G.of  Hospitals, 
Bengal  :  educated  at  Blundell's,  Twerton, 
Charterhouse  and  Addiscombe  :  entered 
the  Madras  Army,  1853  :  joined  the  Madras 
Staff  Corps:  Lt-Colonel,  1879:  Brevet- 
Colonel,  1883  :  Colonel-Commandant,  3rd 
Madras  L.I.,  1884  :  served  in  the  Burmese 
expedition  in  command  of  the  Toungoo 
and  Ningyan  (Pyinmana)  column,  1885-7  : 
D.S.O.,  1887  :  C.B.,  1891  :  on  the  un- 
employed  Supernumerary  List. 

DICKINSON,  JOHN  (1815-1876) 
Born  Dec.  28,  1815  :  educated  at  Eton: 
son  of  a  papermaker  :  entered  no  pro- 
fession, but  took  up  an  independent  line 
as  a  reformer  of  India  :  wrote  letters  on 
the  cotton  and  roads  of  Western  India, 
1851  :  became  Honorary  [Secretary  of 
the  "  Indian  Reform  Society,"  formed 
in  1853,  and  was  made  its  Chaurman  on 
John  Bright's  resignation  of  that  office 
in  1861  :  maintained  a  correspondence 
with  the  Maharaja  Holkar  of  Indore : 
wrote  India,  its  Government  under  a 
Bureaucracy,  in  1852,  and  Dhar  not  re- 
stored, in  1864,  besides  other  pamphlets 
and  papers  on  Indian  subjects :  died 
Nov.  23,  1876. 

DIGBY,  WILLIAM  (1849-1904) 
Son  of  William  Digby  :  born  May  i, 
1849  :  educated  privately :  became  a 
journalist  in  1868  in  England  :  in  Ceylon, 
1871-6  :  Editor  of  Madras  Times,  1877-9  : 
wrote  some  interesting  articles  on  old 
Madrasis  :  returned  to  England  :  became 
Secretary  of  National  Liberal  Club  in 
1887  :  connected  with  the  Indian  National 
Congress :  Editor  of  India,  1890-2  : 
Secretary  of  Famine  Fund  for  Southern 
India,  for  which  £800,000  were  subscribed : 
contested  two  Parliamentary  seats  without 
success :  author  of  The  Famine  Cam- 
paign in  Southern  India,  1876-8 ;  Indian 
Problems  for  English  Consideration ;  India 
for  the  Indians  ;  Prosperous  British  India, 
1901 ;  Life  of  Sir  Arthur  Cotton,  etc.  etc. : 



became  a  partner  in  Hutchinson  &  Co., 
East  India  Merchants,  1888  :  CLE.  for 
his  honorary  services  in  India  in  connexion 
with  the  Famine  Relief  Funds,  1877-9  '■ 
died  Sep.  24,  1904. 

KRISHNA  (     ?    -1898) 

A  member  of  the  Bombay  Educational 
Department,  and  a  well-known  contri- 
butor to  the  Indian  A  ntiquary  :  considered 
by  archaeologists  as  an  authority  on  the 
astronomical  and  chronological  systems 
of  the  Hindus  :  the  verification  of  the 
dates  in  ancient  Hindu  records  was  his 
principal  subject  :  was  the  first  to  point 
out  the  right  method  of  studying  the 
question :  collaborated  with  R.  Sewell 
iq.v.)  in  the  preparation  of  the  Indian 
Calendar,  published  in  1896  :  died  of 
fever,  1898  :  an  enthusiastic  and  disin- 
terested worker,  and  a  winning  person- 

HORACE  (  ?  -        ) 

Entered  the  Indian  Army,  1882  : 
served  in  Burma,  1886-7  :  Lushai  expedi- 
tion, 1889  :  Waziristan  Field  Force, 
1894-5  :  N.W.  Frontier,  1897  :  in  the 
Buner  Field  Force  :  Commandant  26th 
Bengal    Infantry :    C.B.,    1903. 


(1826-  ) 

General :  born  1826  :  entered  the  Army, 
1843  :  served  in  Panjab,  1848-9  :  Kohat 
Pass,  1850  :  Crimea,  1856  :  Indian  mutiny, 
1857-9  :  China,  i860  :  Abyssinia,  1867-8  : 
Brig-Major,Nipal  Frontier  :  A.A.G.,  China: 
Military  Secretary,  Bombay :  Military 
Secretary,  Abyssinia  :  Military  Secretary 
to  Lord  Napier  of  Magdala  when  C.  in  C, 
India :  commanded  the  Lucknow  and 
Rawul  Pindi  Divisions,  1884-8  :  K.C.B., 
1887  : :  and  G.C.B.,  1902  :  C.S.I,  and  A.D.C. 
to  the  Queen. 

DIXON,  SIR  HENRY  GREY  (1850-        ) 

Born  Aug.  14,  1850  :  son  of  Colonel 
John  Dixon :  educated  at  Bridgeman's 
and  Woolwich  :  joined  25th  regt.,  1868  : 
served  in  the  Afghan  war,  1878-80 : 
Chitral,  1895  :  C.B.  :  Tirah,  1897-8  :  S. 
Africa,  1901-2  :  K.C.B. :  Brig-General  on 
StafiE :    A.D.C.  to  H.M.  the  King,  1901. 

DOBSON,    GEORGE   EDWARD    (1848- 


Doctor  and  Zoologist :  born  Sep.  4, 
1848  :  son  of  Parke  Dobson :  educated  at 
Enniskillen  and  Trinity  College,  Dublin, 
where  he  graduated  with  distinction : 
entered  the  A.M.D.  in  1868  :  was  F.L.S. : 
F.R.S. :  F-.Z.S. :  conducted  investigations 
and  became  the  chief  author  on  chiroptera 
and  insectivora :  studied  Indian  bats, 
and  wrote  papers  about  them  in  the 
Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal, 
and  other  scientific  journals :  wrote  a 
catalogue  of  chiroptera  for  the  British 
Museum,  and  was  in  charge  of  the  Museum 
at  Netley  :  wrote  also  in  the  Encydopadia 
Britannica,  and  on  zoology  and  anatomy  : 
retired  in  1888  :    died  Nov.  26,  1895. 


Son  of  the  Rev.  J.  Dodgson  :  entered 
the  Array,  1838  :  in  the  Bengal  Infantry  : 
became  General,  1888  :  in  the  Jodhpm: 
campaign,  1839  :  in  the  Afghan  war  under 
General  Pollock,  1842,  from  the  Khyber 
to  Kabul :  in  the  Satlaj  campaign,  1846, 
at  Badiwal  and  Aliwal :  Brig-Major  at 
Benares  when  the  native  troops  mutinied, 
June,  4,  1857  :  A.A.G.  with  Havelock's 
force,  at  the  first  relief  of  Lucknow  and 
subsequent  defence,  until  Sir  Colin  Camp- 
bell's relief :  in  the  occupation  of  the 
Alambagh  and  at  the  capture  of  Lucknow, 
1858  :  C.B.  :  K.C.B.  1896  :  died  May  26, 

WAY (1862- 

Born  May  11,  1862  :  son  of  George 
Dodson  :  educated  at  Merchant  Taylors 
and  Exeter  College,  Oxford  :  graduated 
in  1885  :  ordained  Deacon,  1885,  and 
Priest,  1888  :  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  St. 
Augustine's  College,  Canterbury,  1887-8  : 
went  out  in  1889  to  be  Principal  of  S.P.G. 
College,  Trichinopoly,  where  he  rebuilt  the 
greater  part  of  the  College  :  Fellow  of 
the  Madras  University,  1892  :  retired, 
1896,  from  ill-health  :  author  of  several 
pamphlets  on  missionary  work. 

D'OLDENBURG,  SERGE  (1863-        ) 

Born  Sep.  14,  1863  :  son  of  Theodore 
d' Oldenburg,  General  in  the  Russian  Army: 
educated  at  the  Warsaw  Gymnasium, 
and  at  the  Faculty  of  Oriental  Languages, 



St.  Petersburg ;  where  he  was  Private 
Docent  of  Sanskrit  from  1889,  and 
afterwards  Professor  till  1899  :  Member  of 
the  Imperial  Academy  of  Sciences,  1900 
Perpetual  Secretary  of  the  Academy,  1904 
Cand.  Faculty  Oriental  Languages,  1885 
Mag.  Sanskrit  Literature,  1894 :  since 
1898  Hon.  Secy,  of  the  Oriental 
Section  of  the  Russian  Imperial  Archaeo- 
logical Society  :  Member  of  Council  of 
the  R.I.  Geographical  Society  :  Member 
of  the  Russian  Committee  for  the  Explora- 
tion of  Central  Asia :  has  written  on 
Buddhism,  Indian  Art,  Comparative 
Literature  :  edits  the  Bibliotheca  Budd- 
hica  for  the  Imperial  Academy. 

DONALD,  DOUGLAS  (1865-        ) 

Born  Nov.  19,  1865  :  son  of  C.  J.  S. 
Donald,  Panjab  Provincial  Civil  Service  : 
educated  at  Bishop  Cotton's  School, 
Simla :  joined  the  Panjab  Police  Force, 
1888  :  appointed  Commandant  B.M. 
Police,  Kohat,  1890 :  served  under  Sir 
William  Lockhart  in  the  Miranzai  expedi- 
tion, 1891  :  with  Colonel  Haughton,  36th 
Sikhs,  during  the  attack  on  Samana 
posts,  and  subsequently  in  the  Tirah 
Field  Force  :  went  to  the  Khyber,  1898, 
and  to  Kohat,  1899.  Author  of  Note  on 
Adan  Kheyl  Afridis  :     CLE.,  1903. 


Son  of  General  Robert  Donkin  :  born 
1773  :  educated  at  Westminster :  entered 
the  Army  in  1778  :  Lieutenant,  1779  : 
Captain,  1793  :  served  in  the  West  Indies, 
at  Copenhagen,  in  Sicily  and  the  Peninsula, 
and,  as  Maj -General  in  181 1,  went  out  in 
18 15  to  Madras  and  Bengal,  where  he 
commanded  a  Division  in  the  Mahratta 
war  of  1817-8,  with  skill  :  K.C.B.,  1818  : 
acted  as  Governor  of  the  Cape  :  he  became 
G.C.H.,  F.R.S.,  F.R.G.S.  :  was  M.P.  for 
Berwick  and  for  Sandwich  :  was  Surveyor 
of  the  Ordnance  :  General,  1838  :  died 
May  I,  1841  :  was  a  student,  and  con- 
tributed  literary   papers   to    Journals. 

DORAN,   SIR  JOHN  (1824-1903) 

Born  Oct.  i,  1824  :  entered  the  Bengal 
Army,  1842  :  served  in  Satlaj  campaign, 
1845-6 :  Hazara  expedition,  1852-3  : 
Oudh  campaign,  1858-9  :  China  war, 
i860  :  Lushai  expedition,  1871-2  :  Jowaki- 
Afridi  expedition,   1877-8  :    Afghan  war. 

1878-80  :  C.B.  in  1872,  and  K.C.B.  in 
1898  :  Lt-General,  1887  :  died  vSep.  29, 


I.C.S. :  son  of  a  merchant :  born  Sep.  15, 
1802 :  educated  at  Henley  and  Hailey- 
bury :  reached  India  in  1821,  and  joined 
the  Financial  Department,  in  which  he 
continued  throughout  his  career,  never 
leaving  Calcutta  :  was  Secretary  to  the 
Bank  of  Bengal,  1829  :  Deputy  Account- 
ant-General  :  and  reorganized  the  Indian 
finances  :  the  first  Financial  Secretary  in 
Jan.  1843 :  Member  of  the  Supreme 
Council  from  May  10,  1853,  to  May  i, 
1858 :  partly  under  Dalhousie,  partly 
under  Canning.  Against  Lord  Dalhousie' s 
views,  he,  as  President  in  Council,  advo- 
cated the  annexation  of  Oudh,  which  was 
carried  out.  In  the  mutiny,  he  urged  the 
adoption  of  severe  military  measures,  being 
one  of  the  first  to  realize  the  character 
of  the  revolt.  His  "  hospitable  establish- 
ment "  was  remembered  for  many  years. 
After  retirement,  his  name  was  more  than 
once  considered  for  a  seat  in  the  Council 
of  India,  but  he  never  obtained  it :  died 
Dec.  22,  1872. 

MAGNE (1834-1893) 

Lt-General :  son  of  nth  Baron  Dormer  : 
born  1834  :  entered  the  13th  regt.,  1853  : 
in  the  Crimea  :  in  the  mutiny,  at  the  relief 
of  Azimghar,in  the  campaignin  Gorakhpur: 
A.D.C.  to  Sir  Colin  Campbell :  in  Oudh 
and  Trans-Gogra  campaign :  Brevet- 
Major  :  went  to  China  in  i860  as  A.A.G. : 
at  the  Taku  forts  and  entry  to  Pekin  : 
served  on  the  Staff ;  Colonel,  1875  :  in 
Egypt  in  1882,  as  D.A.G. :  at  Alexandria, 
Tel-el- Kebir,  etc.:  Maj -General :  Nile 
expedition,  1885  :  commanded  the  Nile 
Field  Force  :  and  the  troops  in  Egypt, 
1887-90  :  C.  in  C.  Madras,  March  6,  1891  : 
C.B.,  1881  :  K.C.B.,  1889  :  mauled  by  a 
tiger,  and  died  from  the  wounds.  May  3, 

FORD (  ?  ) 

Entered  the  Royal  Engineers,  1868 : 
served  in  the  Afghan  war,  1878-80  : 
Burmese  expedition,  1885-8,  when  he 
was     made    Brevet-Major    and     D.S.O. : 



commanded  R.E.  in  Jamaica,  1897-9 : 
commanded  British  troops  in  Chinese 
expedition,  1900,  until  arrival  of  Indian 
contingent  :  was  present  at  action  of 
Tientsin :  Commissioner  at  Wei-hai-wei, 
1899-1901  :  commanded  troops  at  Shang- 
hai, 1902  :  commanding  troops  Straits 
Settlements  since  1903  :    K.C.B.  in  1900. 

ALEXANDER,  D.D.   (1821-1875) 

Born  Feb.  22,  1821 :  son  of  Henry 
Alexander  Douglas,  who  was  brother  of  the 
sixth  Marquis  of  Queensberry  :  educated 
at  Glasgow  University  and  Balliol  College, 
Oxford  :  ordained,  after  taking  his  degree, 
in  1845 :  Dean  of  Capetown  in  1845  : 
appointed  Bishop  of  Bombay,  1868  :  died 
in  London,  Dec.  13,  1875. 

DOUGLAS,  JAMES  (1826-1904) 

Born  June  4,  1826  :  son  of  William 
Douglas  :  educated  at  Sorbie  Parish 
School  and  privately  in  Edinburgh  :  went 
to  Karachi  in  1864  as  Agent  of  the  Char- 
tered Bank  of  India,  Australia  and  China  : 
Agent  in  Bombay,  1865-72  :  Exchange 
and  bullion  broker,  1 873-1901  :  Sheriff 
of  Bombay,  1893  and  1902  :  Fellow  of 
the  Bombay  University,  1895  :  devoted 
his  leisure  to  researches  :  retired  in  1902  : 
was  author  of  Bombay  and  Western  India, 
1893  ;  Glimpses  of  Old  Bombay,  1900  :  and 
wrote,  in  the  local  press,  articles  on  the 
archseology  and  history  of  W.  India  : 
died  Aug.  3,   1904. 



Son  of  Thomas  Monteath  :  born  1787  : 
entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  Bengal  Army  in  1806: 
served  in  the  Bundelkund  campaigns, 
1809-10  :  in  the  Nipal  war  of  1815,  the 
Pindari  war  of  1818,  the  Merwarra  cam- 
paign of  1820,  at  the  seige  of  Bhartpur, 
1826  :  Lt-Colonel,  1834  :  commanded  his 
regiment  in  the  forcing  of  the  Khyber  and 
the  capture  of  Kabul,  1838  :  C.B.  :  in  the 
Khurd  Kabul  and  Jagdalak  actions: 
was  second  in  command  at  Sale's  defence 
of  Jalalabad  until  it  was  reheved  by 
Pollock  :  was  in  the  subsequent  campaign 
to  Kabul :  A.D.C.  to  Queen  Victoria  :  left 
India  about  1845  :  added  the  name  of 
Douglas  to  his  own  in  1851  :  K.C.B  and 
General,  1865  :    died  Oct.,  1868. 

DOVETON,  SIR  JOHN  (1768-1847) 

Son  of  Frederick  Doveton  :  born  1768  : 
entered  the  Madras  Cavalry  in  1785 : 
served  against  Tippoo,  both  in  Cornwallis' 
campaign  of  1791-2  and  in  Harris'  of  1799, 
and  in  the  pursuit  of  the  bandit  Dhoondia 
Waugh,  under  Colonel  Wellesley  :  com- 
manded the  Hyderabad  Contingent  in 
1 8 14,  which  was  utilized  in  the  Pindari 
war  of  1 8 17.  After  the  battle  of  vSitabaldi 
in  Nov.,  1817,  Doveton  marched  to  Nagpur 
to  assist  the  Resident,  Jenkins,  against 
Appa  Sahib,  the  Bhonsla  Raja.  Appa 
surrendered,  and  his  troops,  after  a  fight, 
abandoned  Nagpur  to  Doveton,  who  was 
made  C.B.  in  1818  and  K.C.B.  in  1819  : 
retired,  1820 :  Lt-General  and  G.C.B. , 
1837  :  died  at  Madras,  Nov.  7,  1847. 

DOVETON,  SIR  JOHN  (1783-1857) 

Son  of  Sir  William  Webber  Doveton  : 
born  1783  :  to  Madras  in  the  E.I.  Co.'s 
military  service,  1798  :  A.D.C.  to  the 
Marquis  Wellesley,  while  Governor-Gene- 
ral :  saw  service  in  the  campaign  of  i799- 
1803,  against  the  Mahrattas,  and  in  1817  : 
commanded  a  Division  in  the  Nizam's 
Army  :  commanded  a  Division  in  Madras, 
1833  :  K.C.B.,  1838  :  General,  1854 : 
died  Sep.  23,  1857. 

DOVETON,    JOHN    (1800  ?-1853) 

Educated  as  an  orphan  at  a  charity 
school  in  Madras  :  entered  the  Nizam  of 
Hyderabad's  Army  in  1817 :  rose  to  be 
Captain  Commandant.  On  inheriting  an 
uncle's  fortune,  he  resigned  his  commission, 
and  retired  to  London  :  died  on  Oct.  15, 
1853.  Being  an  Eurasian,  he  bequeathed 
nearly  £50,000  to  be  divided  between  the 
Parental  Academy  at  Calcutta,  which 
was  thereupon  called  the  Doveton  College, 
and  the  Doveton  College  at  Madras. 

DOW,  ALEXANDER  (  ?  -1779) 

Born  in  Perthshire  :  having  reached 
Bencoolen  as  a  sailor,  he  became  Secretary 
to  the  Governor  :  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s 
mihtary  service  in  1760  :  Captain,  1764 : 
Lt-Colonel,  1769  :  he  published  trans- 
lations from  the  Persian  in  1768  and 
produced,  at  Drury  Lane,  Zingis,  a  tragedy, 
1769  ;  Sethona,  a  tragedy,  in  1774 :  he 
also  wrote  historical  works  on  India. 
Died  at  Bhaglapur,  July  31,  1779. 




Son  of  the  Right  Honble.  William 
Dowdeswell :  born  1761  :  entered  the 
Army,  1780  :  M.P.  for  Tewkesbury, 
1792  :  was  in  the  campaign  of  1793,  at 
Valenciennes,  and  at  Dunkirk  :  Governor 
of  the  Bahamas,  1 797-1 802  :  Private 
Secretary  to  Lord  W.  Bentinck,  Governor 
of  Madras,  1803  :  commanded  a  Division 
under  Lord  Lake  against  Bhartpur,  and 
later  the  Cawnpur  Division :  acted  as 
C.  in  C.  in  India  in  1807  :  soon  left  India  : 
Lt-General,  1810  :  retired  1811  :  became 
a  collector  of  valuable  prints  :    died  Dec. 

T,     1828.     J 



Son  of  George  Dowdeswell,  M.D.  :  in 
the  E.  I.  Co' .8  Civil  Service  :  became 
Secretary  to  the  Government  of  India  : 
and  Member  of  the  Supreme  Council,  Dec. 
1 8 14,  to  Jan.  1820  :  Vice-President  of  the 
Council  and  Deputy-Governor  of  Bengal, 
Oct.  1817,  to  July  1818  :  died  Feb.  6,  1852. 

DOWSON,  JOHN  (1820-1881) 

Born  1820  :  assistant  to  his  uncle  at  the 
Royal  Asiatic  Society  :  tutor  at  Hailey- 
bury  :  Professor  of  Hindustani  at  Univer- 
sity College,  London,  and  Staff  College, 
Sandhurst,  1855-77  :  wrote  a  Hindustani 
Grammar :  edited  Sir  H.  M.  Elliot's  His- 
tory of  India  as  told  by  its  own  ^Historians, 
8  vols.,  1867-77  :  and  a  Classical  Dictionary 
of  Hindu  Mythology  and  Religion,  Geo- 
graphy, History  and  Literature,  1879  :  wrote 
also  for  the  Encyclopcsdia  Britannica,  and 
the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  on  Indian  In- 
scriptions and  the  Indian  Alphabet  :  died 
Aug.  23,  1881. 



I.C.S. :  son  of  Sir  John  Hadley  D'Oyly, 
the  sixth  Baronet,  Collector  of  Calcutta : 
born  in  India,  Sep.  18,  1781  :  educated  in 
England  :  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  service  at 
15  :  Assistant  Registrar  of  the  Court  of 
Appeal,  Calcutta,  1798  :  Collector  of 
Dacca,  1808 :  Opium  Agent  in  Bihar, 
1821  :  Commercial  Resident  at  Patna, 
1831  :  Senior  Member  of  the  Board  of 
Customs,  Salt  and  Opium,  1833  :  retired 
1839  :  died  Sep.  24,  1845.  He  is  best 
remembered   for   his   pictures    of    Indian 

scenery  and  Indian  life.  He  wrote  The 
European  in  India,  Antiquities  of  Dacca, 
Tom  Raw  the  Griffin,  and  other  works, 
with  many  illustrations. 

DRAKE,  ROGER  (  ?  -  ?  ) 
A  noted  ofi&cial  in  the  time  of  Lord  Clive  : 
arrived  in  Bengal,  May  26,  1737  :  Presi- 
dent of  Council  and  Governor  of  Calcutta 
from  Aug.  8,  1752  to  1758 :  ho  gave 
offence  to  Suraj-ud  daula,  the  new  Nawab 
of  Bengal,  by  a  letter  with  regard  to  the 
strengthening  of  the  fortifications  of 
Calcutta  :  the  attack  on  the  City  followed  : 
Drake  escaped  in  the  last  boat  that  left 
the  Fort,  1756  :  his  desertion  of  his  post 
brought  reproach  upon  him,  and  J .  Z. 
Holwell  {q.v.),  who  had  stayed  behind, 
was  chosen  to  the  command  :  Drake  was 
dismissed  from  his  post  by  the  Directors, 

DRAPER,  ELIZABETH  (1744-1778) 

Daughter  of  Major  Sclater :  born  at 
Anjengo,  April  5,  1744  •  educated  in 
England  :  went  to  India,  Dec.  1757:  married 
in  July,  1758,  Danielj  Draper,  of  the  E.I. 
Co.'s  Civil  Service,  Secretary  to  Govern- 
ment, 20  years  her  senior.  When  in 
England  in  1766-7,  she  met  Lawrence 
Sterne,  the  humourist,  who  became 
infatuated  with  her,  addressing  her  as 
"  Bramine  "  in  amorous  letters,  and  writ- 
ing the  Journal  to  Eliza  for  her.  She 
returned  to  India  in  1767,  and  saw  Sterne 
no  more  :  lived  with  her  husband  at 
Tellicherry,  Surat  and  Bombay,  but 
unhappily,  and,  on  Jan.  12,  1773,  fled  from 
his  house  at  Mazagon,  Bombay,  with  a 
Naval  officer,  repairing  to  her  uncle's  at 
Rajamundry :  retxurned  to  England  in 
1774.  Sterne  had  died  in  1768.  She 
published  as  Letters  of  Y crick  to  Eliza, 
some  of  Sterne's  letters  to  her,  including 
her  answers.  She  died  Aug.  3,  1778,  and 
was  buried  in  the  Cathedral  cloisters  ;at 
Bristol.  Draper  became  a  Member  of 
Council,  at  ^Bombay,  and  died  Oct.  10, 1782. 
Her  name  and  story  were  recalled,  'by 
L'Abbe  Raynal,  who  had  seen  her  in 
India,  and  by  James  Forbes  in  his  Oriental 
Memoirs,  and  some  of  her  letters  have  been 

DRAPER,    SIR  WILLIAM   (1721-1787) 

Son  of  Ingleby  Draper  :  born  1721  : 
educated'  at     Eton  and  King's  College, 



Cambridge  :  Fellow  :  joined  the  Army, 
1744  :  at  CuUoden  :  in  Flanders  with  the 
ist  Foot-Guards  :  in  1757  as  Lt-Colonel, 
took  the  79th  to  Madras  :  in  the  siege 
of  Fort  St.  George,  1757-9  :  too  ill  to  take 
command  of  the  troops  at  Madras  in 
T759»  returned  to  England :  in  1762 
commanded,  from  Madras,  the  expedition 
against  the  Spaniards  at  Manilla  :  carried 
the  place  by  assault :  Lieut-Governor  of 
Great  Yarmouth  :  in  1765  Colonel  of  the 
i6th  foot  :  knighted  in  1766 :  had  a 
literary  controversy  with  "  Junius,"  de- 
fending the  C.  in  C,  the  Marquis  of  Granby  : 
Lt-General  in  1777  :  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  Minorca  in  1779  :  in  the  surrender  of 
Fort  St.  Philip  in  1782  to  the  French  and 
Spaniards  :  brought  charges  of  miscon- 
duct against  Lt-General  the  Hon.  James 
Murray,  the  Governor,  which  he  failed  to 
substantiate,  so  that  he  was  commanded 
to  make  an  apology  :  he  died  Jan.  8,  1787. 

DREW,    FREDERICK    (1836-1891) 

Son  of  John  Drew  :  born  Aug.  11,  1836  : 
educated  at  the  Royal  School  of  Mines,  and 
joined  the  Geological  Survey  in  1855. 
He  was  employed  by  the  Maharaja  of 
Kashmir,  from  1862,  to  search  for  minerals 
and  supervise  his  forest  administration, 
and  was  Governor  of  Ladak  :  retired  after 
10  years.  He  was  a  science  master  at 
Eton,  1879-91,  and  died  Oct.  28,  1891. 
He  wrote  The  Jammu  and  Kashmir 
Frontiers,  and  The  Northern  Barrier  of 
India  :  F.G.S.  in  1858,  and  Member  of  its 
Council,  1874-6.    ^   .       r    -.j'l        '  '  * 



I.C.S.  :  son  of  sixth  Viscount  Strath- 
allan  :  born  1813  :  educated  at  Eton  and 
Haileybury,  1830-1  :  went  to  Bengal  in 
1833  :  Account  ant- General,  1856  : 

Auditor-General,  i860  :  Financial  Secre- 
tary to  the  Government  of  India,  1862  : 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  N.W.P.  1863 
-8  :  Member  of  the  Council  of  India, 
1875-85  :  K.C.I.E.,  1887  :  died  Jan.  10. 

DRYSDALE,  SIR  WILLIAM  (1819-1900 

Son  of  Major  James  Drysdale  :  educated 
at  the  Militar}'  Academy,  Edinburgh : 
joined  the  4th  Dragoons,  1835  :  served 
in  the  9th  Lancers,  1841-65  :  in  the 
Afghan  war,  1859-40  :    at  Ghazni :   in  the 

Gwalior  campaign,  at  Punniar,  1843  :  in 
the  Satlaj  and  Panjab  campaigns,  1845-6 
and  1848-9  :  at  Sobraon,  Ramnagar, 
Chilianwala,  Gujarat :  at  the  siege  of 
Delhi  in  the  mutiny  :  in  the  actions  at 
Bulandshahr,  Alighar,  Agra :  at  the 
relief  of  Lucknow  :  Brevets  ofj  Major  and 
Lt-Colonel :  C.B.  :  Lt-General,  1881  : 
K.C.B.,  1893  :    died  Aug.  7,  1900. 

DUBOIS,  JEAN  A.  (1765-1848) 

Abbe :  ordained  at  27  in  the  diocese 
of  Viviers,  in  1792  :  escaped  from  the 
massacres  of  the  French  Revolution,  and, 
the  same  year,  leaving  France  for  mission 
work  under  the  Missions  Etrangeres, 
was  first  attached  to  the  Pondicherry 
mission :  after  Seringapatam,  1799,  he 
was  invited  to  visit  it,  to  reconvert  the 
forced  perverts  to  Islam.  He  was  31 
years  in  India,  living  entirely  among  the 
people  from  17  to  18  years,  chiefly  in 
Mysore,  where  he  established,  at  Sathalli, 
an  agricultural  settlement  of  reconverted 
Christians.  His  Description  of  the  Char- 
acter, Manners  and  Customs  of  the  People 
of  India,  and  of  their  Institutions,  Reltgious 
and  Civil,  was  stated  to  be  "  the  most 
correct,  comprehensive  and  minute  ac- 
count extant  in  any  European  language 
of  the  Hindus  "  of  S.  India  :  the  Madras 
Government  bought  the  MSS.  from  him 
in  1806  for  2,000  pagodas :  this  was 
translated  in  London  in  18 16,  and  was 
for  long  the  only  published  edition  : 
meanwhile,  in  18 15,  the  Abbe  had  revised 
and  amplified  his  work,  but  this  was  not 
published  until  1897.  On  returning  to 
France  in  June,  1823,  with  a  pension  from 
the  E.I.  Co.,  he  published  Letters  on  the 
State  of  Christianity  in  India,  containing 
his  conviction  that  the  conversion  of  the 
Hindus  was  impossible.  He  became  a 
Director,  and,  from  1836  to  1839,  Superior 
of  the  Missions  Etrangeres  at  Paris,  where 
he  died  Feb.  17,  1848. 

DUFF,  REV.  DR.  ALEXANDER  (1806- 


Missionary  :  son  of  James  Duff  :  born 
on  April  25,  1806  :  educated  at  Moulin, 
Kirkmichael,  Perth,  St.  Andrew's  Univer- 
sity, under  Dr.  Chalmers  :  invited  by  the 
Committee  of  the  General  Assembly  of 
the  Church  of  Scotland  on  Foreign  Missions 
to  become  their  first  missionary  to  India : 
he  was  ordained  in  1829  and  went  out  to 
Calcutta  in  1829-30  \\  he  was  twice  ship- 



wrecked  on  the  voyage,  near  the  Cape  and 
off  Sagar  island :  lost  his  library :  at 
Calcutta  he  declared  his  policy,  to  afiford, 
in  the  English  language,  education  in- 
separably combined  with  the  Christian 
faith  as  its  animating  spirit  :  the  Duff 
College  was  soon  founded,  and,proving  very 
successful,  attracted  a  very  large  number 
of  pupils,  not  without  troubles  on  account 
of  conversions.  He  received  much  help 
from  Sir  C.  Trevelyan  {q.v.)  and  from 
the  decision  of  Government  of  March  7, 
1835,  in  favour  of  the  promotion  of 
European  science  and  literature  through 
English  rather  than  the  Oriental  lan- 
guages. During  his  visit  home,  1834-40, 
for  his  health,  he  made  speeches,  collected 
money,  and  laboured  hard  in  organizing 
his  mission  :  he  was  D.D.  of  Aberdeen  in 
1835.  He  was  in  India  again  from  1840 
to  1850,  and  from  1856  to  1863  :  made 
extensive  tours  in  the  cause  of  missions  : 
was  opposed  to  the  Government  policy 
in  the  mutiny  :  assisted  greatly  in  the 
establishment  of  the  Calcutta  University 
in  1857,  the  shape  it  assumed,  its  educa- 
tional measures  and  examinations.  When 
away  from  India,  he  was  made  Moderator 
of  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Free 
Church  in  1851  :  he  travelled  in  the 
United  States  in  1854,  and  made  constant 
speeches,  and  was  made  LL.D.,  New 
York :  he  inspired  the  Government 
Education  Despatch  to  India  of  1854. 
On  his  finally  leaving  Calcutta,  memorials 
were  erected  to  him.  He  travelled  in 
South  Africa  in  1864.  In  1867  he  became 
the  first  Professor  of  Evangelistic  Theology 
at  the  Free  Church  College,  Edinburgh. 
He  was  again  Moderator  of  the  General 
Assembly  in  1873.  He  wrote  on  India 
and  Indian  Missions,  and  edited  the 
Calcutta  Review,  1845-g,  writing  articles 
in  it,  besides  other  publications  chiefly 
connected  with  his  mission  work  :  died 
Feb.  12,  1878. 

QUESS OF  (1826-1902) 

Son  of  Price,  first  Baron  Dufferin,  of 
the  Irish  peerage,  and  of  Helen  Selina, 
grand-daughter  of  Richard  Brinsley  Sheri- 
dan :  born  June  21,  1826  :  educated  at 
Eton  and  Christ  Church,  Oxford  :  Lord 
in  Waiting,  1849-50  :  Peer  of  the  United 
Kingdom,  1850  :    on  a  special  mission  to 

Vienna,  1855  :  British  Commissioner  in 
Syria  in  i860  to  inquire  into  the  massacres 
of  Christians  :  K.C.B.  :  Under  Secretary 
of  State  for  India,  1864-6  :  Under  Secre- 
tary for  War,  1866  :  Chancellor  of  the 
Duchy  of  Lancaster,  1868  :  Earl,  1871  : 
Governor  General  of  Canada,  1872-8 : 
Ambassador  to  St.  Petersburg,  1879  : 
Ambassador  to  Constantinople,  1881  : 
Special  Commissioner  to  Egypt,  1882-3, 
after  Arabi's  rebellion :  Viceroy  and 
Governor-General  of  India,  1884-8.  He 
did  much,  by  his  personal  influence,  tO' 
allay  the  excitement  and  race  feeling 
which  had  arisen  from  the  controversy 
over  the  "  Ilbert  Bill "  in  the  time  of  his 
predecessor :  he  met  the  Amir  Abdur 
Rahman  in  darbar  at  Rawal  Pindi,  1885  : 
Upper  Burma  was  annexed  on  his  advice  : 
his  administration  was  marked  by  firmness 
and  vigour  underlying  his  tact  and  suavity: 
the  Countess  of  Dufferin's  Fund  for  the 
medical  relief  of  native  women  was  estab- 
lished :  made  Marquis  in  1888,  with  the 
additional  title  of  Ava  :  Ambassador  to 
Rome,  1888-91 :  to  Paris,  1891-6 :  his  latter 
years  were  clouded  b^  financial  troubles 
in  connexion  with  a  business  enterprise 
of  which  he  had  insufficient  knowledge  to 
exercise  control :  he  retained  the  goodwill 
of  the  shareholders  and  pubUc  sympathy  : 
he  was  K.P.  :  G.C.B.  :  G.C.S.I.  :  G.C.M.G. : 
G.C.I.E.  :  P.C.  :  D.C.L.  :  LL.D.  :  F.R.S.  : 
President  of  the  Geographical  Society: 
Rector  of  Edinburgh  and  St.  Andrew's  r 
Doctor  of  Oriental  Learning,  Panjab 
University  :  Lord  Warden  of  the  Cinque 
Ports,  1 89 1-5  :  wrote  Letters  from  High 
Latitudes,  and  on  Irish  questions  :  also 
Speeches  in  India,  1890  :  died  Feb.  I2^ 

CHIONESS   OF   (   ?  -    ) 

Eldest  daughter  of  Archibald  Rowan 
Hamflton  of  Killyleagh  Castle,  County 
Down  :  married  Oct.  23,  1862,  the  (late) 
Marquis  of  Dufferin  and  Ava  {q.v.), 
afterwards  Governor-General  and  Viceroy 
of  India  :  when  in  India,  she  estabUshed  the 
National  Association  for  supplying  female 
medical  aid  to  the  women  of  India,  with 
the  object  of  bringing  European  medical 
science  within  the  reach  of  native  women 
of  the  higher  castes,  the  money  collected, 
being  credited  to  "The  Countess  of 
Dufferin's  Fund  "  :   V.A.  :    C.I.  :    Grand 



Cross  of  the  Turkish  Order  of  the  Lion  and 
Sun  :  she  has  written  Our  Viceregal  Life 
in  India,  1890  :  My  Canadian  Journal, 

DUNCAN,  DAVID  (1839-  ) 
Born  Nov.  5,  1839  :  son  of  David 
Duncan  :  educated  at  Edinburgh,  Aber- 
deen and  Berlin  Universities  :  Professor 
•of  Logic  and  Moral  Philosophy  in  Madras 
Presidency  College,  1870-84 :  Principal 
of  Presidency  College,  1884-92  :  Registrar, 
University  of  Madras  :  Director  of  Public 
Instruction,  Madras,  1892-9  :  Vice-Chancel- 
lor  of  Madras  University,  1899  :  retired, 
1899  :  author  (with  others)  of  Herbert 
Spencer's  Descriptive  Sociology  :  now 
•engaged  in  writing  Biography  of  Herbert 

DUNCAN,  JONATHAN  (1756-1811) 
Governor:  Indian  Civilian:  son  of 
Alexander  Duncan:  born  May  15,  1756  : 
arrived  at  Calcutta  in  the  E.I.  Co.'s  service 
in  1772  :  made  Resident  and  Superinten- 
dent at  Benares,  1788;:  suppressed  scandals 
in  the  administration  and  infanticide  : 
was  Governor  of  Bombay  for  the  unprece- 
dented time  of  16  years  from  Dec.  27, 
1795,  to  Aug.  II,  1811,  dying  at  Bombay  : 
he  recognized  a  very  large  number  of 
small  chiefs  as  sovereign  princes,  a  policy 
which  was  not  elsewhere  adopted  :  his 
time  was  synchronous  with  the  later  war 
against  Tippoo,  the  Mahratta  wars,  and 
Baird's  expedition  to  Egypt,  the  pacifica- 
tion of  Gujarat  and  Kattiawar,  in  all  of 
which  he  played  a  great  part.  He  was 
buried  at  Bombay,  and  a  monument  was 
erected  in  his  honour,  with  the  inscription 
"  He'was  a  good  man  and  a  just,"  and  a 
scroll  bearing  the  words  "Infanticide 
abolished  in  Benares  and  Kattiawar." 

DUNDAS,  JAMES  (1842-1879) 

Son  of  'George  Dundas,  Scotch  judge  : 
born  Sep.  12,  1842  :  educated  at  the 
Edinburgh  Academy  and  Addiscombe  : 
went  to  India  in  the  Royal  Engineers, 
March,  1862  :  became  a  Captain  :  gained 
his  V.C.  in  the  Bhutan  expedition  of 
1864-5  for  personal  bravery  in  storming, 
under  very  trying  conditions,  a  block- 
house, defended  by  200  desperate  men  : 
in  the  Afghan  war  of  1878-80,  he  and 
another  officer  were  killed  by  an  accident 
•on  the  occasion  of  the  blowing  up  of  a  fort 

near  Kabul  on  Dec.  23,  1879  :  he  was  an 
officer  of  high  professional  merit  and 

CIS (1697-1764) 
Son  of  a  French  farmer-general,  Director 
of  the  Company  of  the  Indies  :   born  Jan. 
1697  :   sent  to  sea  :   made  several  voyages 
to    America    and    India :      made    First 
Councillor  and  MiHtary  Commissioner  of 
the   Superior  Council   at   Pondicherry  in 
1720  :     accumulated    a    fortune :     made 
Intendant,     or    Superintendent,     of    the 
factory  at  Chandernagore,  1730  :   develop- 
ed its  coasting  trade  :   Governor  of  Pondi- 
cherry, 1 74 1,  and  Director-General  of  the 
French  factories  in  India  :    declared  him- 
self   Nawab    of   the    Mogul   Empire    and 
Commander  of  4,500  Horse  :    when  war 
with  England  broke  out,  i744»  he  sought 
help    from    Anwaruddin,    the    Nawab    .of 
the  Carnatic  :    La  Bourdonnais  came  to 
his  aid,  from  the  Isle  of  France,  and  took 
Madras,   Sep.   21,    1746  :    great    jealousy 
between  him  and  Dupleix,   who  refused 
to    surrender    Madras    and    defeated    the 
Nawab's   force   at   St.   Thome  :    Dupleix 
violated  the  treaty  with  the  English,  by 
retaining  Madras,  and  by  his  treatment  of 
them :     his    attack    on    Fort    St.    David 
failed,    1748  :     the   English   attack  under 
Boscawen  by  land  and  sea  on  Pondicherry 
was  unsuccessful :    Madras  was  restored 
to  the  English  in  1749,  after  the  peace  of 
Aix-la-Chapelle.     In  the  contests  in  South- 
ern   India,    Dupleix,    striving    to    found 
French   ascendency  there,   took   the  side 
of  Muzaffar  Jang  and  Salabat  Jang  suc- 
cessively   against     Nasir    Jang    for    the 
Subadarship  of  the  Dekkan,and  of  Chanda 
Sahib   against  Anwaruddin   and  Muham- 
mad Ali  successively  for   the   Nawabship 
of    the    Carnatic.     By     175 1,     Dupleix's 
policy  was,   after  a  struggle,  for  a  time 
successful.     Muhammad  Ali,  at  Trichino- 
poly,   applied  to    the    English    for    help. 
Stringer,    Lawrence    and    Clive,  going    to 
his    aid,  defeated    the    French,    Dupleix 
being  badly  served  by  his  generals.     He 
acquired  the  Northern  Sircars   from   the 
Nizam  and,  after  Chanda's  death,  claimed 
to  be,  and  was  nominated,  Nawab  of  the 
Carnatic  :     was   made   a   Marquis,    1752  : 
his  forces  met  with  further  reverses  from 
the  English  :    the  French   Ministers   and 
Company  of   the   Indies  objected   to   his 
schemes  and  fighting,  as  being  obstructive 



to  trade,  and  ruinously  expensive  :  they 
insisted  on  peace,  and  recalled  Dupleix, 
who  was  superseded  by  Godeheu,  i754' 
ruined  by  him  and  left  India,  Oct.  14, 
1754  :  his  claims,  for  private  money  ex- 
pended, disregarded  and  unsatisfied  :  his 
services  ignored  :  he  died  in  comparative 
poverty  in  France,  Nov.  10,  1764  :  the 
greatest  Frenchman  in  India  :  the  first 
to  see  how  Europeans  might  rule  in  India 
and  employ  native  troops :  ambitious, 
prescient,  full  of  resource,  will,  and 
genius  :  had  great  knowledge  of  native 
character  :  inferior  in  the  field  of  action, 
and  not  a  soldier  :  he  failed  for  want  of 
support  from  France  :  his  statue  was 
erected  at  Pondicherry  in  1870. 

ARNOLD  (1854-        ) 

Born  March  31,  1854  :  son  of  Maj- 
General  Sir  H.  M.  Durand,  R.E.  {q.v.)  : 
entered  the  Army,  1872  :  served  in 
Afghanistan,  1878-80 :  was  A.D.C.  to 
Lord  Ripon,  Viceroy  of  India,  188 1-2  : 
British  Agent  at  Gilgit,  1889-93  :  com- 
manded troops  in  Hanza-Nagar  expedition, 
1891  :  Military  Secretary  to  the  Earl  of 
Elgin,  when  Viceroy  of  India,  1894-9  ' 
author  of  The  Making  of  a  Frontier, 
1899  :    C.B.,  1892  :  C.I.E.,  1897. 

BARONET  (1845-   ) 

Born  June  5,  1845  :  son  of  Sir  H.  M. 
Durand,  R.E.  (q.v.):  educated  at  Bath, 
Repton  and  Guildford  :  entered  96th  regt., 
1865  :  B.S.C.,  1868:  Assistant  Commissioner 
Afghan  Boundary,  1884-6  :  Resident  in 
Nipal,  1888  :  retired,  1893,  as  Lt-Colonel  : 
•created  a  Baronet,  1892  :    C.B. 



Son  of  a  cavalry  officer :  born  Nov.  6, 
t8i2  :  educated  at  Leicester  and  Addis- 
combe:  entered  the  Bengal  Engineers, 
1828:  went  to  India  in  1829-30,  in  the 
same  ship  as  Dr.  A.  Duff  (q.v.)  :  appointed 
to  irrigation  work  in  the  N.W.P.  :  it  was 
proposed  to  make  him  Secretary  of  the 
Board  of  Revenue,  N.W.P.,  but  instead 
he  went,  in  1838,  with  the  Army  to  Kabul 
via  Kandahar,  and  headed  the  party  that 
blew  open  the  Kabul  gate  of  Ghazni, 
July  23,  1839  :  returned  soon  to  India 
from    Kabiil :    went   out    from   England, 

after  leave,  as  Private  Secretary  to  Lord 
Ellenborough  (Governor-General,  1842-4) : 
was  present  at  Maharajpur,  became 
Captain  in  1843  :  was  Commissioner  of 
Tenasserim,  1844,  until  removed  by  Sir 
Herbert  Maddock,  the  President  in  Council, 
in  1846 :  he  obtained  no  redress  in 
England.  In  the  Sikh  war,  1848-9, 
Durand  was  at  Chilianwala  and  Gujarat  : 
Brevet-Major  :  became  Political  Agent  at 
Gwalior  and  Bhopal  successively  :  wrote 
there  largely  for  the  Calcutta  Review  : 
in  1856  was  Inspecting-Engineer,  Presi- 
dency Circle,  until  Lord  Canning  made 
him  Agent  to  the  Governor-General  for 
Central  India.  In  the  mutiny  he  was 
compelled,  by  the  strength  of  the  insurrec- 
tion of  Holkar's  native  troops  at  Indore, 
to  retire  thence,  fought  several  actions, 
and  reconquered  Western  Malwa  :  C.B, 
and  Brevet-Colonel :  deputed  to  England 
to  represent  the  views  of  the  Government 
of  India  on  the  re-construction  of  the 
Army  in  India  :  Member  of  the  Council 
of  India,  1859-61  :  Foreign  Secretary  to 
the  Government  of  India,  1861-65  : 
Military  Member  of  the  Governor-General's 
Supreme  Council,  April  27,  1865,  until  he 
became  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  Pan- 
jab,  June  I,  1870  :  Maj -General  and 
K.C.S.I.  in  1867  :  he  was  accidentally 
killed  at  Tonk  on  Jan.  i,  1871,  his  howdah, 
on  an  elephant's  back,  being  crushed 
under  the  arch  of  a  gateway  :  Durand 
was  thrown  violently  to  the  ground  and 
picked  up  insensible  :  he  recovered  con- 
sciousness after  several  hours,  but  re- 
mained paralyzed — his  spine  had  been 
injvured — and  passed  away  without  pain. 
No  officer  in  India  at  the  time  had  a 
greater  reputation  for  ability,  experience, 
high  principles,  force  of  character :  he 
held  strong  views  and  expressed  them 
strongly.  The  Secretary  of  State  wrote 
of  him  :  "  The  life  of  such  a  man  is  an 
example  to  the  Service,  and  her  Majesty's 
Government  deeply  deplore  his  death." 


(1850-         ) 

X.C.S.  :  born  Feb.  14,  1850  :  son  of 
Maj-General  Sir  H.  M.  Durand  {q.v.)  : 
educated  at  Blackheath  School,  and  Eton 
House,  Tunbridge  :  barrister  of  Lincoln's 
Inn,  1872  :  entered  the  Bengal  Civil 
Service,  1873  :  Political  Secretary  to  Sir 
F.    Roberts   in    Kabul   campaign,    1879  : 



C.S.L,  1881  :  Foreign  Secretary  in  India, 
1884-94  :  conducted  the  mission  to  Amir  of 
Afghanistan,  1893  :  Minister  at  Teheran, 
1 894- 1 900  :  Minister  at  Madrid,  1900-4  : 
Minister  at  Washington,  1904  :  was  made 
K.C.I.E.,  1889;  K.C.S.I.  1894;  G.C.M.G., 
1900 ;  P.C.,  1901  :  wrote  The  Life  of  Maj- 
General  Sir  H.  M.  Durand,  and  Helen 

DUTT,    AKHOY    KUMAR    (1821-1886) 

Born  in  the  Burdwan  District :  educated 
in  his  village  school,  and  at  the  Oriental 
Seminary,  Calcutta  :  contributed  to  the 
Bengali  Prabhakar  :  editor  of  the  Tattwa- 
hodhini  Patrika,  founded  by  Debendranath 
Tagore  {q-v.)  in  connexion  with  the  Adi 
Brahma  Samaj  :  first  headmaster  of  the 
Calcutta  Normal  School :  was  a  pioneer 
of  Bengali  prose  :  wrote  several  works  of 
considerable  merit  and  erudition :  his 
Religious  Sects  of  India,  in  Bengali,  is  still 
a  standard  work :  studied  languages : 
the  first  to  publish  essays  in  Bengali  on 
scientific  subjects  :  has  left  a  name  as  a 
thinker  and  author  of  Bengali  literatiure  : 
died  1886. 

DUTT,  CALICA  DAS  (1841-        ) 

Born  July  3,  1841  :  son  of  Rai  Goloke 
Nath  Dutt  :  educated  at  Krishnagar 
Collegiate  School  and  Calcutta  Presidency 
College  :  B.A.,  1861  :  B.L.,  1861  :  served 
as  a  Munsif,  Deputy  Magistrate  and 
Deputy  Collector,  under  the  Bengal 
Government,  and  in  1869  was  made 
Diwan  of  the  Cooch  Behar  State,  where 
he  has  remained  ever  since  :  in  1883  be- 
came member  of  the  Cooch  Behar  State 
Council :  received  the  title  of  Rai  Bahadur, 
1891  :    and  was  made  C.I.E.,  1900. 



Son  of  Raj  Narayan  Dutt,  a  pleader  in 
the  Sadr  Court :  born  Jan.  25,  1824  : 
educated  in  the  Hindu  College  under 
Derozio.  When  his  father  wished  to 
marry  him,  he  ran  away  to  the  Missionaries, 
and  on  Feb.  9,  1843,  was  baptized  as  a 
Christian  :  remained  at  Bishop's  College, 
Calcutta,  for  four  years,  1843-7,  and 
then  went  to  Madras,  where  he  lived  in 
great  poverty :  returning  to  Calcutta, 
1856,  he  became  Interpreter  in  the  Cal- 
cutta Police  Court  :  enjoyed  considerable 
reputation  as  a  writer  of  Bengali  blank 
verse,   which  he  created  and  introduced 

into  the  language.  In  1862  he  went  to 
England,  and  was  called  to  the  bar  :  prac- 
tised at  the  Calcutta  bar  from  1867,  but 
without  any  marked  success.  In  literary 
circles  his  memory  is  treasured :  he 
helped  to  promote  a  national  drama  and 
theatre :  produced  some  meritorious 
dramas,  farces  and  poems  :  knew  several 
Oriental  and  European  languages,  besides 
Greek  and  Latin  :  his  improvidence  and 
failings  ruined  a  promising  career  :  died 
in  a  charitable  hospital,  June  29,  1873. 

DUTT,  RAJENDRA  (1818-1889) 
Born  in  Calcutta,  1818  :  educated  at 
Drummond's  School,  and  at  the  Hindu 
College :  joined  the  Calcutta  Medical 
College,  to  be  trained  in  medical  science  : 
after  leaving  the  College,  he  opened  a  dis- 
pensary at  his  own  house  and  commenced 
allopathic  treatment,  helped  by  Dr. 
Durga  Charan  Banerji :  in  1853,  opened 
the  Hindu  Metropolitan  College  as  a  pro- 
test against  the  laxity  displayed  in  the 
Hindu  College,  and  began  to  study 
homoeopathy  :  in  1857,  started  a  business 
firm,  Dutt,  Linzu  &  Co.,  with  Europeans 
as  partners,  which  failed  in  1861  :  there- 
up(xi  he  established  a  homoeopathic 
dispensary :  in  1864,  Dr.  Berigny  came 
to  Calcutta,  and  with  him  began  to  spread 
homoeopathic  treatment :  in  1867  he 
converted  Dr.  Mahendra  Lai  Sarkar 
iq.v.)  to  homoeopathy  :  lost  great  wealth 
in  business  speculations  :  was  very  gener- 
ous :    died  June,   1889. 


(1848-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Aug.  13,  1848  :  son  of 
Isan  Chunder  Dutt :  educated  at  Hare's 
School,  Presidency  College,  Calcutta,  and 
University  College,  London  :  passed  the 
Indian  Civil  Service  Examination,  1869  : 
joined  the  Civil  Service,  1871  :  became  a 
Divisional  Commissioner,  1894-5  :  re- 
tired in  1897  :  CLE.,  1892  :  is  a  Fellow 
of  the  Calcutta  University  and  Barrister 
of  the  Middle  Temple  :  has  been  Lecturer 
on  Indian  History  at  University  College, 
London  :  author  of  a  series  of  historical 
and  social  novels,  and  a  translation  of  the 
RigVeda  and  other  Sanskrit  religious  works 
in  Bengali,  also  of  Civilisation  in  Ancient 
India,  Lays  of  Ancient  India,  Ramayana 
and  Mahabharata  in  English  Verse, 
Economic  History  of  British  India,  1757— 
1900,  2  vols.,  etc. 



DUR (1825-1886) 

Born  1825  :  educated  at  the  Hindu 
College  :  entered  the  Government  Treas- 
ury as  a  clerk  :  transferred  to  the  Bengal 
Secretariat,  and  eventually  became  its 
Registrar :  retired  in  1873  :  made  Rai 
Bahadur :  in  1884  he  brought  out  in 
England  his  works  in  ten  volumes,  includ- 
ing a  History  of  Bengal,  Essays  on  Mis- 
cellaneous SuhjectSf  Great  Wars  of  India, 
Half-Hours  with  Nature,  Realities  of 
Indian  Life,  The  Times  of  Yore,  The  Wild 
Tribes  of  India,  as  well  as  his  verses  in 
English  :    died  in  1886. 

DUTT,  TORU  (1856-1877) 

Torulata  Dutta,  the  youngest  daughter 
of  Govinda  Chandra  Dutt,  a  native 
Christian  convert :  born  at  Calcutta  in 
1856  :  she  and  her  elder  sister,  Aru,  were 
taken  to  England  by  their  father  for 
education,  1869-73  :  studied  French  at 
Nice,  and  English  thoroughly  :  attended 
lectures  at  Cambridge  and  St.  Leonards  : 
on  their  return  to  Calcutta,  Torn  Dutt 
studied  Sanskrit  and  French,  and  began  to 
contribute  poetical  compositions  and  essays 
to  local  magazines,  especially  to  the  Bengal 
Magazine.  In  1874  Aru  died  of  consump- 
tion. In  1876  Torn  published  a  collection 
of  her  lyrics  translated  from  the  French, 
A  Sheaf  Gleaned  in  French  Fields,  showing 
considerable  acquaintance  with  French 
and  English  literature,  very  favourably 
reviewed  in  the  English  and  French  Press. 
She  also  died  of  consumption  on  Aug.  30, 
1877  :  the  sisters  were  good  musicians  : 
neither  of  them  married.  Besides  her 
ballads  and  legends  of  Hindustan,  poems 
and  translations,  Toru  left  the  MS.  of  a 
French  novel  entitled  Le  lournal  de 
Mdlle.  D'Arvers. 

DYAS,    JOSEPH    HENRY    (1824-1868) 

Born  April  7,  1824  :  son  of  Capt. 
Joseph  Dyas  of  the  51st  K.O.L.I.  :  edu- 
cated at  Delgany,  Dungannon,  Addis- 
combe  :  entered  the  Bengal  Engineers  : 
went  to  India,  1845  :  just  too  late  for 
Sobraon  :  with  the  Army  to  Lahore  :  at 
the  taking  of  the  fort  of  Kangra,  1846  : 
Assistant  Superintendent  of  the  W. 
Janma  Canal :  prepared  and  worked  on 
the  Bari  Doab  Canal  project  from  1850  : 
Director  of  Canals  at  Madhupur,  1856  : 
in  the  mutiny  was  at  Trimmu  Ghat,  July 

16,  1857 :  Capt.,  1857 :  in  1864,  Lt- 
Colonel  and  Chief  Engineer,  N.W.P.  : 
died  March  4,  1868,  "a  sacrihce  to  his 
devotion  to  his  duty  and  his  work  "  in  the 
Canal  Department :  he  had  a  faculty  for 
mechanical  invention. 


(1846-  ) 
Born  1846  :  entered  the  Indian  Army, 
1864,  and  became  a  Colonel  in  1894  : 
Colonel  on  the  Staff  at  Firozpur,  1897-8  : 
Multan,  1898  :  Tochi  Valley  and  Bannu, 
1 898-1900 :  Brig-General,  Allahabad, 
1900  :  D.A.G.  Bengal,  1900-1  :  served  in 
Hazara  campaign,  1868  :  Afghan  war, 
1878-80  :  Mahsud-Waziri  expedition, 
1881  :  Burmese  war,  1886-7  ■  Waziris- 
tan  expedition,  1894-5  :  and  Chitral 
Relief,  1895  :    C.B.,  1896. 

LONY  (1808-1851) 
Born  at  Sardhana  in  1808 :  great- 
grandson  of  Walter  Reinhard,  called 
Sombre  (Samru)  for  his  sombre  appearance: 
his  father,  G.  A.  Dyce,  commanded  the 
Begam  Sombre's,  or  Samru's,  troops : 
D.  O.  Dyce  inherited  a  great  fortune  from 
the  Begam  on  her  death  in  1836  :  he  had 
become  a  Roman  Catholic  and  been  made 
Chevalier  of  the  Order  of  Christ.  He 
reached  England  in  1839,  and  made  a 
figure  in  society  :  married  the  daughter 
of  Lord  St.  Vincent :  M.P.  for  Sunbury, 
1841-2,  but  was  unseated  for  bribery. 
He  was  treated  as  a  lunatic  and  declared 
by  a  Commission  to  be  of  unsound  mind  : 
escaped  from  his  keeper  and  went  to 
France  in  1843,  where,  in  1849,  he  wrote 
a  contention  against  the  allegations  of 
his  lunacy  :  tried  to  have  the  decision 
set  aside,  but  died  in  London  on  July  i, 
1851  :  his  will  gave  rise  to  much  litiga- 


(1842-  ) 

Born  Aug.  29,  1842  :  son  of  Sir  J.  E. 
Eardley-Wilmot,  Bart.  :  educated  at 
Winchester :  entered  the  Army,  i860  : 
Brevet- Lt -Colonel,  1881  :  Maj -General, 
1895  :  served  in  the  Bhutan  expedition, 
1864-5  (wounded) :  Jowaki  expedition  as 
A.D.C.  :  Kabul  war,  1878-89 :  attack 
of  Ali  Masjid,  Charasia,  and  taking  of 
Kabul :    C.B. 




BARONET  (1854-         ) 

Born  Aug.  15,  1854  :  educated  at  Eton 
and  Trinity  College,  Oxford  :  entered  the 
Army :  served  in  Jowaki  campaign, 
1877:  Afghan  war,  1878-80 :  Egyptian 
war,  1883  :  Burma  war,  1886-7  :  Tirah, 
1897-8  (severely  wounded)  :  South  Africa, 
1899-1900  (severely  wounded) :  D.S.O. 
for  services  in  Burma. 

EARLE,  WILLIAM  (1833-1886) 
Son  of  Sir  Hardman  Earle,  Bart.,  bom 
May  18,  1833  :  educated  at  Winchester  : 
entered  the  49th  regt.,  in  1851  :  served 
with  it  through  the  Crimea,  exchanged 
into  the  Grenadier  Guards  in  1857  : 
served  at  Gibraltar ;  in  Nova  Scotia, 
as  Military  Secretary  to  the  General  in  N. 
America  :  Colonel :  was  Military  Secretary 
to  Lord  Northbrook  when  Viceroy  and 
Governor-General,  1872-76  :  C.S.I. ,  1876  : 
in  Egypt  in  1882  :  in 'command  at  Alexan- 
dria :  C.B.  :  and  in  1884-85,  as  Maj- 
General,  commanded  the  Nile  column 
destined  for  Khartoum.  In  an  attack 
on  Arabs,  entrenched  at  Kirbekan,  he  was 
shot  in  the  forehead  and  killed,  on  Feb. 
10,  1885. 

BARONET  (1764-1847) 

Born  in  Jamaica,  Sep.  g,  1764  :  called 
to  the  bar  from  the  Inner  Temple,  1786  : 
M.P.  for  Great  Malvern  :  published  the 
Term  Reports  of  cases  in  the  King's  Bench 
for  many  years,  and  a  work  on  the  Criminal 
Law  :  Chief  Justice  of  Bengal  from  18 13 
to  1 821  :  knighted  on  appointment :  took 
a  leading  part  in  the  establishment  of  the 
Hindu  CoUege  at  Calcutta :  made  a 
Baronet  in  1823  :  M.P.  for  Winchester, 
1823-30  :  member  of  the  Judicial  Com- 
mittee of  the  Privy  Council,  1833  :  member 
of  Council  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society  : 
F.R.S.  :  bencher  of  the  Inner  Temple  : 
died  Jan.   8,   1847. 



Born  1 814  :  son  of  Capt.  Robert  William 
Eastwick :  educated  at  Charterhouse 
and  Merton  College,  Oxford  :  Postmaster  : 
joined  a  Bombay  N.I.  regt.,  1836  :  early 
devoted  himself  to  Oriental  languages  : 
served  in  the  Political  Department  in 
Kattiawar  and  Sind  :  did  literary  work,  on 

the  History  of  the  Pars's  and  a  Sindi 
vocabulary :  about  1842  he  gave  up 
India,  through  ill-health :  studied  at 
Frankfort  and  translated  Bopp's  Com- 
parative Grammar  :  noticed  by  H.  H. 
Wilson  iq.v.),  and  appointed  Professor  of 
Hindustani  at  the  E.I.  College,  Haileybury, 
1845  :  F.R.S.,  1851  :  Assistant  Political 
Secretary  at  the  India  Office,  1859  • 
called  to  the  bar.  Middle  Temple,  i860  : 
Secretary  of  Legation  at  Teheran  to  the 
Court  of  Persia,  1860-3  '•  published  The 
Journal  of  a  Diplomatist :  Commissioner 
for  arranging  a  Venezuelan  loan,  1864  and 
1867  :  Private  Secretary  to  Lord  Cran- 
borne  (afterwards  Marquis  of  Salisbury) 
when  Secretary  of  State  for  India,  July, 
1866,  to  March,  1867  :  C.B.  :  M.P.  for 
Penrhyn  and  Falmouth,  1868-74  :  M.A., 
Oxford,  1875  :  translated  the  Gulisian, 
the  Anwar-i-Suhaili,  Prem  Sagar,  Bagh-o- 
Bahar,  and  other  works  in  Oriental  lan- 
guages :  made  several  journeys  to  India  : 
wrote  a  Hindustani  grammar,  Murray's 
Handbooks  for  India,  accounts  of  his 
experiences  in  Sind,  Persia,  and  Venezuela, 
and  the  Kaisarnama-i-Hind  (an  account 
of  the  native  states,  etc.),  and  articles  in 
the  Encyclopcedia  Britannica  •  was  F.S.A.  : 
died  July  16,  1883. 



Captain  :  born  June  25,  1772  :  educated 
at  Merchant  Taylors'  school :  went  to 
sea,  1784,  in  the  merchant^ervice  :  pressed 
into  the  Navy,  1790  :  soon  left  it :  entered 
the  E.I.  Co.'s  marine  service,  1792  :  went 
to  Bombay :  joined  the  Indian  Service  : 
sailed  everywhere  in  Eastern  waters  : 
commanded  a  ship  in  1793  :  owned  and 
commanded  the  Endeavour,  which  was 
captured  by  a  French  frigate,  La  Forte, 
1799,  and  rescued  by  the  English  man-of- 
war.  La  Syhille,  on  March  i,  1799  :  his 
own  ship  lost  to  him  :  sailed  to  Bussora, 
Sumatra,  New  Holland,  Sydney,  Norfolk 
Island,  China,  Buenos  Ayres,  Monte 
Video,  to  England  :  several  times  ship- 
wrecked, and  went  through  numerous 
adventures  :  finished  his  active  career  in 
1825  :  lost  his  sight  in  1832,  and  was 
blind  for  33  years  till  his  death  on  Dec.  31, 
1865  :  "  a  skilful  and  fearless  sailor  *'  : 
father  of  Captain  W.  J.  E.  {q.v.)  and  of 
E.  B.  E.,  [q.v.)  :  his  life  is  recorded  in  A 
Master  Mariner,  by  H.  Compton,  1891. 




Captain :  born  1808  :  son  of  Capt. 
Robert  William  Eastwick  :  educated  at 
Winchester  :  went  to  India  in  the  Bombay 
Army,  1826  :  served  in  the  Kolapur  and 
S.  Mahratta  country :  in  the  Political 
Department  :  Assistant  to  Sir  H.  Pottinger 
in  Sind :  negotiated  a  treaty  with  the 
Amirs  of  Hyderabad,  1839  :  secured  the 
freedom  of  the  Indus  to  commercial 
enterprise :  in  the  first  Afghan  war : 
obtained  supplies  for  Nott  at  Kandahar, 
1841  :  to  England,  1841,  and  did  not 
return  to  India :  Director  of  the  E.I. 
Co.,  1846 :  Deputy  Chairman,  1858  : 
Member  of  the  Council  of  India,  Sep.  21, 
1858:   retired,  1868:    died  Feb.  24,  1889. 



Indian  Civil  Service :  third  son 
of  the  third  Lord  Auckland,  Bishop  of 
Bath  and  Wells,  and  nephew  of  the 
Governor-General  Lord  'Auckland  :  bom 
on  Nov.  13,  1831  :  educated  at  Rugby, 
Winchester,  and  Haileybury  :  arrived  in 
India  in  1S52  :  distinguished  himself  in 
the  Sonthal  insurrection,  1855  :  Secretary 
to  the  Bengal  Government  from  1862-71, 
and  in  the  Bengal  Legislative  Council : 
employed  to  make  a  treaty  with  the  Raja 
of  Sikhim  in  1861,  and  as  envoy  to  Bhutan 
in  1863-4,  where  he  was  subjected  to  gross 
indignities,  and  compelled  to  sign  a  treaty 
which  the  British  Government  repudiated 
and  declared  w^r  on  Bhutan.  Eden  was 
Chief  Commissioner  of  British  Burma, 
1871-7,  acting,  in  1875,  as  Member  of 
the  Supreme  Council.  He  was  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  Bengal,  1877  to  1882,  and 
President  of  the  Army  Commission  for 
some  months  in  1879.  In  Bengal  he 
exhibited  such  capacity,  and  attained 
such  success  •  in  his  administration,  that 
his  retirement  was  universally  deplored, 
and  a  statue  erected  in  his  honour  in  Cal- 
cutta. He  was  in  the  Council  of  India 
from  1882  till  his  death  on  July  8,  1887. 
He  was  made  C.S.I,  in  1874,  and  K.C.S.I. 
in  1878.  Though  last  in  his  term  at 
Haileybury,  he  was  one  of  the  ablest 
officers  of  modern  times  :  his  common 
sense  and  penetration  were  combined 
with  fearlessness  and  force  in  the  statement 
•of  his  views. 


EDEN,  HON.  EMILY  (1797-1869) 
Daughter  of  the  first  Baron  Auckland, 
sister  of  the  second  Baron,  first  Earl  {q.v.), 
whom  she  accompanied  to  India,  while 
Governor-General,  from  1836  to  1842: 
born  March  3,  1797:  she  published 
Portraits  of  the  People  and  Princes  of  India, 
1844,  and  Up  the  Country,  1866,  and  two 
volumes  of  her  Letters  from  India  were 
published  in  1872  by  her  niece,  Eleanor 
Eden.  She  also  wrote  the  novels  The 
Semi-detached  House,  and  The  Semi-attached 
Couple.  Her  writings  contain  an  interest- 
ing account  of  the  social  and  domestic  life 
of  a  Governor-General  and  his  household. 
She  died  Aug.  5,  1869. 

EDGAR,  SIR  JOHN  WARE  (1839-1902) 
I.C.S.  :  born  Sep.  16,  1839 :  arrived 
in  India,  in  the  Indian  Civil  Service, 
in  Feb.  1862  :  did  good  service  in  Cachar 
in  connexion  with  the  raids  of  the  Lushai 
tribes,  and  accompanied  the  Lushai 
expedition  of  1871-2,  as  Political  Officer 
to  the  Northern  Column :  as  Deputy 
Commissioner  of  Darjeeling  he  paid  much 
attention  to  Sikhim,  Buddhism,  and 
Tibet  frontier  questions  :  President  of  the 
Bengal  Excise  Commission,  1881-3  : 
Chief  Secretary  to  the  Government  of 
Bengal,  1887-91  :  Member  of  the 
Governor-General's  Legislative  Council, 
Jan.,  1892  :  retired  in  April,  1892  :  C.S.I,  in 
1872,  and  K.C.I.E.  in  May,  1889  :  died 
at  Florence  on  June  4,  1902  :  devoted 
himself  in  his  later  years  to  historical 
studies,  chiefly  on  subjects  connected 
with  Northern  Buddhism  and  modern 
Latin  Christianity. 

EDGE,  SIR  JOHN  (1841-        ) 

Born  July  28,  1841  :  son  of  Benjamin 
Booker  Edge,  of  Clonbrook :  educated 
at  Trinity  College,  Dublin  :  joined  the 
Irish  bar,  1864,  and  the  English  bar,  from 
the  Middle  Temple,  1866:  Chief  Justice 
of  High  Court,  N.W.P.,  1886-98  :  Bencher 
of  Middle  Temple,  1898  :  Member  of  the 
Council  of  India,  1898. 

FREDERICK  (1813-1864) 

I.C.S. :  son  of  Neil  Benjamin'Edmonstone 
{q.v.)  :  born  April,  1813  :  educated  at 
Hailebyury,  1829-31  :  went  to  the  N.W.P. 
in   1831  :    after  the   Satlaj   campaign   of 



1845-6  was  Commissioner  of  the  Cis- 
Stalaj  States :  Financial  Commissioner 
in  the  Panjab,  1853  :  Foreign  Secretary 
to  the  Government  of  India,  1855,  and 
during  the  mutiny  :  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  the  N.W.P.,  Jan.  19,  1859,  to  Feb.  27, 
1863  :  K.C.B.,  Dec,  1863  :  died  Sep.  24, 


I.C.S.  :  born  Dec.  6,  1765  :  son  of  Sir 
Archibald  Edmonstone,  Bart.,  M.P. :  went 
to  Calcutta  in  the  Civil  Service,  1783  : 
appointed  early  to  the  Secretariat,  and 
became  Persian  translator  to  Government : 
Private  Secretary  to  the  acting  Governor- 
General,  Sir  Alured  Clarke  (q.v.)  in  April, 
1798  :  and  Sir  G.  H.  Barlow  (q.v.)  in  Feb. 
1807 :  with  Lord  Wellesley  in  Madras 
for  the  campaign  against  Tippoo  :  Secre- 
tary in  1 801  to  the  Government  of  India 
in  the  Foreign  Department:  Chief  Secretary 
to  Government,  1809  :  Member  of  the 
Supreme  Council,  Oct.  30,  1812,  to  Jan.  17, 
1818  :  became  in  1820  a  Director  of  the 
E.I.  Co.  :    died  May  4,  1841. 

JAMIN (1819-1868) 

Maj-General :  son  of  the  Rev.  B. 
Edwardes  :  born  Nov.  12,  1819  :  educated 
at  Richmond  and  King's  College,  London, 
where  he  distinguished  himself  in  the 
debating  society :  obtained  an  Indian 
cadetship  from  Sir  R.  Jenkins  {q.v.)  : 
reached  India  in .1841  :  sent  to  the  Panjab. 
Early  in  his  career  he  published  "  Brahmini 
Bull's  Letters  in  India  to  his  cousin  John 
Bull  in  England "  in  the  Delhi  Gazette, 
criticising  the  military  and  political 
system.  He  was  A.D.C.  to  Sir  Hugh 
Gough  at  Mudki  and  Sobraon  in  1845-6  : 
after  which  Sir  Henry  Lawrence,  Resident 
at  Lahore,  took  him  as  an  Assistant. 
Edwardes,  in  1847,  pacified  the  district  of 
Bannu,  levelled  400  forts,  and  initiated 
civilization.  On  the  murder  of  Vans 
Agnew  and  Anderson  at  Multan  and  the 
rebellion  of  Mulraj  in  April,  1848,  Edwardes 
collected  a  force  of  tribesmen  and,  with 
the  aid  of  the  Nawab  of  Bahawalpur,  and 
Colonel  Van  Cortlandt  of  the  Sikh  service, 
attacked  Mulraj  and  the  rebels,  defeating 
them  at  Kineyri  and  Sadusain,  maintain- 
ing the  war  for  months  until  General 
Whish  arrived  and  took  Multan.  He  was 
made  Brevet -Major  and  C.B. :  received  the 

thanks  of  Parliament  and  a  special  gold 
medal  from  the  Court  of  Directors  :  D.C.L. 
of  Oxford  :  after  holding  charge  of  the 
Jalandhar  and  Hazara  districts,  he  was 
in  1853  made  Commissioner  of  Peshawar. 
He  proposed  to  Government  to  make  a 
treaty  with  Dost  Muhammad,  the  Amir 
of  Afghanistan :  with  Lord  Dalhousie's 
approval,  but  after  some  doubts  on  Sir 
John  Lawrence's  part,  treaties  were  made 
with  the  Amir  in  March,  1855,  and  1857, 
really  the  work  of  Edwardes.  The  Amir 
and  the  Afghans  remained  quiet  dmring 
the  mutiny  of  1857.  On  its  outbreak, 
Edwardes  suggested  the  formation  of  a 
movable  column  for  the  Panjab  :  he  was 
told  by  Lord  Canning  to  "  hold  on  to 
Peshawar."  He  zealously,  at  this  time 
and  after,  advocated  the  adoption  of  a 
more  Christianizing  policy  in  the  govern- 
ment of  India.  While  on  fiurlough  he  was 
made  K.C.B.  in  i860  :  LL.D.  of  Cam- 
bridge :  Commissioner  of  Umbala,  1862-5  : 
and  then  left  India  for  his  health  :  K.C.S.I. 
in  1866  :  he  took  much  interest  in  mission 
work  in  his  retirement,  and  wrote  part 
of  the  life  of  Sir  Henry  Lawrence  :  died 
Dec.  23,  1868  :  a  memorial  was  erected 
to  him  in  Westminster  Abbey.  He  wrote 
also  A  Year  on  the  Panjab  Frontier  in 
1848-9.  He  has  been  described  as  one  of 
the  most  remarkable  men  that  the 
Indian  Army  has  ever  produced.  His 
bravery  and  brilliancy  were  universally 
recognized.  Sir  John  Lawrence  wrote  of 
him  as  a  "  born  ruler  of  men." 

BURG  (1840-         ) 

Born  March  29,  1840  :  son  of  Capt. 
George  Harris  Edwardes,  Bengal  Army  : 
educated  at  Mount  Radford  School, 
Exeter  :  entered  the  Bombay  Army,  1857, 
and  became  Colonel,  1876  :  Maj-General, 
1885  :  Lt-General,  1886,  and  General, 
1896  :  served  during  Indian  mutiny  in 
pursuit  of  Tantia  Topi,  1858  :  D.A.Q.M.G. 
Abyssinian  expedition,  1868  :  Chief 
Director  of  Transport,  Afghan  campaign, 
1879-80 :  commanded  Quetta  District, 
1881-4  ;  N.  Division,  Bombay  Army, 
1887-9  :     K.C.B.,  1898. 


(18.34-         ) 
Born  1834:   educated  at  R.M.A.,  Wool- 
wich :  entered  the  Royal  Engineers,  1852^ 



and    became    General,    1891  :    served    in 
Crimean  war :  Indian  mutiny :  China,  1864 : 
Suakim   expedition,  1885 :    Commandant 
of  School  of  Military  Engineering,  1885-8 
commanded  the  troops  in  China,  1889-90 
M.P.    for    Hythe,    1895-9  :     C.B.,  1877 
K.C.M.G.,  1891. 


(1857-  ) 

Born  May  6, 1857  :  son  of  R.  M.  Edwards, 
B.C.S.:  educated  at  Haileybury  and 
Sandhurst :  entered  the  Army  1878,  and 
became  Major  1898  :  served  in  Afghan 
war,  1878-80,  Chitral  Relief  Force,  1895 : 
in  charge  of  Gwalior  Imperial  Service 
Transport  Corps :  D.S.O.  :  Inspecting 
Officer  of  Imperial  Service  Cavalry  in 
Central  India,  189 1-6  :  second  in  command 
ist  regt.  Central  India  Horse. 



Born  April,  1798  :  his  father  was  a 
clergyman  :  educated  for  the  medical  pro- 
fession at  St.  Thomas'  and  Guy's  hospitals  : 
F.C.S.,  1819 :  entered  the  E.  I.  Co.'s  medical 
service  in  1823  as  an  oculist  to  deal  with 
a  special  epidemic:  oculist  at  the  Eye 
Hospital,  and  first  Surgeon  at  the  Medical 
College  Hospital,  Calcutta :  left  India 
1847  :    died  May,  1885. 


(1848-  ) 

Born  1848  :  educated  at  Rossall : 
entered  the  Army,  1867,  and  became 
Colonel,  1895  :  served  in  the  Afghan  war, 
1879-80  :  Hazara  expedition,  1888  : 
Miranzai  expedition  :  severely  wounded  : 
Brevet- Lt -Colonel,  and  D.S.O.  :  Waziris- 
tan  Field  Force,  1894-5  :  C.B.  :  Dongola 
expedition :  commanded  Tochi  Field 
Force,  1897-8:  K.C.B.,  1903:  commanded 
the  Somaliland  Force  from  1903.        ,  j    ., 

EGERTON,  PHILIP  HENRY  ( 1824-1893) 
I.C.S.  :  son  of  William  Egerton  (of  the 
B.C.S.,  1792-1820)  :  born  Aug.  9,  1824  : 
educated  at  the  Naval  and  Military 
Academy,  Edinburgh  :  R.M.  College,  Sand- 
hurst, and  Haileybury,  1840-2  :  went  to 
India,  1842  :  served  in  the  N.W.P.  to 
1850  :  Magte-Colh:.  of  Delhi,  1855-9,  but 
was  on  leave  during  the  siege  in  1857  and 
could  not  rejoin  till  Oct.,  when  he  vigor- 

ously restored  order  in  the  city  and  district. 
Commissioner  of  Umritsar,  1859,  and  of 
Rawul  Pindi,  1868  :  retired,  1872  :  wrote 
Journal  of  a  Tour  through  Spiti,  1864 : 
died  Jan.  17,  1893. 


(1827-  ) 
I.C.S.  :  son  of  William  Egerton :  bom 
1827  :  educated  at  Exeter  College,  Oxford 
and  Haileybury,  1847-9  :  served  in  India, 
1849-82  :  Deputy  Commissioner  of  Lahore 
in  the  mutiny  :  Commissioner  of  Nagpur, 
1869 :  Financial  Commissioner  of  the 
Panjab,  1871  :  Member  of  the  Governor- 
General's  Legislative  Coimcil,  1 871-4 : 
Lieutenant  Governor  of  the  Panjab,  1778- 
82  :    K.C.S.I.,    1879  :   CLE.  :     J. P.  :   D.L. 

ELERS,   GEORGE  (1777-1842) 

Partly  of  German  parentage  :  obtained 
a  commission  in  the  12th  regt.  :  arrived 
in  Madras,  1797  :  served  against  Tippoo, 
but  was  ill  at  Vellore  during  the  siege  of 
Seringapatam  :  accompanied  Col.  Welles- 
ley  to  Coorg  and  stayed  with  him  at  Ser- 
ingapatam as  his  guest  for  three  months. 
His  Memoirs  were  edited  from  the  orginal 
MS.  by  Lord  Monson  and  George  Leveson- 
Gower  and  published  in  1903. 



(Twelfth  Earl  of  Kincardine) :  bom  July 
20,  181 1  :  educated  at  Eton  and  Christ 
Church,  Oxford  :  Fellow  of  Merton  College, 
1832  :  M.P.  for  Southampton,  1841  :  suc- 
ceeded his  father  in  1841  :  was  made 
Governor  of  Jamaica,  1842,  and,  in  1846, 
Governor-General  of  Canada — an  appoint- 
ment fraught  with  difficulties — which  he 
retained  till  1854  :  for  his  services  he  was 
raised  to  the  English  peerage.  In  1857 
he  was  sent  to  China  as  special  envoy  :  on 
his  way  there,  he,  at  Lord  Canning's  re- 
quest, diverted  to  India,  troops  intended 
for  China,  which  were  urgently  required 
for  the  suppression  of  the  Indian  mutiny. 
He  made  the  Tientsin  Treaty  with  China, 
securing  several  important  objects.  In 
1859  he  became  Postmater-General  in  Lord 
Palmerston's  Government.  In  i860  he 
was  again  sent  to  China  to  obtain  the 
ratification  of  the  Tientsin  treaty,  which 
had  not  been  carried  out.  He  destroyed 
the  Summer  Palace,  as  a  pimishment  for 



Chinese  treachery  and  the  murder  of 
Englishmen.  In  Jan.,  1862,  he  went  to 
India  as  Viceroy,  arriving  at  Calcutta 
in  March.  After  spending  the  summer  at 
Simla  in  1863,  he  proceeded  on  tour  in 
Upper  India.  He  died  of  heart  complaint, 
brought  on  by  over-exertion,  at  Dharmsala 
on  Nov.  20,  1863,  and  was  there  buried. 

EARL  OF  (1849-        ) 

Born  May  16,  1849  :  son  of  eighth  Earl 
iq.v.),  who  was  Plenipotentiary  to  China, 
and  Viceroy  of  India,  1862-3  '■  educated  at 
Eton  and  Balliol  College,  Oxford  :  First 
Commissioner  of  Works,  1886 :  Viceroy 
and  Governor-General  of  India,  1894-9  : 
Chairman  of  the  Royal  Commission  to 
investigate  the  conduct  of  the  S.  African 
campaign  :  and  of  the  inquiry  into  the  dis- 
putes between  the  Scotch  Churches  :  K.G. : 
G.C.S.I.  :  G.C.I.E.  :  P.C.  :  LL.D.  of  St. 

ELIAS,  NEY  (1844-1897) 

Son  of  Ney  Elias  :  born  Feb.  10,  1844  : 
educated  at  London,  Paris,  Dresden : 
F.R.G.S.,  1865  :  went  to  Shanghai  in  a 
merchant's  firm  in  1866  :  led  an  expedition 
in  1868  to  examine  the  channels  of  the 
Hoang-ho  river :  in  1872  crossed  the 
Gobi  desert,  nearly  5,000  miles  from  the 
Great  Wall  to  Nijni  Novgorod :  gold 
medal  of  the  R.G.S.,  1873  :  joined  the 
Indian  Foreign  Office,  1874  :  served  at 
Mandalay  and  in  Ladak  :  travelled  over 
the  Karakorum  to  Yarkand,  1879  :  and 
Kashgar,  1885  :  from  Yarkand  to  the 
Pamirs  and  the  Oxus,  1885  :  Badakshan, 
Balkh,  Chitral,  N.  Afghanistan  :  was  in 
Sikhim,  1888-9  :  in  the  Shan  States,  1889 
-90  :  Agent  at  Mashad  and  Consul-Gen- 
eral :  retired  from  the  service,  1896.  He 
had  gained  a  great  knowledge  of  the 
countries  of  Central  Asia :  and  wrote 
several  reports  on  his  journeys  :  he  died 
suddenly.  May  31,  1897.  He  declined,  in 
1888,  to  receive  the  CLE.  decoration. 

ELIOT,  SIR   JOHN  (1839-        ) 

Educated  at  St.  John's  College,  Cam- 
bridge (2nd  Wrangler  and  ist  Smith's 
Prizeman)  :  Fellow  of  St.  John's  College, 
1869-70 :  Professor  of  Mathematics, 
Rurki  Engineering  College,  1869-72  :  Muir 
Central  College,  Allahabad,  1872-4  :    Pro- 

fessor of  Physics,  Presidency  College,  Cal- 
cutta :  Meteorological  Reporter  to  Govern- 
ment of  Bengal,  1874-86  :  Meteorological 
Reporter  to  Government  of  India,  1886- 
1904  :  Director-General  of  Indian  Obser- 
vations since  1899  :  CLE.,  1897  :  K.C.I.E., 
1903  :    retired  1904. 

ELIOTT,  SIR  DANIEL  (1798-1872) 
I.C.S.  :  son  of  Sir  WilHam  Eliott :  born 
March  3, 1798  :  educated  at  the  Edinburgh 
Academy  and  at  Haileybury  :  went  out 
to  Madras  in  1817 :  Secretary  to  the 
Board  of  Revenue,  1827  :  Member  of.  the 
Board,  1836  :  was  the  Madras  Member  of 
the  Indian  Law  Commission  in  1838  : 
Member  of  Council,  Madras,  1848  to 
1853  :  President  of  various  Boards  in 
Madras,  1850  :  Madras  Member  of  the 
Legislative  Council  of  India,  1854-9  • 
K.CS.I.  in  May  1867:   died  Oct.  30,  1872. 


(1867-  ) 

Born  Sep.  21,  1867  :  son  of  Col.  W. 
Eliott -Lockhart,  R.A.  :  educated  at  Bath  : 
joined  ist  West  India  regt.,  1887,  and 
Indian  Staff  Corps,  1890 :  served  in 
Waziristan  expedition,  1894-5 :  Chitral, 
1895  :  N.W.  frontier,  1897-8,  defence  of 
Malakand,  operations  in  Bajaur,  Mohmand 
and  Buner :  D.S.O  :  author  of  A  Frontier 
Campaign :  Captain  in  Queen's  Own  Corps 
of  Guides. 

FIRST   EARL   OF   (1790-1871) 

Governor-General :  son  of  Edward, 
Baron  Ellenborough,  Lord  Chief  Justice 
of  England  :  born  Sep.  8,  1790  :  educated 
at  Eton  and  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge  : 
M.P.  for  St.  Michael's,  Cornwall,  1813  : 
was  Lord  Privy  Seal,  1828  :  President  of 
the  Board  of  Control,  from  1828  to  1830, 
from  Dec,  1834  to  April,  1835,  and  for  a 
third  time  in  Sep.-Oct.,  1841.  He,  in  1832, 
sent  Alexander  Burnes  (q.v.)  to  Lahore, 
and  on  to  Central  Asia  :  was  for  a  forward 
policy  and  for  the  transfer  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  India  to  the  Crown.  In  Oct.,  1841, 
he  was  nominated  to  be  Governor-General, 
and  held  the  appointment  from  Feb.  28, 
1842,  to  June  15,  1844.  He  desired  a 
peace  policy,  but  was  never  free  of  war. 
He  pushed  on  the  Chinese  war  and  brought 
it  to  a  conclusion  successfully.     He  desired 


to  withdraw  from  interference  with 
Afghanistan,  after  rescuing  the  Kabul 
captives  and  restoring  British  prestige,  and 
eventually  sanctioned  Sir  W.  Nott's  with- 
drawal from  Kandahar  vtd  Ghazni,  Kabul 
and  Peshawar.  Pollock's  Army  of  retri 
bution  forced  its  way  through  the  Khyber 
to  Kabul,  and  Afghanistan  was  evacuated 
in  '^Oct-Nov.,si842.  Ellenborough's  bom- 
bastic proclamation,  on  the  recovery  of  the 
gates  of  Somnath  from  Ghazni,  exposed 
him  to  ridicule.  The  troops  retiring  from 
Kabul  were  received  at  Firozpur  with 
exaggerated  pomp.  He  annexed  Sind, 
by  means  of  Sir  Charles  Napier's  victories, 
in  1842,  though  the  justification  for  this 
act  has  been  seriously  questioned.  He 
interfered  in  the  affairs  of  the  Gwalior 
State,  where  the  Army  had  rebelled  and 
expelled  the  regent  Mama  Sahib  :  he  was 
present  at  the  battle  of  Maharajpur,  Dec. 
28,  1843  :  a  fresh  treaty  was  made  with 
the  State.  Being  disrespectful  and  out  of 
control,  he  was  recalled  by  the  Court  ©f 
Directors  in  June,  1844,  against  the  views 
of  the  Cabinet :  was  created  an  Earl : 
in  1846  he  was  made  First  Lord  of  the 
Admiralty,  and  in  1858,  Feb.  to  June,  was 
again  President  of  the  Board  of  Control. 
In  this  capacity,  he  addressed  a  despatch 
to  Lord  Canning  regarding  the  latter's 
Oudh  proclamation,  which  the  Cabinet 
disavowed,  and  EUenborough  had  to  resign 
his  office.  During  his  Indian  career,  he 
preferred  the  military  to  political  officers, 
and  was  unpopular  with  the  civilians. 
His  ability  and  eloquence  were  brilliant, 
but  his  other  qualities  detracted  from  his 
practical  usefulness  in  high  office.  He 
died  Dec.  22,  1871. 


(1848-  ) 
Born  June  9,  1848  :  son  of  Malcolm 
Jamieson  Elles  :  educated  privately  and 
at  Woolwich  :  entered  the  Royal  Artil- 
lery, 1867  :  Colonel,  189 1  :  Ma j -General, 
1900  :  in  the  Lushai  expedition,  1871-2  : 
D.A.Q.M.G.  of  the  Indian  contingent  to 
Egypt,  1882  :  A.Q.M.G.  Hazara  expedition, 
1888  :  in  the  Indian  Frontier  expedition, 
1897  :  commanded  the  Peshawar  District, 
1895-1900  :  Adjutant-General,  1900-1  : 
second  in  command  of  Sir  M.  Durand's 
mission  to  Kabul,  1893  :  Military  Member 
of  Supreme  Council,  April  11,  1901-5  : 
C.B.,  1893  :  K.C.B.,  1898  :  K.C.I. E., 



Son  of  Malcolm  J.  Elles  :  educated  at 
Sandhurst :  entered  the  54th  regt. :  served 
m  the  Crimea,  1854-5  •'  in  the  mutiny, 
1857-8,  at  battle  of  Cawnpur,  defeat  of 
Gwalior  contingent,  capture  of  Lucknow, 
Hazara  campaign :  Black  Mountain  expe- 
dition, 1868  :  Burmese  war,  1886-7  :  C.B. : 
A.D.C.  to  Queen  Victoria,  1881-90:  com- 
manded in  the  Hazara  expedition,  1891 : 
K.C.B. :  commanded  ist  class  district, 
Bengal,  1 890-5  :  in  command  of  the  Bengal 
Army,  1895  :  Lt-General,  1895  :  died  at 
Naini  Tal,  Aug.  5,  1896. 

Lt-Colonel :  entered  the  Army,  1829  : 
joined  the  43rd  N.I. :  served  in  the  first 
Afghan  war  :  was  Assistant  to  Sir  H.  C 
Rawlinson  in  a  political  capacity  at  Kanda- 
har :  was  Deputy  Commissioner  of  Sagar  : 
Judicial  Commissioner  at  Nagpur  :  Chief 
Commissioner  of  the  Central  Provinces  : 
Agent  of  the  Governor-General  for  Rajpu- 
tana:  died  at  Nasirabad,  Oct.  11,  1865. 


(1850-        ) 

Bom  Jan.  28,  1850 :  son  of  Colonel 
Edward  King  Elliot :  entered  the  Army, 
1868  :  and  the  Indian  Staff  Corps  :  became 
Colonel,  1898  :  served  in  the  Afghan  war, 
1878-9  :  Burmese  expedition,  1886-7  '• 
D.S.O.  :  Dongola  expeditionary  force, 
1896  :  C.B.  :  Inspr-General  of  Cavalry 
in  India,  1898  :  in  South  Africa,  1901-2  : 
K.C.B.,   1902  :    Maj-General. 

ELLIOT,   SIR   HENRY  MIERS   (1808- 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  John  Elliot :  born  March 
I,  1808  :  educated  at  Winchester  :  gained 
his  appointment  to  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Civil 
Service  by  open  competition,  1826  :  served 
in  the  N.W.P.  :  Secretary  to  the  Board 
of  Revenue :  Foreign  Secretary  to  the 
Government  of  India,  1847  :  accompanied 
Lord  Hardinge  and  Lord  Dalhousie  to  the 
Panjab  :  negotiated  the  treaty  with  the 
Sikhs,  1849  :  K.C.B  :  brought  out  the 
first  volume  of  a  Bibliographical  Index  to 
the  Historians  of  Muhammadan  India,  his 
materials  for  The  History  of  India,  as 
told  by  its  own  Historians,  were  edited  after 
his  death  by  Professor  JohnDowson  (q.v.) 
and  Sir  E.  C.  Bayley,  iq.v.) :  his  Memoirs 



of  the  History,  Folklore,  and  Distribution  of 
the  Races  of  the  N.W.P.  were  edited  by 
Mr,  J.  Beames  {,q.v.)  :  he  died  at  the  Cape 
of  Good  Hope  on  his  way  home,  Dec.  20, 

1853.  A  mural  tablet  in  St.  Paul's  Cathe- 
dral, at  Calcutta,  testifies  to  his  remark- 
able abilities  and  attainments,  his  manly 
rectitude  of  conduct,  his  gentle  disposition 
and  noble  qualities.  He  (like  Augustus 
Cleveland)  {^.i'.)  was  called  by  Sir  W.  W. 
Hunter  the  duke  decus  of  the  Bengal  Civil 

ELLIOT,  HUGH  (1752-1830) 

Governor  :  son  of  Sir  Gilbert  Elliot, 
M.P.  :  born  April  6,  1752  :  educated 
privately,  at  Paris,  and  Christ  Church, 
Oxford :  at  a  military  school  abroad : 
served  with  the  Russian  Army  against  the 
Turks,  1772  :  Minister  at  Munich,  i773- 
6  :  Envoy  and  Minister  to  Prussia,  1777  :  at 
Copenhagen,  1782-91  :  on  a  secret  mission 
to  Paris,  1791  :  Minister  at  Dresden  until 
1803  :  at  Naples,  1803  :  recalled  thence  : 
Governor  of  the  Leeward  Islands,  1809-13  : 
P.C. :  Governor  of  Madras,  Sep.  16,  1814, 
to  June  10,  1820  :  died  Dec.  10,  1830  : 
buried  in  Westminster  Abbey. 

ELLIOT,  SIR  WALTER  (1803-1887) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Jan.  16,  1803 :  son  of 
James  Elliot :  educated  privately :  at 
Doncaster  and  Haileybury :  went  to 
Madras  in  1820  :  specially  rewarded  for 
remarkable  proficiency  in  Tamil  and 
Hindustani  at  20  :  served  in  the  S.  Mah- 
ratta  country,  until  1833  :  was  a  keen 
sportsman  and  adventvurous  with  big  game : 
in  the  insurrection  of  Kittur,  1824,  when 
several  officers  were  killed,  he  and  another 
officer,  Stevenson,  were  prisoners  of  the 
rebels  for  six  weeks  :  in  1843,  made  an 
adventurous  journey  to  Mocha,  Red  Sea 
coast  of  Abyssinia,  Egypt  and  Palestine  : 
Private  Secretary  to  Lord  Elphinstone, 
Governor  of  Madras,  1837-42  :  Member 
of  the  Board  of  Revenue,  but  was  sent  in 
1845  to  inquire  into  the  maladministration 
of  Guntur :  appointed  Commissioner  of 
the  whole  of  the  Northern  Sircars  till  Dec. 

1854,  when  he  became  a  Member  of  Council, 
Madras,  till  Dec.  1859.  As  Senior  Member 
of  Council,  he  contributed  greatly  by  his 
steadfast  calmness,  during  the  temporary 
absence  of  Lord  Harris,  to  the  preservation 
of  peace  and  order  in  the  Presidency  :  also, 
in  1858,  carried  on  the  Government  during 

Lord  Harris'  ill-health :  took  much 
interest  in  education  and  supported 
Christian  missions  :  acquired  much  know- 
ledge of  archaeology,  natural  history, 
numismatics,  and  Indian  history  :  wrote 
for  scientific  Journals  on  the  above  sub- 
jects :  notably  on  coins  and  Hindu  inscrip- 
tions :  assisted  Darwin  and  Owen  in  their 
researches :  his  collection  of  Buddhist 
marbles  from  Amravati  is  in  the  British 
Museum :  a  member  of  many  learned 
Societies  :  K.C.S.I.  in  1866  :  F.R.S.,  1877  : 
LL.D.  of  Edinbvirgh,  1878  :  became  blind, 
and  died  March  i,  1887. 

ELLIOTT,  CHARLES  (1776? -1856) 
Voluntarily  passed  through  the  college 
of  Fort  William  :  judge  of  Fatehghar  at 
30  :  judge  of  Bareli  :  Court  of  Appeal : 
Judge  of  the  Sadr  Court  at  Calcutta,  1821  : 
in  1822,  to  Delhi  as  Senior  Member  of  the 
Board,  N.W.P  :  and  A.G.G.  at  the  Court 
of  the  Great  Mogul :  returned  to  England, 
1826  :  published  a  translation  of  the  Life 
of  the  Great  Mogul:  F.R.S.  :  F.R.A.S.  : 
died  May  4,   1856. 


(1835-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  the  Rev.  H.  V.  Elliott  of 
Brighton :  born  Dec.  1835  :  educated 
at  Harrow  and  Trinity  College,  Cambridge  : 
after  open  competition,  arrived  in  India 
in  Nov.  1856  :  served  in  the  N.W.P.,  Oudh 
and  Central  Provinces :  was  Secretary 
to  the  N.W.P.  Government,  1870-7 : 
Famine  Commissioner,  Mysore,  1877 : 
C.S.I. ,  1878  :  Secretary  to  the  Famine 
Commission  (Sir  Richard  Strachey's),  1878 : 
Census  Commissioner,  1880  :  Chief  Com- 
missioner of  Assam,  1881  :  President  of 
the  Committee  for  the  retrenchment  of 
public  expenditure,  1886:  Member  of  the 
Supreme  Council,  1887-90 :  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  Bengal,  1890-5.  He  wrote 
the  Chronicles  of  Unao,  the  Reports  of  the 
Mysore  famine,  and  of  the  Famine,  and 
Finance  Commissions.  Since  his  retire- 
ment, in  1895,  he  has  been  Finance  Member 
of  the  London  School  Board,  and  Mem- 
ber of  the  Educational  Committee  of  the 
London  County  Council.  Throughout  his 
career.  Sir  Charles  ElHott  has  laboured  with 
great  energy  and  ability  in  his  various 
charges,  and  made  a  reputation  as  an 
expert  in  Settlement,  Famine,  Finance, 
and  Education. 





Son  of  Capt.  John  Elliott,  R.N. :  born 
in  1792,  entered  the  51st  regt.  in  1809, 
remained  in  it  until  1852  :  served  in  the 
Peninsula,  was  at  Waterloo,  at  Cambrai, 
in  the  Ionian  Islands,  Australia,  Van 
Diemen's  Land,  New  Zealand,  Bangalore  : 
in  1852,  he  commanded  the  Madras 
Brigade  in  the  Burmese  war,  under  Gen- 
eral Godwin :  was  at  the  capture  of  Ran- 
goon and  the  storming  of  the  Shwe-Dagon 
pagoda  in  April,  1852  :  in  the  capture  of 
Donabew :  C.B.  and  Commandant  at 
Rangoon,  where  he  detected  and  defeated 
a  plot  to  kill  all  the  English  in  that  city  : 
Maj-General  in  1857  :  K.C.B.  in  1862  : 
G.C.B.  in  1870  :  General  in  1871  :  died 
on  Feb.  27,  1874. 



I.C.S. :  born  Jan.  24,  1823:  son  of  S. 
Herbert  Ellis,  a  leading  member  of  the 
Jewish  community  :  educated  at  Univer- 
sity College  School,  London  University, 
and  Haileybury  :  went  to  Bombay  in  1843  : 
served  in  Sind  from  1851-58,  acting  for 
some  time  as  Chief  Commissioner  during 
Sir  Bartle  Frere's  absence :  was  Chief 
Secretary  to  the  Bombay  Government 
and  Member  of  Council,  Bombay,  1865- 
70  :  Member  of  the  Supreme  Council  of 
the  Governor-General,  1869-75  :  K. C.S.I, 
in  Oct.  1875,  and  Member  of  the  Council 
of  India,  1875-85  :  after  his  retirement  he 
was  an  authority  among  his  co-religionists, 
and  a  Member  and  Vice-President  of  the 
Royal  Asiatic  Society  :  died  June  20, 1887. 

ELLIS,  FRANCIS  WHYTE  (  ?  -1819) 

I.C.S.  :  Oriental  linguist  :  joined  at 
Madras  in  1796  :  Secretary  to  the  Board 
of  Revenue,  1802  :  Collector  of  Madras, 
1810  :  died  of  cholera  at  Ramnad,  March 
JO,  1 8 19.  He  was  an  excellent  Tamil  and 
Sanskrit  scholar  :  published  a  commentary 
and  translation  of  The  Sacred  Kiirral,  and 
exposed  the  forgery  of  Sanskrit  MSS.  at 
Pondicherry  by  Jesuit  missionaries  :  he 
wrote  papers  on  the  Tamil,  Telugu  and 
Malayalam  languages,  and  was  an 
expert  authority  on  "  Mirasi  right  ":  and 
on  information  regarding  the  Madras 

ELLIS,    ROBERT    STAUNTON    (1825- 

I.C.S.  :  went  out  to  Madras  in  1844  :  was 
Deputy  Commissioner  of  Nagpur  and  Super- 
intendent of  Police  in  the  mutiny  :  C.B.  : 
was  Chief  Secretary  to  the  Madras  Govern- 
ment, 1870  :  Member  of  Council  at  Madras, 
1872-7  :  retired  :  Member  of  the  Council 
of  India  in  1877  :  died  Oct.  9,  1877. 

BARON  (1807-1860) 
Governor :  and  Lt-General :  son  of 
John,  twelfth  Lord  Elphinstone :  born 
June  23,  1807  :  succeeded  his  father  in 
1813  :  entered  the  Royal  Horse  Guards 
in  1826  :  was  a  Lord-in-waiting,  1835-7  : 
G.C.H.  in  1836 :  Governor  of  Madras 
from  March  1837,  to  Sep.  1842,  during  an 
uneventful  period  :  encouraged  the  prac- 
tice of  resorting  to  the  Nilgiri  hills  for  the 
hot  weather  :  travelled  in  Kashmir  and 
Upper  India :  returned  to  England  in 
1845  :  Lord-in-waiting  again  :  Governor 
of  Bombay,  Dec.  1853,  to  May,  i860,  during 
the  mutiny,  in  which  he  showed  his 
capacity  for  administration,  suppressing 
all  risings  and  annihilating  a  conspiracy 
in  Bombay.  He  afforded  great  assistance 
to  the  Government  of  India  by  sparing 
troops  from  Bombay  for  the  disaffected 
parts  of  the  country  :  G.C.B.  in  1858  : 
raised  to  the  Peerage  of  the  United  King- 
dom, 1859  :    died  July  19,  i860. 



Governor  :  I.C.S.  :  son  of  John,  eleventh 
Baron  Elphinstone  :  born  Oct.  6,  i779  - 
educated  at  the  High  School,  Edinburgh, 
and  at  Kensington  :  went  out  to  Bengal 
as  a  "writer"  in  the  E.I.  Co.'s  service  in 
1795  '  stationed  at  Benares,  he  had  to 
ride  for  his  life  when  European  officers, 
including  Cherry,  the  Agent  to  the  Gover- 
nor-General, were  massacred  there  in 
Jan.  i799»  by  order  of  Wazir  Ah,  the  Ex- 
Nawab  of  Oudh.  In  1801  he  was  ap- 
pointed Assistant  to  Sir  Barry  Close,  the 
Resident  at  the  court  of  Baji  Rao,  the 
Peshwa  at  Poona :  at  the  battles  of 
Assaye  and  Argaum,  he  was  on  the  Staff 
of  Colonel  Arthur  Wellesley,  who  told 
him  that  he  ought  to  have  been  a  soldier. 
He  was  Resident  at  Nagpur  from  1804  to 
1808  :  was  sent  as  Envoy  to  Kabul,  with 
a  view  to  establish  English  influence  there 



against  the  supposed  French  designs  on 
India :  Shah  Shuja  received  him  at 
Peshawar  on  March  5,  1809  :  the  negotia- 
tions produced  little  result,  as  Shah  Shuja 
was  himself  ejected  from  Afghanistan  in 
1809.  Elphinstone  was  appointed  Resi- 
dent at  Poona  in  1811.  In  1815  he 
insisted  on  the  surrender  of  Trimbakji 
Danglia,  the  Peshwa's  minister,  for  the 
murder  of  Gungadhar  Sastri,  the  minister 
and  envoy  of  the  Gaekwar  of  Baroda,  at 
Poona.  In  18 17  Elphinstone  concluded 
the  treaty  dated  June  13,  of  Poona,  as 
dictated  to  the  Peshwa,  who,  however, 
continued  to  intrigue.  Elphinstone  was, 
for  a  time,  superseded  by  Sir  T.  Hislop, 
the  General  commanding  the  Army  col- 
lected against  the  Pindaris  :  the  Peshwa 
eventually  attacked  the  British  force  at 
Kirki  on  Nov.  5,  18 17,  and  was  defeated  : 
Elphinstone's  residence  at  Poona,  library, 
and  papers  were  all  burnt  :  he  himself 
showed  great  skill  and  military  courage  : 
he  annexed  the  Peshwa's  territory,  as 
ordered,  and  administered  it,  interfer- 
ing as  little  as  possible  with  native  usages. 
He  was  Governor  of  Bombay  from  Nov. 
1 8 19,  to  Nov.  1827  :  instituted  legislative 
and  judicial  reforms,  had  a  code  of  Regula- 
tions drawn  up,  and  advanced  popular 
education.  The  Elphinstone  College  was 
founded  in  his  honour.  He  travelled  in 
Europe,  1827-9,  and  led  a  retired  life  : 
twice  refused  the  offer  of  the  Governor- 
Generalship  of  India,  and  declined  the 
Under  Secretaryship  of  the  Board  of 
Control  and  a  special  mission  to  Canada. 
He  wrote  An  Account  of  the  Kingdom  of 
Caubul  and  its  Dependencies  in  Persia, 
Tartary  and  India,  1815  :  his  History  of 
India,  1841,  for  which  he  was  called 
the  Tacitus  of  modern  historians  :  and 
The  Rise  of  British  Power  in  the  East, 
edited  in  1887  by  Sir  E.  Colebrooke.  He 
was  not  ambitious,  occupied  his  time 
with  study,  and  maintained  his  interest 
in  Indian  affairs,  being  regarded  as  the 
Nestor  of  Indian  statesmanship.  He  was 
a  Vice-President  of  the  Royal  Asiatic 
Society.  He  combined  through  life  a 
keenness  for  field  sports  with  his  love  of 
books  and  the  despatch  of  public  business. 
Bishop  Heber  wrote  of  him,  "  Of  Mr. 
Elphinstone  everybody  spoke  highly "  : 
no  Indian  civilian  has  gained  a  greater 
name  as  a  statesman  and  a  ruler.  He 
died  Nov.  20,  1859  :  a  statue  was  erected 
in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  in  his  honour. 

KEITH  (1782-1842) 

Maj-General  :  son  of  Hon.  William 
FuUerton  Elphinstone,  Director  of  the 
E.I.  Co.  :  entered  the  Army,  1804,  in  the 
24th  foot  :  served  with  distinction  in 
various  parts  of  the  world  :  Lt-Colonel 
of  the  33rd  foot  in  1813,  and  served  with 
it  at  Waterloo  :  made  C.B.  :  A.D.C.  to 
George  IV.  1825  :  became  Maj-General, 
1837  :  commanded  the  Benares  Division, 
1839-41,  when,  in  the  first  Afghan  war, 
he  succeeded  Sir  Willoughby  Cotton  as 
Commander  in  Chief  at  Kabul,  towards 
the  close  of  1841,  and,  on  the  murder  of 
Sir  W.  Macnaghten,  on  December  23, 
1 841,  failed  entirely,  through  old  age  and 
ill-health,  to  take  measures  for  the  safety 
of  the  force.  During  the  disastrous  retreat 
of  the  Army  from  Kabul,  in  Jan.  1842,  he 
surrendered  as  a  hostage  of  Akbar  Khan  : 
and  died  of  dysentery  at  Tezin  on  April 
23,  1842. 

ELSMIE,  GEORGE  ROBERT  (1838-    ) 

I.C.S.  :  Born  Oct.  31,  1838  :  son  of 
George  Elsmie :  educated  at  Marischal 
College  and  University,  Aberdeen,  and 
Haileybury :  joined  the  Bengal  Civil 
Service,  1858  :  Judge,  Chief  Court,  Pan- 
jab,  1878-85  :  Financial  Commissioner, 
Panjab,  1887-93  :  Member  of  the  Governor- 
General's  Legislative  Council,  1888-93  : 
Vice-Chancellor,  Panjab  University,  1885- 
7.  Author  of  Epitome  of  Kabul  Corre- 
spondence, 1864  ;  Notes  on  Peshawar  Crime, 
1884;  Lumsden  of  the  Guides,  1899;  Field 
Marshal  Sir  Donald  Stewart,  1903  :  C.S.I. , 

EMPSON,  WILLIAM  (1791-1852) 

Born  in  1791  :  educated  at  Winchester 
and  Trinity  College,  Cambridge  :  B.A., 
1812  :  between  1823  and  1849  wrote 
largely  for  the  Edinburgh  Review,  "  a 
valued  contributor  on  political,  legal,  and 
literary  subjects  "  :  he  edited  the  Review 
from  1849  to  1852.  His  friendship  with 
Dr.  Arnold,  begun  at  Winchester,  con- 
tinued through  life.  He  was  appointed 
in  1824  Professor  of  Polity  and  the  Laws 
of  England  at  the  E.I.  Co.'s  College, 
Haileybury.  His  lectures,  especially  those 
on  general  jurisprudence  and  Indian  law, 
were  much  appreciated  by  the  better 
students.  He  was  much  liked  by  his 
pupils,   over  whom  he   had  considerable 



influence.  "  To  form  the  mind  of  those 
young  men,  many  of  whom,  as  magistrates 
and  judges,  were  to  affect  the  interests  of 
thousands  and  millions,  was  to  him  a 
duty  of  a  solemn,  or  rather  of  a  sacred, 
kind."     He  died  Dec.  10,  1852. 

ENGLAND,  SIR  RICHARD  (1793-1883) 

Son  of  Lt-General  Richard  England  : 
born  in  1793  :  educated  at  Winchester 
and  the  Royal  Military  College,  Marlow : 
entered  the  Army  in  1808  :  served  in  the 
Walcheren  expedition,  Sicily,  Canada,  at 
the  Cape  as  Brig. -General,  in  the  Kafir 
war,  1836-7  :  went  to  Belgaum  in  1839: 
commanded  a  Bombay  Division  in  1841  : 
after  a  repulse  at  Haikalzai  on  March  28, 
1842,  he  joined  General  Nott  at  Kandahar, 
and  in  the  defeat  of  Akbar  Khan  at  the 
Kojak  :  in  the  retirement  in  1842  from 
Kandahar,  he  commanded  tho  force 
through  the  Bolan  into  Sind  :  but  his 
operations  were  generally  wanting  in 
success  :  K.C.B.  in  1843  :  commanded  a 
Division  in  the  Crimea  in  1854-5,  and 
was  at  Alma,  Inkerman,  the  Redan,  and 
distinguished  himself :  G.C.B.,  1856 : 
General,  1863  :  retired,  1877  :  died  Jan. 
19,   1883. 

ENGLISH,  FREDERICK  (1816-1878) 

Maj -General :  entered  the  Army  in 
1833  :  in  the  mutiny,  with  a  wing  of  the 
53rd  regt.,  defeated  1,000  mutineers, 
chiefly  of  the  Ramghar  battalion  :  C.B.  : 
cleared  Bihar  and  defeated  mutineers  at 
Gopalganj  :  in  a  number  of  other  actions  : 
commanded  the  53rd  at  the  siege  and 
capture  of  Lucknow :  at  Faizabad  and 
Tulsipur  :  Maj-General,  1864  :  died  Nov. 
5,  1878. 



I.C.S.  :  son  of  William  Erskine  iq.v.)  : 
born  1832  :  arrived  at  Bombay,  1853  : 
Commissioner  of  the  Northern  Division, 
1877-9  '  Commissioner  in  Sind,  1879- 
87  :   died  Dec.  4,  1893. 


I.  C.S.  :  son  of  William  Erskine  (q.v.)  : 
born  May  20,  1821  :  educated  at 
St.  Andrew's  and  Haileybury  :  went  to 
Bombay,    1840 :    was   Private   Secretary, 

1843-6,  to  Sir  G.  Arthur,  Governor  of 
Bombay :  Secretary  to  Government  of 
Bombay  in  the  General  and  Judicial 
Department,  1854  :  first  Director  of  Public 
Instruction  in  W.  India,  1855-9  •  Addi- 
tional Member  of  the  Governor-General's 
Legislative  Council,  i860  :  Vice-Chancellor 
of  the  Calcutta  University :  Judge  of 
the  Bombay  High  Court,  1862-3  *•  Member 
of  Council,  Bombay,  Oct.  1865,  to  May 
1867  :  retured,  1867  :  died  June  5,  1893. 

ERSKINE,  WILLIAM  (1773-1852) 
Son  of  David  Erskine  :  bom  Nov.  8, 
1773  :  educated  at  the  Royal  High  School 
and  Edinburgh  University  :  was  a  lawyer's 
apprentice,  1792-9  :  went  to  India  in 
1803-4  with  Sir  James  Mackintosh  :  at 
Bombay  he  became  clerk  to  the  Small 
Cause  Court,  a  stipendiary  magistrate. 
Secretary  and  Vice-President  to  the 
Literary  Society — to  which  he  contributed 
numerous  articles  on  the  Parsis,  their 
language,  religion  and  literature,  and  on 
the  Buddhists,  etc.  :  became  Master  in 
Equity  in  the  Recorder's  Court  in  1820  : 
was  a  Member  of  Mountstuart  Elphin- 
stone's  Committee  for  framing  the  Bom- 
bay code  of  Regulations  :  he  left  India  in 
1823,  having  lost  his  legal  offices  on  a 
charge  of  defalcations  :  in  1826  he  pub- 
lished his  translation  of  Babar's  autobio- 
graphical memoirs  from  a  Persian  version, 
with  a  full  commentary,  a  standard  work. 
He  was  Provost  of  St.  Andrew's,  1836-9  : 
died  at  Edinburgh,  May  20,  1852  :  wrote 
History  of  India  under  Babar  and  Hum- 
ayun,  edited  by  his  son,  1854. 

ESDAILE,  JAMES  (1808-1859) 

Son  of  Rev.  Dr.  Esdaile  :  born  Feb.  6, 
1808  :  graduated  as  M.D.  at  Edinburgh 
in  1830  :  reached  Calcutta  in  the  E.I. 
Co.'s  medical  service  in  1831  :  in  charge 
of  the  Hughli  hospital  in  1838  :  devoted 
himself  to  the  study  of  mesmerism  and 
performed  some  surgical  operations  by 
its  aid  as  an  anaesthetic  with  remarkable 
success  :  his  experiments  were  scientifi- 
cally investigated,  and  he  was  made 
Superintendent  of  a  small  hospital  for 
mesmerism  in  1846,  and  Presidency 
Surgeon.  DisUking  India,  he  retired  in 
1851  :  wrote  Mesmerism  in  India  and  its 
Practical  Application  in  Surgery  and 
Medicine,  Natural  and  Mesmeric  Clairvoy- 
ance and  other  medical  works  :  died  J  an. 
10,  1859. 



ETHE,    G.   HERMANN  (1844-        ) 

Born  Feb.  13,  1844  :  grandson  of  Karl 
Laphe :  educated  at  Greifswald  and 
Leipzig  Universities  :  came  to  Oxford  in 
1872  to  complete  Catalogue  of  Persian, 
Turkish,  Hindustani  and  Pashtu  MSS., 
in  Bodleian  Library,  and  to  compile 
Catalogue  of  Arabic  MSS.  :  catalogued 
Persian  MSS.  in  India  Ofifice  Library : 
Public  Examiner  for  Honours  School  of 
Oriental  Languages,  Oxford,  1887-9,  and 
since  1893  :  Professor  of  German  and 
Oriental  Languages,  University  College, 
Aberystwyth,  since  1875. 

PUGH  (1840-1902) 

Son  of  John  Evans,  of  Lovesgrove : 
born  Jan.  13,  1840  :  educated  at  Bradfield 
and  Lincoln  College,  Oxford  (Scholar)  : 
called  to  the  bar  from  Lincoln's  Inn, 
1867  :  joined  the  bar  of  the  High  Court, 
Calcutta :  Member  of  the  Governor- 
General's  Legislative  Council,  1877  to 
1899  :  K.C.I.E.  in  1892  :  acting  Advocate - 
General  and  Member  of  the  Bengal  Legis- 
lative Council,  1895  :  he  took  a  promin- 
ent part,  on  behalf  of  the  public,  in  the 
arrangements  for  composing  the  contro- 
versy over  the  "  Ilbert  Bill  "  in  1883  : 
died  Feb.   6,   1902. 



Son  of  John  Evans  :  born  May  25, 
1767  :  educated  at  Harrow  :  an  attorney 
from  1789  to  1794,  when  he  was  called  to 
the  bar  from  Gray's  Inn  :  wrote  on  legal 
and  political  questions  :  was  a  stipendiary 
magistrate  at  Manchester,  1813  :  Vice- 
Chancellor  of  the  County  Palatine  of  Lan- 
caster, 1815  :  in  1819  he  became  Recorder 
of  Bombay  and  was  knighted  :  but  died 
there  Dec.  5,  1821. 

EVEREST,    SIR   GEORGE   (1790-1866) 

Surveyor-General  of  India  :  born  July 
4,  1790  :  son  of  Tristram  Everest  :  edu- 
cated at  Great  Marlow  and  Woolwich  : 
went  to  India  in  1806  to  the  Bengal 
Artillery :  selected  by  Sir  Stamford 
Raffles  to  survey  Java,  18 13-5  :  Chief 
Assistant  of  the  Great  Trigonometrical 
Survey,  1817  :  succeeded  Colonel  Lambton 
as  Superintendent  of  the  Great  Trigono- 
metrical   Survey,    1823  :     F.R.S.,    1827  : 

studied  the  English  ordnance  survey : 
was  appointed  by  the  Court  of  Directors 
to  be  Surveyor  General  of  India,  1830  : 
also  engaged  in  measurements  of  the  great 
Arc  of  Meridian  of  India,  21  degrees  in 
length,  from  Cape  Comorin  to  the  Northern 
frontier,  1832-41  :  Lt-Colonel,  1838  : 
retired  in  1843  :  published  in  1847  an 
account  of  his  work  on  the  great  Meri- 
dional Arc  of  India  between  two  base 
lines  :  Member  of  the  Council  of  the  Royal 
and  Geographical  Societies  :  Fellow  of  the 
Astronomical  and  Royal  Asiatic  Societies  : 
C.B. :  and  knighted  in  1861  :  died  Dec.  i, 
1866  :  Mount  Everest,  29,002  feet  high,  in 
the  Himalayas  on  the  borders  of  Nipal  and 
Tibet,  the  highest  known  mountain  in  the 
world,  was  named  after  him. 

AUGUST  (1803-1875) 

Born  at  Gottingen,  Nov.  1803  :  a 
celebrated  Oriental  scholar  :  educated  at 
Gottingen  University  :  at  20  was  a  Pro- 
fessor at  the  College  of  Wolfenbuttel : 
held  the  Chairs  of  Philosophy  and  Oriental 
languages  and  theology  at  Gottingen  : 
when  suspended,  for  political  reasons, 
in  1837,  he  came  to  England,  but  returned 
to  Gottingen  :  became  a  member  of  the 
German  Parliament :  author  of  many 
critical  works,  especially  on  the  Hebrew 
language  and  Biblical  history  :   died  1875. 



Born  June  11,  1821  :  son  of  Lt-General 
John  Frederick  Ewart,  C.B.  :  educated 
at  Sandhmrst :  joined  the  35th  regt., 
1838  :  exchanged  to  93rd  Highlanders, 
1848  :  served  in  Crimea  and  Indian 
mutiny :  at  Alma,  Balaclava,  Inker- 
man  and  siege  of  Sebastopol :  at  relief 
of  Lucknow  :  commanded  the  leading 
party  of  stormers  at  the  assault  of  the 
Sikandarbagh  :  severely  wounded  :  lost 
his  left  arm  by  a  cannon-ball  at  Cawnpur 
in  Dec.  1857  :  C.B.  :  Lt-Colonel  of  93rd 
Highlanders,  1858  :  commanded  78th 
Highlanders,  1859-64  :  A.D.C.  to  Queen 
Victoria  :  Maj -General,  1872  :  Lt-General, 
1877  :  commanded  the  Allahabad  Divi- 
sion in  India,  1877-80  :  General,  1884  : 
K.C.B.,  1887  :  recommended  for  the  V.C.  : 
died  June  18,  1904 :  author  of  A  few 
Remarks  about  the  British  Army,  and  The 
Story  of  a  Soldier's  Life. 




EWART,  SIR  JOSEPH  (1831-  ) 
Born  1831  :  son  of  Andrew  Ewart : 
educated  privately :  entered  the  E.I. 
Co.'s  medical  service,  1854  :  served  in  the 
Mewar  Bheel  Corps  in  the  Indian  mutiny  : 
Professor  of  Medicine,  Calcutta  :  retired 
as  Deputy  Surgeon-General,  1879.  Author 
of  several  works  relating  to  Indian  Sanita- 
tion, Pathology  and  Snake  Poisoning : 
Mayor  of  Brighton,  189 1-4 :  Knight 
Bachelor,   1895. 

EWER,  WALTER  (1784-1863) 
I.C.S.:  son  of  a  Governor  of  the  settlement 
at  Bencoolen  :  privately  educated  :  joined 
the  Bengal  Civil  Service  in  1803  :  distin- 
guished at  the  College  of  Fort  William  : 
employed  at  Rajshahi,  at  Amboyna, 
again  at  Rajshahi,  1816  :  Superintendent 
of  Police  in  Bengal,  Bihar,  and  Orissa, 
and  the  conquered  and  ceded  Provinces 
for  10  years  :  Judge  of  the  Sadr  Court, 
N.W.P.,  until  he  resigned  in  1839-40 : 
well  versed  in  music  and  astronomy  : 
read  the  inscriptions  on  the  Kutb  at  Delhi 
in  1822  through  his  telescope  :  F.R.G.S.  : 
F.R.S.  :  died  in  London,  Jan.  5,  1863. 

EYRE,  HENRY  (1834-  ) 
Born  Feb.  4,  1834  :  son  of  Rev.  C.  W. 
Eyre  :  educated  at  Harrow  and  Christ 
Church,  Oxford :  joined  2nd  Battalion 
Rifle  Brigade,  1855  :  present  at  siege  and 
fall  of  Sebastopol :  A.D.C.  to  Lt-General, 
Sir  W.  Eyre,  1855  :  served  with  Rifle 
Brigade  through  the  Indian  mutiny, 
1857-8  :  present  at  taking  of  Lucknow, 
siege  of  Kalpi,  etc.  :  commanded  4th 
Notts  R.V.,  1865-92  :    C.B.,  1897. 

EYRE,  SIR  VINCENT  (1811-1881) 

General:  son  of  Capt.  Henry  Eyre: 
born  Jan.  22,  1811  :  educated  at  Norwich 
Grammar  School,  and  at  Addiscombe : 
joined  the  Bengal  Artillery,  1828  :  was, 
in  1839,  Commissary  of  Ordnance  to  the 
Kabul  Field  Force  :  took  ordnance  stores 
to  Kabul  in  1840  :  after  the  rising  in 
Nov.  1 84 1,  Eyre  and  his  family  started, 
in  Jan.  1842,  for  India,  but  were  detained 
by  Akbar  Khan  as  hostages  :  he  pub- 
lished a  journal  of  his  9  months'  captivity, 
which  terminated  on  Sep.  21,  1842  :  he 
returned  to  India  with  Pollock's  force  : 
commanded  the  Artillery  of  the  Gwalior 
contingent,  1844  :  was  at  Thayetmyo  in 
Burma  in  1857,  but  was  recalled"  to  India  : 


on  his  way  up  country  in  July,  he  heard 
at  Baxar  of  the  siege  of  Arrah,  that  is,  of 
some  Government  officers  being  besieged 
there  by  mutineers  :  after  severe  fighting 
he  effected  their  relief,  and  defeated  Kooer 
Singh  of  Jagdishpur,  all  on  his  own 
responsibility  :  he  was  recommended  for 
the  Victoria  Cross  :  was  at  the  reUef  of 
Lucknow  in  Sep.  1857,  commanded  the 
Artillery  at  the  Alambagh  :  at  the  capture 
of  Lucknow  in  March,  1858  :  C.B.  and 
Lt-Colonel :  Superintendent  of  the  Isha- 
pur  Powder  Factory:  on  the  Army 
Amalgamation  Commission,  and  Inspr- 
General  of  Ordnance,  1862  :  retired, 
1863  :  K.C.S.I.,  1867  :  in  the  Franco- 
Prussian  war  he  organized  an  ambulance 
service  for  the  sick  and  wounded  :  died 
Sep.  22,  1881  :  had  great  qualities  as  an 
officer,  in  literature,  and  in  private  life. 

FIRST  VISCOUNT  (1757-1833) 

Son  of  Samuel  Pellew  :  born  April  19, 
1757  :  educated  at  Truro  :  entered  the 
Navy,  1770  :  served  with  great  gallantry 
in  various  parts  of  the  world  :  and  was 
made  a  Baronet  in  1796  :  M.P.  for  Barn- 
staple, 1802  :  Naval  C.  in  C.  in  the  East 
Indies  in  1804,  and  Rear  Admiral  :  de- 
stroyed the  Dutch  ships  of  war,  1807 : 
enforced  strict  discipline,  and  reduced  the 
amount  of  punishment :  Vice  Admiral,. 
1808,  returned  to  England  :  C.  in  C.  in 
the  North  Sea,  1810 :  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean, 181 1  :  at  Plymouth,  1817-21  : 
made  a  Peer,  1814  :  K.C.B.  and  G.C.B., 
1815  :  bombarded  Algiers,  1816 :  died 
Jan.  23,  1833. 


Danish  Missionary  :  native  of  Frank- 
fort-on-the-Maine  :  graduate  of  Halle  :  a 
Lutheran  :  arrived  in  India,  1740  :  went 
to  Madras  in  service  of  S.P.C.K.,  1742  : 
assisted  at  the  English  Church  when  re- 
quired :  when  Fort  St.  George  surrendered 
to  the  French,  1746,  he  took  refuge  at  the 
Dutch  settlement  at  Pulicat :  and  again,, 
when  Count  Lally  and  his  army  appeared 
in  Dec.  1758  :  returned,  on  the  raising  of 
the  siege,  to  Vepery  :  plundered  by  the 
Muhammadans :  ministered  at  Vellore, 
1772-3  :  up  to  1780,  greatly  trusted  by 
Government  and  the  people  :  mismanaged 
the  fimds  :    imprisoned  for  debt  for   iS 



months,  1787-9  :  relieved  by  Gericke 
iq.v.)  in  1788,  as  head  of  the  Vepery 
Mission  and  school :  died  there,  1791  '•  a 
Tamil  scholar :  partly  translated  the 
New  Testament  into  Tamil :  compiled  a 
Tamil  Dictionary,  and  wrote  Lyrics  in 

FORBES  (  ? ,-    ) 

Educated  at  Harrow  :  joined  the  Army, 
1875  :  Lt-Colonel,  1901  :  served  in  the 
Afghan  war,  1879-80  :  Asst.  Dist.  Super- 
intendent of  Police,  Panjab,  1885  :  Assist- 
ant Resident,  Hyderabad,  1892  :  Assistant 
Political  Agent,  Bussora,  1897  :  Political 
Agent,  Muscat,  1898,  Kotah,  1900  : 
Political  Agent,  Ulwar,  Rajputana,  since 

FALCONER,    FORBES    (1805-1853) 

Born  Sep.  10,  1805  :  son  of  Gilbert 
Falconer  :  educated  at  Marischal  College, 
Aberdeen :  early  studied  Oriental  lan- 
guages, Hebrew,  Arabic,  Persian  at 
Aberdeen,  at  Paris  for  5  years,  and  at 
German  Universities  :  Professor  of  Oriental 
Languages  at  University  College,  London  : 
translated  from  the  Bostan,  and  two 
poems  of  J  ami,  and  other  poets  :  pub- 
lished a  Persian  Grammar :  M.R.A.S., 
London  and  Paris  :   died  Nov.  7,  1853. 

FALCONER,  HUGH  (1808-1865) 

Botanist :  son  of  David  Falconer : 
born  Feb.  29,  1808  :  educated  at  Forres 
and  Aberdeen  University :  M.D.  of 
Edinburgh  in  1829  :  studied  geology  and 
Indian  fossils :  joined  the  E.I.  Co.'s 
medical  service  in  Bengal,  1830 :  suc- 
ceeded Dr.  Roylein  1832  as  Superintendent 
of  the  Botanic  Gardens,  Saharanpur  : 
made,  with  other  officers,  important  dis- 
coveries of  fossils,  mammals  and  reptiles 
in  the  Sivalik  hills  :  served  on  the  Tea 
Commission  of  1834,  and  superintended 
the  manufacture  of  the  first  Indian  tea  : 
he  travelled  in  1837-8  to  Kashmir  and 
Beluchistan,  and  in  the  Astor  Valley  dis- 
covered assafaetida :  contributed  many 
plants  and  fruit  trees  from  Kashmir  to 
Saharanpur :  while  in  England,  1843- 
7,  he  wrote  on  geology,  fossils  and 
botany,  his  botanical  collections  and  work 
being  subsequently  utilized  :  was  engaged 
on  the  arrangement  and  exhibition  of 
Indian  fossils  in  the  British  Museum  :    he 

commenced  the  publication  of  the  Fauna 
Antigua  Sivalensis.  From  1848  to  1855  he 
was,  on  Dr.  Wallich's  death.  Superinten- 
dent of  the  Botanic  Garden  at  Sibpur, 
Howrah,  opposite  to  Calcutta  :  Professor 
of  Botany  in  the  Calcutta  Medical  College  : 
and  adviser  of  the  Government  of  India 
on  vegetable  products:  wrote  on  teak, 
cinchona,  fossils,  etc.  :  after  retirement, 
he  continued  his  studies  in  palaeontology, 
fossil  mammals  and  pre-historic  man: 
visited  museums,  served  on  a  Royal  Com- 
mission on  the  sanitary  condition  of 
India,  writing  papers  on  his  own  subjects  : 
F.R.S.  in  1845  :  Vice-President  of  the 
Royal  Society  :  he  died  Jan.  31,  1865. 
A  selection  of  his  palaeontological  papers 
was  published  under  the  editorship  of  Dr. 


,  (1803-1884) 

Son  of  the  ninth  Viscount :  Lord  of  the 
Bedchamber  to  King  William  IV,  1830, 
and  to  Queen  Victoria,  1839  :  representa- 
tive Peer  of  Scotland,  183 1-2  :  made  a 
Peer  of  the  United  Kingdom  :  Lord-in- 
Waiting,  1837-9  :  Governor  of  Nova 
Scotia,  1840-f  •  Captain  of  the  Yeomen  of 
the  Guard,  1846-8  :  Governor  of  Bom- 
bay, 1848-53  :  G.C.H.,  1831  :  P.C, 
1837  :  died  at  Montpelier,  France,  March 
12,  1884. 

FALLON,  S.  W.  (1817-1880) 

Born  at  Calcutta,  1817 :  entered  the 
Bengal  Education  Department  in  his  20th 
year  :  was  Inspector  of  Schools  :  in  1857, 
published  a  Hindustani-English  Law  and 
Commercial  Dictionary :  Phil.  Dr.  of 
Halle  :  published,  1875-9,  his  Hindustani- 
English  Dictionary,  illustrated  from  Hin- 
dustani literature  and  folklore  :  and  part 
of  an  English-Hindustani  Dictionary : 
retired,  1875  :  resided  at  Delhi  :  to 
England,  1880  :   died  Oct.  3,  1880. 

FANE,  SIR  HENRY  (1778-1840) 

General :  born  Nov.  26,  1778  :  son  of 
Hon.  Henry  Fane,  and  grandson  of  the 
eighth  Earl  of  Westmoreland :  entered 
the  Dragoon  Guards,  1792  :  M.P.  for  Lyme 
Regis,  then  a  family  borough,  1796-1818  : 
Lt-Colonel,  i797  :  A.D.C.  to  George  III.  : 
saw  much  service,  chiefly  in  cavalry  com- 
mands, through  the  Peninsular  campaign  : 



K.C.B.  :  Lt-General,  1819  :  G.C.B., 
1825  :  Master-General  of  the  Ordnance  and 
M.P.  for  Sandwich,  1829  :  General,  1837  : 
C.  in  C.  in  India,  1835-9  :  objected  so 
strongly  to  the  policy  of  the  first  Afghan 
war  that  he  resigned  his  appointment,  but 
his  resignation  was  not  accepted :  his 
health  failing,  he  resigned  again  in  1839, 
and  died  on  the  voyage  home,  off  the 
Azores,  on  March  24,  1840. 

FANE,  WALTER  (1828-1885) 

Son  of  Rev.  Edward  Fane  :  born  1828  : 
entered  the  Army,  1845  :  in  the  Pan  jab 
Irregular  Cavalry,  1849-57 :  in  several 
N.W.  frontier  expeditions  :  in  the  pursuit 
and  capture  of  Tantia  Topi,  1859  :  Cap- 
tain, i860  :  in  the  Madras  Staff  Corps  : 
Colonel,  1875  :  raised  a  regiment  of 
irregular  cavalry  for  the  China  war,  i860  : 
at  the  Peiho  forts  :  commanded  "  Fane's 
Horse  "  at  Sinho,  Chinkiawhaw,  and  the 
capture  of  Pekin :  C.B.  :  Maj-General, 
1879  :    died  June  16,   1885. 


(1848-         ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Rev.  J.  Fanshawe  : 
educated  at  Repton  :  entered  the  Bengal 
Civil  Service,  1871  :  served  in  the  Central 
Provinces  :  Postmaster  General,  Bombay, 
1882  :  Officiating  Secretary  in  the  Finance 
and  Commerce  Department  to  the  Govern- 
ment of  India,  1888  :  Director-General 
of  the  Post  Office,  India,  1889  :  C.S.I., 
1896  :  K.C.I.E.,  1903. 


(  ?  -1771) 
Son  of  Muhammad  Khan  Bangash, 
ISTawab  :  collected  a  force  of  Afghans  and 
defeated  and  slew  the  Deputy  of  the  Wazir 
Safdar  Jang,  who  had  confiscated  terri- 
tories belonging  to  his  family,  1750  '• 
the  Wazir  called  in  the  Mahrattas,  which 
led  to  his  ultimate  ruin  :  reigned  till  his 
death  in  Nov.   1771. 

FARQUHAR,  JOHN  (1761-1826) 

Born  in  175 1  of  poor  parents  in  Scot- 
land :  went  to  Bombay  in  the  E.I.  Co.'s 
military  service  :  incapacitated  for  active 
service  by  a  wound  :  transferred  to  Bengal : 
became  a  free  merchant  and  learnt 
chemistry.  Lord  Cornwallis  employed 
Jhim  to  inquire  into  the  circumstances  of 

the  Government  gunpowder  factory  at 
Pulta  :  made  Superintendent  of  the  factory, 
and,  later,  sole  contractor  :  thus  acquired 
a  fortune :  returned  to  England,  and  be- 
came partner  in  the  agency  house,  Basset, 
Farquhar  &  Co.,  and  in  Whitbread's 
Brewery,  He  was  a  curious  mixture  of 
penuriousness  and  largeness  in  expendi- 
ture at  his  pleasure  :  bought  Fonthill  Abbey 
in  1822  for  ;f 330,000  :  he  was  a  good 
scholar,  excellent  in  the  sciences,  and 
greatly  admired  the  Brahmanical  system  : 
died  July  6,  1826,  leaving  a  million  and  a 


(1821-    ) 

Son  of  Rev.  Christian  Nissen  FausboU  : 
born  Sep.  22,  1821,  in  Jutland  :  educated 
at  a  Latin  Grammar  School,  Aarhus,  1834 
-8  :  and  at  Copenhagen  University  from 
1838,  studying  Oriental  languages  under 
N.  L.  Westergaard  {q.v.)  :  University 
Gold  Medallist,  1843  :  Assistant  Librarian 
at  the  University  Library,  Copenhagen, 
1861-78  :  Professor  of  Indian  Philology 
and  Sanskrit  at  that  University,  1 878-1 902  : 
Member  of  Royal  Danish  Society  of  Sciences, 
1876  :  Bopp's  Prizeman,  1888  :  Hon. 
M.R.A.S.  1890  :  Commander  of  the  Order  of 
Dannebrog,  and  possessor  of  the  Silver  Cross 
of  that  Order  :  founded  the  study  of  Pali  in 
Europe,  and  was  called  the  "  Father  of 
Pali  study  "  :  has  published  the  Dhammap- 
adani,  1855  :  the  Suttanipata,  1-2,  1885- 
94  :  the  Jataka,  1-7,  1877-97  :  an  Indian 
Mythology  according  to  the  Mahabharata, 

FAWCETT,    HENRY   (1833-1884) 

Son  of  William  Fawcett,  J.P.  :  born  Aug. 
26,  1833  :  educated  at  Alderbury,  Queen- 
wood,  King's  College,  London,  Peterhouse 
and  Trinity  Hall,  Cambridge :  seventh 
Wrangler  and  Fellow,  1856  :  totally  lost 
his  sight  by  an  accident  out  shooting,  Sep. 
1858 :  wrote  a  Manual  of  Political  Economy, 
and  frequently  on  political  and  economic 
subjects  :  elected  Professor  of  Pol.  Econy. 
at  Cambridge,  1863  :  M.P.  for  Brighton, 
1865  and  1868  :  for  Hackney,  1874  and 
1880 :  adopted,  as  a  Radical  member,  an 
independent  line  in  public  measures  :  for 
his  marked  interest  in  Indian  affairs  he 
was  known  as  the  "  Member  for  India  "  : 
dwelling  on  the  poverty  of  India,  he 
strenuously  advocated  economy,  justice 
to  the  Indian  revenues,   and  the  native 



interests.  Thus,  he  opposed  the  charging 
of  the  Ball  to  the  Sultan  (1867)  upon  Indian 
revenues  :  by  his  persistence  the  Com- 
mittees on  Indian  finance  were  appointed 
1 871-4  :  he  spoke  fully  and  forcibly  on 
Indian  budgets  :  was  a  member  of  the 
Committee  on  Indian  Public  Works,  1878  : 
opposed  the  Malta  expedition,  1878,  and 
the  debit  of  any  of  the  charge  to  India  : 
opposed  the  Afghan  war,  1878-80  :  wrote 
on  Indian  Finance  in  the  Nineteenth 
Century,  1879  :  his  views,  though  con- 
tested at  the  time,  since  generally  accepted : 
his  knowledge  and  character  gained  him 
great  respect  and  influence  in  Indian 
affairs :  as  Postmaster-General,  from 
1880,  effected  many  administrative  im- 
provements :  P.C.  :  F.R.S.,  1882  :  D.C.L. 
Oxford,  1881:  Doctor  of  Political  Economy, 
Wurzburg,  1882  :  a  corresponding  member 
of  the  Institute  of  France,  1884  :  LL.D. 
and  Lord  Rector  of  Glasgow  University, 
1883  :  died  at  Cambridge,  Nov.  6,  1884  : 
a  national  monument  to  him  placed  in 
Westminster  Abbey. 

FAY,    MRS.    (     ?     -1817) 

Wife  of  Anthony  Fay,  a  barrister  of 
Lincoln's  Inn,  who  went  to  India  to 
practise  in  the  courts  of  Calcutta  :  they 
travelled  via  Egypt  and  the  Red  Sea  : 
their  ship  touched  at  Calicut,  where  they 
were  seized  by  Hyder  All's  officers  and 
imprisoned  for  15  weeks,  suffering  hard- 
ships and  privations  :  they  escaped  and 
reached  Madras  in  1779-80,  and  proceeded 
to  Calcutta.  She  published  an  account 
of  her  travels  from  England  to  Calcutta, 
Original  Letters  from  India,  Calcutta,  18 17, 
dying  there  during  their  publication. 


(1824-  ) 

Born  Dec.  6,  1824  :  son  of  Commander 
Robert  J.  Fayrer,  R.N.  :  educated  at 
King's  College,  London  and  Edinburgh  : 
M.D.,  1859  :  entered  the  Bengal  medical 
service,  1850  :  served  in  the  first  Burmese 
war,  throughout  the  Indian  mutiny,  and 
defence  of  Lucknow,  where  he  was  Re- 
sidency Surgeon  from  Aug.  1853  :  and 
Civil  Surgeon  :  Professor,  Medical  College, 
Calcutta :  Surgeon-General :  Fellow  of 
the  Calcutta  University  :  President  of  the 
Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  1867  :  C.S.I., 
1867  :  President,  Medical  Board,  India 
Office,     1874-95  :      accompanied    H.R.H. 

the  Duke  of  Edinburgh  on  his  Indian  tour, 
1869-70,  and  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales 
on  his  Indian  tour,  1875-6 :  author  of 
The  Thanatophidia  of  India  :  of  many 
medical  works  on  Tropical  Diseases : 
Life  of  Sir  Ranald  Martin,  C.B.,  Recol- 
lections of  My  Life,  etc.  :  K.C.S.I.  :  first 
Baronet,  1896  :  Physician  Extraordinary 
to  H.M.  the  King  since  1901  :  F.R.C.P.  : 
F.R.S.  :  LL.D.,  Edinburgh  :  Member  of 
many  foreign  Medical  Academies :  and 
President  and  Member  of  Medical  Societies 
in  England. 

FEER,   HENRI  LEON  (1830-1902) 

Born  at  Rouen,  Nov.  22,  1830  :  Pro- 
fessor of  Tibetan,  1864,  at  the  Bibliotheque 
Nationale,  Paris,  and  at  the  £cole  des 
Langues  Orientales,  1865  :  Lecturer  in 
Tibetan  and  Mongol  at  the  College  de 
France,  1869  :  Librarian  of  the  MSS. 
Department  of  the  National  Library, 
Paris,  1872  :  and,  later,  Conservateur- 
Ad joint  :  wrote  in  the  learned  French 
Reviews  :  knew  Tibetan,  Mongol,  Sanskrit 
and  Pali :  translated  from  Tibetan  :  was 
learned  in  Buddhist  literature  :  by  his 
translations,  made  known  the  Buddhist 
literature  of  Nipal  and  Tibet  :  wrote  for 
the  Grande  Encyclopedie  and  the  lournal 
Asiatique :  edited  Pali  texts  :  wrote 
Textes  tires  du  Kandjour :  translated  from 
the  Tibetan  :  Etudes  Buddhiques,  1871-85  : 
Le  Thibet,  pays,  peuple,  et  religion,  1886  : 
edited  the  Samyutta-Nikaya  for  the  Pali 
Text  Society :  Member  of  the  Societe 
Asiatique  from  1856,  of  its  Council,  1869  : 
died  March,  10,  1902. 

FENDALL,  JOHN  (1762  ?  -1825) 

I.C.S.  :    to   India   as   a  writer  in  1777 
became  a  Puisne  Judge  of  the  Sa-ir  Court 
Sep.  9,  1817  :  Chief  Judge,  1819  :  Member 
of  the  Supreme  Council,  May  20,   1820  :: 
died  Nov.  10.  1825. 

FENWICK,    GEORGE  ROE   (  ?  - 


Major  :  served  in  the  Crimea  :  to  India 
as  a  Captain  with  his  regt.,  the  93rd  High- 
landers :  contributed  to  the  Englishman 
in  Calcutta  :  joined  its  staff  as  Assistant 
Editor  and  Editor,  on  retiring  from  the 
Army  :  Major  in  the  Calcutta  Volunteer 
Corps,  which  he  resuscitated :  went  to 
Simla,  and  founded  the  Civil  and  Military 
Gazette  as  a  weekly  paper  :    became  its- 



Editor  when  it  was  issued  as  a  daily  paper 
at  Lahore :  left  India  and  joined  the 
Broad  Arrow  in  England,  becoming  its 
Editor  :    died  in   1904. 

FERGUSSON,    JAMES    (1808-1886) 

Son  of  Dr.  William  Fergusson  :  born 
Jan.  22,  1808  :  educated  at  the  Edinburgh 
High  School,  and  privately  :  went  to  India, 
at  first  into  business  at  Calcutta  :  and  in  ten 
years  at  his  indigo  factory  made  sufficient  to 
retire  upon  :  lost  some  of  his  money  after- 
wards :  travelled  largely  in  India  to  study 
styles  of  Architecture,  1835-42  :  finally 
left  India  in  1845  :  joined  the  Royal 
Asiatic  Society,  1840,  and  became  a  Vice- 
President  :  was  General  Manager  of  the 
Crystal  Palace  Company,  1856-8 :  a 
member  in  1857  of  the  Royal  Commission 
on  the  defences  of  the  United  Kingdom  : 
Secretary  to  the  First  Commissioner  of 
Public  Works  in  1869,  and  was  later  de- 
signated "  Inspector  of  Public  Buildings 
and  Monuments."  He  wrote  "  Pictur- 
esque Illustrations  of  Ancient  Architecture 
in  Hindostan;  The  Rock-cut  Temples  of 
India ;  a  number  of  valuable  papers  in  the 
Transactions  of  the  Royal  Institute  of 
British  Architects  ;  An  Historical  Enquiry 
into  the  True  Principles  of  Beauty  in  Art, 
on  anew  system  of  substituting  earthworks 
for  masonry  in  fortification,  on  the  topo- 
graphy of  Jerusalem;  a  Handbook  of 
Architecture;  A  History  of  the  Modern 
Styles  of  Architecture:  A  History  of 
Architecture  in  all  Countries ;  History 
of  Indian  and  Eastern  Architecture, 
Tree  and  Serpent  Worship,  The  Parthenon, 
etc.  etc.,  besides  other  works  on  Architec- 
ture and  connected  subjects.  It  was  said 
of  him  that  he  invested  the  historical  study 
of  Architectmre,  particularly  Indian 
Architecture,  with  a  new  interest.  He 
received  the  gold  medal  for  Architecture 
from  the  Institute  of  British  Architects, 
and  was  often  consulted  on  architectural 
questions.  He  wasD.C.L. :  F.R.S  :  F.G.S. : 
LL.D  :    died  Jan.  9,  1886. 

BARONET  (1832-  ) 
Born  1832  :  son  of  Sir  James  Fergusson, 
fifth  Baronet  :  educated  at  Rugby  and 
University  College,  Oxford  :  succeeded  as 
Baronet,  1849  :  entered  the  Grenadier 
Guards,  1851 :  Lieut,  and  Captain,  1854  : 
served   in   the   Crimean   war.   Alma   and 

Inkerman  (wounded)  and  siege  of  Sebasto- 
pol :   M.P.  for  A>Trshu:e,  1854,  1857,  1865 
retired    from    the    Army,    1856 :     Under 
Secretary    of    State    for    India,     1866-7 
Under  Secretary  in  the  Home  Department 
1867-8  :  Governor  of  S.  Australia,  1868 
of  New  Zealand,     1873-5  :    of    Bombay 
1880-5  :      Under     Secretary     of     State 
Foreign    Office,     1886-91  :      Postmaster 
General,  189 1-2  :  P.C.  :  G.C.S.I.:  K.C.M.G. 
CLE.:   LL.D. 

FIELD,    SIR    JOHN    (1821-1899) 

General :  entered  the  Army,  1839  : 
joined  the  6th  N.I.  in  1840  :  served  in  the 
Afghan  and  Sind  campaigns,  184 1-4:  on 
the  Bolan,  Quetta,  Kandahar  line,  and  at 
Haikalzai :  in  the  mutiny  of  1857  pro- 
tected Poona  with  his  native  regt.  :  at  the 
capture  of  Dwarka  :  in  Abyssinia  1867-8 
commanded  the  advance  Brigade  :  at  cap- 
ture of  Magdala  :  C.B.  :  A.D.C.  to  Queen 
Victoria  :  Maj-General,  1879  :  Judge  Advo- 
cate-General of  the  Bombay  Army  :K.C.B., 
1887  :    died  April  16,  1899. 

FILOSE,  JEAN  BAPTISTE  ( 1775-1 84t3) 

Colonel :  son  of  Michael  Filose  {q.v.)  : 
born  at  Faizabad,  March,  1775  :  educated 
at  Calcutta :  served  under  the  Mogul 
Emperor  at  Delhi :  adopted  by  a  French- 
man, La  Fontaine  :  entitled  Itmaduddaula 
by  the  Emperor :  took  service  under 
Daulat  Rao  Sindia  :  kept  under  arrest  by 
Perron  {q.v.)  :  defeated  by  the  British 
in  the  Mahrattawar  of  1803  :  employed  in 
reducing  refractory  chiefs  in  Bundelkund, 
Malwa,  etc.,  for  Sindia :  again  arrested 
for  18  months :  constantly  engaged  in 
fighting  with  Rajputs  and  Bundelas  for 
Sindia  :  his  troops  constantly  mutinous 
for  arrears  of  pay  :  again  under  arrest  for 
7  years,  restored  in  1824,  deprived  of  his 
command  in  1843  :  ordered  by  Tara  Bai 
to  take  command  of  the  Army  at  Chanda 
against  the  English :  defeated :  trans- 
ferred his  offices  to  his  grandson,  Peter  : 
died  May  2,  1864 :  his  grandson.  Sir 
Michael  Filose,  employed  as  architect,  etc., 
at  Gwalior. 

FILOSE,  MICHAEL     ?  -after 
Colonel :      a    Neapolitan    adventurer  : 
in  the  French  Army  at  Madras  :   reached 
Calcutta  about  1770  :    served  the  Nawab 




of  Oudh,  the  Rana  of  Gohud,  and  com- 
manded a  regt.  under  Madhava  Rao 
Sindia  (q.v.)  i  in  1707.  Nana  Farnavis, 
when  on  a  visit  to  Daulat  Rao  Sindia,  was 
taken  prisoner :  whether  by  Filose's 
treachery  or  not,  has  been  disputed  :  he 
decamped  to  Bombay,  set  out  for  Europe, 
and  died. 

TUS (1812-1884) 

Born  in  London  in  1812 :  son  of 
Dr.  Thomas  Firminger,  who  prepared 
candidates  for  Haileybury  :  educated  at 
Pembroke  College,  Cambridge  :  took  his 
degree,  1837  :  appointed  Chaplain  of  the 
E.I.  Co.,  1846  :  served  at  Sagar,  at  Firoz- 
pur,  during  the  second  Sikh  war  :  toured  in 
India  from  1854,  made  many  drawings  : 
had  two  pictures  in  the  Royal  Academy  : 
Chaplain  at  Howrah,  1857 :  and  at 
Chinsura,  1859  :  published  his  Manual 
of  Gardening  for  India,  1863  :  in  the 
Bhutan  expedition,  1864-5  =  retired,  1868  : 
died  Jan.   18,  1884. 

FIROZ    SHAH    (     ?  -  ?     ) 

Son  of  Mirza  Nazim  (who  was  grandson 
of  Shah  Alam)  and  of  Abadi  Begam, 
cousin  of  Akbar  Shah,  King  of  Delhi  : 
educated  by  Mirza  Illahibaksh,  who 
married  his  mother  :  went  to  Mecca  with 
her  in  1855  :  returned  to  Bombay  after 
the  mutiny  broke  out  :  became  leader  of 
the  rebels  at  Mandiswar  :  driven  from  there 
by  Colonel  (Sir  H.  M.)  Durand  in  Nov. 
1857  :  went  to  Rohilkund  with  his  force  : 
beaten  thence  by  Sir  Colin  Campbell : 
entered  Oudh  :  tried  to  join  Tantia  Topi  in 
Central  India  :  defeated  by  General  (Lord) 
Napier  at  Ranod,  Dec.  17,  1858  :  fled, 
and  joined  Tantia  Topi  :  the  rebels  were 
broken  up  and  dispersed  :  Firoz  Shah  hid 
in  the  Sironj  jungles  :  he  escaped  in  dis- 
guise as  a  pilgrim  to  Karbela  and  lived 
there  many  years  :  was  one  of  the  leading 
and  irreconcilable  insurgents  in  the  mutiny. 



Native  of  Broach,  born  1758  :  son  of 
Mulla  Kawoos,  a  priest  of  the  Parsis  of 
Bombay :  when  10  years  old,  accom- 
panied his  father  on  a  journey  to  Per- 
sia ;  they  carried  with  them  letters 
from  the  Indian  Zoroastrians  for  the 
solving  of  religious  questions  :    on  their 

return,  after  an  absence  of  twelve  years, 
they  settled  at  Bombay  :  Firuz  Mulla, 
himself  a  Parsi  priest,  of  the  Kadmi  sect 
from  1794,  and  great  student  of  Oriental 
language,  was  induced  by  Jonathan  Dun- 
can iq.v.)  to  write  the  Persian  poem  George 
Nama,  a  history  of  India  from  its  dis- 
covery by  the  Portuguese  and  of  the 
English  in  India  to  1819  :  this  was  an  epic 
poem,  called  after  George  III.,  and  dedi- 
cated to  Queen  Victoria :  he  was  a  great 
collector  of  Persian  and  Arabic  MSS. : 
pubUshed  in  1818,  the  Desatir,  a  very 
ancient  religious  Persian  work:  assisted 
the  foundation  of  the  Bombay  Samachar 
in  1822,  and  wrote  largely  in  it :  led  a 
retired  and  ascetic  life,  devoted  to  his 
studies  :  much  sought  by  scholars,  English 
and  Asiatic,  and  held  in  the  highest  re- 
spect ;  he  wrote  also  on  the  advantages  of 
vaccination  :  on  his  death,  on  Oct.  8,  1830, 
his  collection  was  left  as  a  gift  in  the  charge 
of  the  Elders  of  the  Kadmi  Zoroastrians  : 
it  now  forms  the  Mulla  Firuz  Library  in 
Bombay  :  the  Madrasa  bearing  his  name 
was  founded  in  1854,  for  the  instruction  of 
Zoroastrians  in  their  sacred  lore. 

FISHER,  THOMAS  a772-1836) 

Son  of  Thomas  Fisher :  entered  the 
E.  India  House,  1786,  as  a  clerk  :  searcher 
of  records  there,  1816-34  •  died  July  20, 
1836  :  had  considerable  talent  for  drawing, 
and  was  a  distinguished  antiquary  :  made 
drawings  of  monumental  remains,  anti- 
quities and  collections  :  was  F.S.A.  of 
Perth  and  London  :  for  nearly  50  years 
contributed  to  the  Gentleman's  Magazine, 
writing  for  it  long  biographical  memoirs 
of  eminent  men  who  had  distinguished 
themselves  in  India  :  also  wrote  for  the 
Asiatic  Journal,  the  Congregational  Maga- 
zine ••  worked  in  the  cause  of  anti-slavery, 
and  was  a  Director  of  the  London  Mission- 
ary Society,  in  which  his  knowledge  of  the 
East  was  valuable  :    died  1836. 



Born  Dec.  9,  1799:  son  of  William  IV 
and  Mrs.  Jordan :  entered  the  Army, 
1814  :  given  the  rank  of  a  son  of  a  Mar- 
quess, 1831  :  G.C.H.,  1831  :  Military 
Governor  of  Portsmouth,  1840  :  Lt- 
General,  1851  :  Colonel  of  36th  regt., 
1851  :  C.  in  C,  Bombay,  Nov.  1852  :  died 
Oct.  30,  1854. 



OSWALD  (1840-        )  ^%M 

Born  June  6,  1840 :  son  of  General 
J  ames  Fitzgerald  :  educated  at  Edinburgh 
Academy  :  joined  the  Indian  Army,  1857  : 
served  in  the  mutiny  :  Adjutant  of  Central 
India  Horse,  i860  :  Adjutant  3rd  Cavalry 
Hyderabad  Contingent,  1862  :  commanded 
3rd  H.C.  Cavalry  in  Afghan  campaign, 
1880  :  Political  A.D.C.  to  Secretary  of 
State  for  India,  1882  :  commanded  his 
regiment  in  the  Burma  campaign,  1886-8  : 
C.B.,  1887. 


(1833-  ) 

Son  of  Francis  Fitzgerald,  Galway : 
educated  at  S.  Mary's  College,  Galway,  and 
in  France  :  began  life  as  a  clerk  in  the  War 
Office,  1856,  and  became  Assistant  Comp- 
troller-General of  India,  1869  :  Account- 
ant-General  of  Madras,  1871;  Burma,i873  : 
served  under  the  Egyptian  Government, 
1877-84 :  Accountant-General  of  the 
Navy,  xS8s  :    K.C.M.G.,  1885. 

ALD SEYMOUR  VESEY  (1841-        ) 

Born  1841  :  son  of  Right  Hon.  Sir 
William  R.  S.  Vesey  Fitzgerald,  Governor 
of  Bombay :  educated  at  Harrow  and 
Oriel  College,  Oxford :  Political  A.D.C. 
to  the  Secretary  of  State  for  India,  1874  : 
K.C.I.E.,  1887:    C.S.I.,  1887. 

ROBERT  SEYMOUR  VESEY  (1818-1885) 

Governor ;  son  of  William,  second 
Baron  Fitzgerald  and  Vesey  :  born  1818  : 
educated  at  Oriel  College,  Oxford : 
Newdigate  Prize,  1835  :  B.A.,  1837  : 
called  to  the  bar,  from  Lincoln's  Inn,  1839  : 
M. P.  for  Horsham,  1852-65  :  Under  Secre- 
tary for  Foreign  Affairs,  1858-9  :  was 
Governor  of  Bombay  from  March  6,  1867, 
to  May  6,  1872  :  Privy  Councillor,  1866  : 
K.C.S.I.  in  1867  :  G.C.S.I.  in  1868  :  again 
M.P.  for  Horsham,  1874-5  :  Chief 
Charity  Commissioner,  1875  :  D.C.L.  of 
Oxford  :  died  June  28,  1885. 

VESEY,   LORD   (1783-1843) 

Born  1783  :  son  of  Rt.  Hon.  James 
Fitzgerald :  educated  at  Christ  Church, 
Oxford  :    M.P.  for  Ennis,  1898  and  1831  : 

for  Clare  County,  181 8  :  for  boroughs  in 
Cornwall,  1829-30  :  Lord  of  the  Treasury, 
and  Privy  Councillor  in  Ireland  and 
England  :  EnvoyExtraordinary  to  Sweden, 
1820-3  :  President  of  the  Board  of  Trade, 
1828  :  acceded  to  his  mother's  Irish 
Peerage,  1832  :  made  an  English  Peer, 
1835  :  President  of  the  Board  of  Control, 
1 841-3  :  F.S.A.  and  President  of  the  Royal 
Asiatic  Society  :   died  May  11,  1843. 


(1837-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  1837  :  educated  at  Trinity 
College,  Dublin  :  entered  the  Indian  Civil 
Service  :  called  to  the  bar  from  the  Inner 
Temple  :  acted  as  Judge  of  the  Pan  jab 
Chief  Court,  1876-7  :  was  Secretary  to 
the  Government  of  India  in  the  Legislative 
Department,  1877-85  :  Secretary  in  the 
Home  Department,  1885:  acting  Chief  Com- 
missioner of  the  Central  Provinces.  1885- 
87  :  Acting  Resident  in  Mysore :  Chief 
Commissioner  oft  Assam:  Resident  at 
Hyderabad  :  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the 
Panjab,  1892-7  :  Member  of  the  Council 
of  India  since  1897  :    K.C.S.I.,  1890. 

FLEET,  JOHN  FAITHFULL  (1847-        ) 

I.C.S.  :  educated  at  Merchant  Taylors 
and  University  College,  London :  went 
out  to  Bombay,  1867  :  epigraphist  to 
the  Government  of  India,  1883  : 
Commissioner  in  Bombay,  Central  and 
Southern  Divisions,  and  Commissioner 
of  Customs  :  CLE.,  1884  :  retired,  1897  : 
Hon.  Ph.D.  of  Gottingen,  1892  :  author 
of  Gupta  Inscriptions  :  Dynasties  of  the 
Kanarese  Districts  :  and  numerous  contri- 
butions to  the  Indian  Antiquary,  the 
Archceological  Reports  of  W.  India,  the 
Epigraphia  Indica  :  joint  proprietor  and 
Editor  of  the  Indian  Antiquary,    1885-91. 


Born  1727 :  commanded  two  vessels 
of  the  E.I.  Co. :  after  good  service  and 
retirement,  he  became  Director  of  the 
E.I.  Co.  for  18  years,  and  Chairman  of  the 
Court  in  1782  and  1783  :  M.P.  for  Cum- 
berland, 1768-1806  :  Baronet,  1782  :  in 
Fox's  India  Bill,  which  was  not  carried, 
he  was  nominated  one  of  the  7  Commis- 
sioners for  the  affairs  of  Asia  :  stated  his 
opinion  in  Parliament  that  it  would  have 
been  better  for  England  and  Europe  if  the 



East  Indies  had  never  been  discovered  ; 
but  that  India,  having  once  been  acquired, 
must  never  be  given  up  :  died  March  25, 

FLETCHER,  SIR  ROBERT  (  ?  -1776) 

When  a  Lieutenant  in  the  Madras  Army, 
he  was  summarily  dismissed  for  wTiting 
an  insolent  letter  to  Government,  but 
apologized  and  was  reinstated  at  Coote's 
intercession  :  served  in  the  war,  1 760-1  : 
sent  to  reconnoitre  the  French  settlements 
at  Bourbon  and  in  the  Mauritius  :  in  the 
Manilla  expedition,  1762  :  transferred  to 
Bengal  as  Major,  1763  :  Brigadier,  1766  : 
fomented  and  encouraged  the  mutiny  of 
oflacers  against  the  withdrawal  of  extra 
hatta,  1766 :  cashiered :  restored :  to 
Madras  as  Colonel,  i77i  :  C.  in  C.  Madras, 
1772  :  being  obstructive,  was  sent  to  com- 
mand at  Trichinopoly,  i773  '•  pleaded 
privilege  as  M.P.  and  claimed  to  return  to 
England,  which  was  allowed  :  returned  to 
Madras  as  C.  in  C.  i775  =  was  arrested  by 
Lord  Pigot's  order,  Aug.  23,  1776,  for  caus- 
ing mutiny  among  the  troops  :  implicated 
in  the  arrest  of  Lord  Pigot,  Aug.  25,  1776  : 
died  on  his  way  to  Mauritius,  Dec.  1776. 



Son  of  Capt.  John  Floyd  :  born  Feb. 
22,  1748  :  entered  the  Army  as  Cornet  in 
Elliot's  Light  Dragoons  in  1760  :  was  riding 
master  in  1763  to  his  regt.,the  15th  Hussars: 
went  to  India  in  178 1-2,  as  Lt-Colonel  of 
the  19th  Light  Dragoons :  greatly  distin- 
guished-himself  as  a  cavalry  commander  on 
the  Coromandel  coast  in  Cornwallis'  cam- 
paign of  i7Q  1-2,  especially  at  Sattimanga- 
lum,  1790,  and  afterwards  against  Tippoo : 
was  at  Bangalore,  and  Arikera,  in  1791  : 
at  Seringapatam,  1792  :  at  the  capture  of 
Bangalore,  1793  :  Maj-General,  1794  :  in 
the  second  war  with  Tippoo,  commanded 
the  cavalry  under  General  Harris  :  was 
at  Malavilli,  and  commanded  the  covering 
Army  during  the  siege  of  Seringapatam, 
1799  :  returned  to  England  in  1800  :  held 
command  in  Ireland :  General,  1812  : 
Governor  of  Gravesend  and  Tilbury  : 
Baronet,  1816  :   died  Jan,  10.  1818. 

FORBES,  ARCHIBALD  (1838-1900) 

The  famous  war  correspondent :  son  of 
the   Rev.   Lewis^William   Forbes :     born 

1838  :  educated  at  Aberdeen  and  Edin- 
burgh :  enlisted  in  the  Royal  Dragoons, 
1857  :  left  the  Army  in  1867  :  wrote  on 
military  life  in  the  public  Press  :  after 
conducting  a  weekly  journal,  1867-71, 
made  his  reputation  as  a  war  correspondent 
for  the  Daily  News,  in  the  Franco- Prussian 
war,  1870-1  :  the  Russo-Turkish  war 
of  1877  :  the  Zulu  war,  1879-80  :  and 
other  wars  :  in  India  as  a  special  corre- 
spondent in  the  Bengal-Bihar  famine  of 
1874,  where — as  Sir  R.  Temple  wrote,  "he 
pourtrayed  with  graphic  force  and  absolute 
fidelity,  for  the  information  of  the  English 
public,  the  mortal  peril  to  which  the  people 
were  exposed,  and  from  which  they  could 
be  rescued  only  by  the  utmost  exertions 
of  the  Government  "  : — during  the  visit 
of  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales  to  India, 
1875-6,  during  the  Afghan  War,  1878-9, 
and  went  to  Mandalay,  to  have 
interviews  with  King  Theebaw.  He 
visited  the  United  States  and  Australia 
as  a  lecturer  and  correspondent.  Besides 
his  works  on  wars  in  other  countries,  and 
on  other  distinguished  soldiers,  he  wrote 
The  Aff^han  Wars  of  1839  and  1879  ;  Have- 
lock,  and  Colin  Campbell,  Lord  Clyde 
{"  Men  of  Action  "  series),  and  on  certain 
distinguished  officers  in  The  Soldiers  I 
have  Known  :   died  March  30,  1900. 

FORBES,   ARTHUR   (1843-        ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Rev.  E.  Forbes,  D.D. : 
educated  at  Sedburgh  and  St.  John's 
College,Cambridge  :  steered  the  Cambridge 
Eight  against  Oxford  in  1866  and  1867  : 
went  to  Bengal  in  the  Indian  Civil  Service, 
1867  :  Deputy  Commissioner  in  Assam, 
1875  :  Officiating  Commissioner  of  Excise, 
Bengal,  1890 :  Commissioner  of  Dacca, 
1891  :  Patna,  1892-6 :  Chota  Nagpur, 
1896-1902  :    C.S.I.,  1895. 



Son  of  the  Rev.  George  Forbes  :  born 
in  1774  :  educated  at  Aberdeen  University 
(afterwards  Lord  Rector)  :  went  out  to 
India  and  was  for  many  years  head  of  the 
firm  of  Forbes  &  Co.,  of  Bombay :  on 
returning  to  England  he  became  M.P.  for 
Beverley,  1812-18,  and  represented 
Malmesbury,  1818-32  :  when  he  left  India 
the  natives  gave  him  a  service  of  plate  : 
and,  27  years  after  he  had  left  Bombay, 
his  statue  by  Sir  F.  Chantrey  was  placed 



in  the  Bombay  Town  Hall :  he  had  a  high 
reputation  in  the  commerical  world,  and 
had  done  much  to  develop  the  country, 
and  raise  the  status  of  the  natives  :  he 
steadily  demanded  justice  for  India  in 
Parliament  and  the  Court  of  Proprietors 
of  the  E.I.  Co. :  became  Forbes  of  Newe  : 
made  Baronet  in  1823  :  died  Nov.  20, 1849. 

FORBES,  DAVID  (1777  P-1849) 

Son  of  a  Scottish  minister,  joined 
the  78th  Highlanders,  1790:  served 
in  the  Netherlands,  at  Quiberon  and 
Belle  Isle :  went  to  India  in  1796  : 
escorted  Sir  John  Shore  to  Lucknow 
in  1798  to  depose  Wazir  Ali  {q.v.)  : 
in  the  Mahratta  campaign  of  1803 :  at 
Ahmadnagar,  etc.  :  in  the  Java  expedition 
of  1811-13  under  Sir  S.  Auchmuty,  led  the 
assaults  at  Waltevreede  and  Cornells : 
was  at  Probolingo  (in  Java)  in  1813  : 
Lt-Colonel,  1814  :  returned  home  in  1817, 
the  only  officer  of  forty-two  who  had  gone 
out  :  C.B.,  1838  :  Maj-General,  1846  : 
died  March  29,  1849. 

FORBES,  DUNCAN  (1798-1868) 

Born  April  28,  1798,  of  poor  parents  : 
became  a  village  schoolmaster :  went  to 
Perth  Grammar  School,  181 8  :  M.A.  of  St. 
Andrew's  in  1823, and  LL.D.  in  1847:  taught 
in  Calcutta,  at  the  Calcutta  Academy, 
1823-6 :  became  assistant  teacher  of 
Hindustani  in  London,  1826  :  Professor 
of  Oriental  languages  at  King's  College, 
London,  taking  pupils,  1837-61  :  made  a 
•catalogue  of  the  Persian  MSS.  at  the 
British  Museum,  1849-55  =  wrote  a  History 
■of  Chess,  including  its  invention  in  India  : 
also  a  number  of  works,  grammars, 
dictionaries,  manuals  in  Oriental  languages, 
Arabic,  Persian,  Hindustani,  Bengali :  so 
that  his  name,  though  he  made  no  claim 
to  profound  scholarship,  is  well  known  to 
students  :  Member  of  the  Royal  Asiatic 
Society :     died   Aug.    17,    1868. 

FORBES,    SIR    JOHN    (1817-        ) 

Of  Inverarnan,  Aberdeenshire  :  born 
June  10,  1817 :  entered  3rd  Bombay 
Light  Cavalry  (now  33rd  Queen's  Own 
Light  Cavalry),  1835  :  became  Colonel, 
1864  :  General,  1886  :  served  in  the  field 
Force  in  Sind  :  at  the  siege  of  the  Kojak  : 
in  ^Afghanistan,  1 841-2,  including  the 
advance  on  Kandahar,  Ghazni  and  Kabul, 
action  at  Guine,  under  Genl.  Nott  :  in  the 

Field  Force  in  Sind  in  1843  :  at  the  battle 
of  Hyderabad :  in  the  Persian  'expedi- 
tionary force,  1856-7,  at  the  assault  and 
capture  of  the  fort  of  Reshire  :  of  the 
surrender  of  Bushire  :  at  Barazjan  and 
in  action  of  Khushab  (severely  wounded) : 
Brevet-Major :  C.B.  :  with  the  Central 
Indian  Field  Force  from  capture  of  Jhansi 
and  siege  of  Ratghar  to  the  fall  of  Kalpi : 
Brevet-Colonel :  present  at  the  battle  of 
Solferino  with  the  staff  of  the  King  of 
Italy  :  commanded  a  Division  of  the  Bom- 
bay Army,  1876-81  :  K.C.B.,  1881  : 
appointed  Hon.  Col.  33rd  Queen's  Own 
Light  Cavalry,   1904 :    G.C.B. 



I.C.S.  :  born  March  29,  1820  :  son  of 
Gordon  Forbes,  B.C.S.  :  educated  at 
Cheam  and  Haileybury,  1836-8 :  went 
to  Madras,  1838  :  was  Collector  of  Ganjam, 
1858-67.  and  did  good  work  in  the  famine 
relief  operations,  1866-7  :  Member  of  the 
Board  of  Revenue,  Madras,  and  Additional 
Member  of  the  Governor-General's  Legis- 
lative Council :  retired,  1874  :  died  April 
26,  1893  :  wrote  Wild  Life  in  Canara, 
a  work  on  Natural  History  and  Sport : 
helped  to  found  a  charity  in  Madras  for 
the  relief  of  destitute  Europeans  in  India. 

FORBES,    JAMES    (1749-1819) 

I.C.S.  :  born  in  1749  :  went  out  to 
Bombay  in  1765  :  was  Private  Secretary 
to  Col.  Keating  in  1775  and  Chaplain  of  the 
force  in  the  expedition  to  assist  Raghoba  : 
held  minor  charges  in  India,  but  made  a 
competency  and  left  India  in  1784*  with 
150  volumes  of  materials,  including  draw- 
ings, of  Indian  subjects  :  after  the  rupture 
of  the  Peace  of  Amiens  he  was  detained  in 
France  till  1804,  when  he  returned  to 
England  :  published  his  Oriental  Memoirs, 
in  four  volumes,  181 3-5  •  F.R.S.  and 
F.S.A  :  Montalembert,  the  historian,  was 
his  grandson  :    died  Aug.  i,  18 19. 



Born  March  12,  1851,  in  Switerzland : 
son  of  a  Protestant  pastor:  educated  at 
home  and  New  Orleans  :  studied  medicine, 
graduated.  Doctor  :  Assistant  Surgeon  at 
a  hospital :  turned  to  languages  :  travelled 
among  American  Indian  tribes  :  to  Europe, 
1875,  to  Leipzig  :    studied  Sanskrit,  Pali, 



Tibetan,  Chinese,  Arabic  :  appointed, 
T879,*Professor  of  Pali  at  the  Government 
High  School,  Rangoon  :  investigated  the 
sacred  and  vernacular  literature  of  Burma : 
catalogued  Pali  MSS.,  and  wrote  on  Bur- 
mese la^v  :  edited  the  Tripitaka,  or  Budd- 
hist Canon  :  besides  his  educational  work, 
studied  other  Burmese  vernaculars,  Shan, 
Karen,  etc. :  wrote  on  Indo-Chinese  lan- 
guages and  Burmese  dialects  :  employed  on 
archaeological  investigations  and  decipher- 
ment of  ancient  inscriptions  :  made  an 
archaeological  survey  of  Arakan  :  surveyed 
the  temple  ruins  of  Pagan,  1888  :  collected 
a  quantity  of  MSS.,  etc.  :  did  good  work  as 
antiquarian  and  philologist  in  Burma : 
died  April  26,  1890. 

FORD,  ARTHUR  (1834- 

Bom  Aug.  15,  1834  :  son  of  Arthiu: 
Ford :  educated  at  Grosvenor  College, 
Bath,  and  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge  : 
entered  R.A.,  1855  :  Lt-Colonel,  1881  : 
Colonel :  retired,  1883  :  served  in  the 
Indian  mutiny,  1857-8  :  relief,  siege  and 
capture  of  Lucknow :  wounded :  Assistant 
Director  of  Artillery  studies  at  Woolwich, 
1870-3  :  Inspector  of  Explosives,  Home 
Office,  1873-99  :  C.B.,  1895. 

FORD,   WILLIAM  (1821-1905) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Nov.  29,  1821  :  son  of 
Sir  Francis  Ford,  Bart.  :  educated  at 
Haileybury :  entered  the  Bengal  Civil 
Service,  1843  :  served  in  the  Indian 
mutiny,  in  the  Gurgaon  district :  saved  a 
number  of  Christian  fugitives  :  present 
at  the  siege  of  Delhi;  saw  service  with 
General  Showers  :  Commissioner  of  Mul- 
tan,  1862  :  Agent  at  Bahawalpur,  1866, 
where  he  suppressed  a  mutiny  :  C.S.I., 
1866  :  author  of  several  novels,  of  which 
the  latest  is  Prince  Baber  and  his  Wives  : 
wrote  also  A  Viceroy  of  India  (Lord 
Lawrence)  ;    died  June  18,  1905. 

FORDE,  ARTHUR  W.  (P-1883-5  ?) 

Was  engaged  on  the  construction  of 
Irish  railways:  went  to  India,  1855,  as 
Chief  Engineer  of  the  B.B.  and  C.I. 
Railways  :  advocated  the  light  railway 
system  for  purely  agricultural  districts, 
with  tramways  and  feeder  lines  :  wrote 
a  pamphlet  ^^  10,000  miles  against  5,000,'^ 
and  lectured  in  Bombay  on  "  Railway 
Extension  in  India,  with  special  reference 
to  the  export  of  wheat  "  :  practised  as 

Consulting  Engineer  in  Bombay  and 
other  parts  of  India  :  was  for  7  years 
Consulting  Engineer  to  the  Bombay 
Municipality  :  constructed  the  first  wet- 
dock,  the  Sassoon  dock  at  Colaba,  Bombay  : 
engaged  on  the  water-supply  and  drainage 
of  Bombay :  M.I.C.E.  :  retired,  after 
about  30  years  in  India,  soon  after  1880  : 
died  about  1883-5. 

FORDE,  FRANCIS  (  ?  -1770) 

Colonel :  son  of  Matthew  Forde : 
Captain  in  the  39th  regt.,  1746  :  Major, 
1755 :  was  repulsed  in  an  attack  on 
Nellore,  May,  1757  :  joined  the  E.I.  Co.'s 
Army  in  Bengal,  1758,  as  second  to  Clive  : 
sent  by  Clive  in  Oct.  1758,  with  500 
Europeans  and  2,000  sepoys  to  Vizagapa- 
tam,  to  create  a  diversion  against  the 
French  in  the  Northern  Sircars  :  defeated 
the  Marquis  de  Conflans  (who  had  replaced 
Bussy)  at  Condore,  Dec.  1758 :  took 
Rajamundry  and  Masulipatam  in  April, 
1759  :  thus  gaining  the  N.  Sircars  and 
expelling  the  French  :  defeated  the  Dutch 
at  Chinsura :  went  to  England  with 
Clive,  who  was  his  friend  :  and,  on  his 
recommendation,was  one  of  the  Commission 
of  three  (with  Vansittart  and  Seraf ton)  sent 
from  England  in  1769  to  overhaul  the 
Bengal  administration  :  after  touching 
at  the  Cape  in  Dec.  1769,  their  vessel  was 
lost  at  sea. 

FORDYCE,  SIR  JOHN     (  ?  -1877) 

Lt-General :  entered  the  Bengal  Artil- 
lery in  1822  :  was  in  the  first  Burmese 
war,  at  the  capture  of  Arakan  :  in  the 
Satlaj  campaign  of  1845-6  :  at  Firozshahr 
and  Sobraon  :  in  the  advance  on  Lahore  : 
in  the  Panjab  campaign  of  1848-9,  at 
Chilianwala  and  Gujarat,  in  the  pursuit  of 
the  Sikhs,  and  of  the  Afghans  to  the 
Khyber  :  commanded  the  Artillery  in  the 
Yusafzai  country  in  1849  and  at  the  forcing 
of  the  Kohat  Pass  in  1850  by  Sir  C. 
Napier :  Colonel  Commandant,  1873  : 
K.C.B.,  1877. 

FORJETT,  CHARLES  (  ?  -1890) 

Deputy,  and,  later,  the  Commissioner 
of  Police,  Bombay,  from  1855,  and 
President  of  the  Board,  or  Chief  Municipal 
Commissioner  of  Bombay  :  his  energetic 
action,  in  Sep.  1857,  stopped  a  contem- 
plated sepoy  outbreak  and  saved  Bom- 
bay :     his   high   character,   knowledge   of 



the  natives  and  fitness  for  his  position 
generally  admitted :  much  trusted  by 
Lord  Elphinstone,  the  Governor  of  Bom- 
bay :  was  presented  with  purses  on 
retirement,  and  received  an  extra  pension  : 
regarded  himself  as  slighted,  being  unde- 
corated  :  died  Jan.  27,  1890  :  wrote  Our 
Real  Danger  in  India,   1877. 


Maj -General :  born  Nov.  1824  :  edu- 
cated as  an  p:ngineer  :  joined  the  Indian 
Army,  1843  :  in  the  S.  Mahratta  Company, 
1845-6  :  in  the  Madras  Army,  1847  :  in 
the  second  Burmese  war,  1852  :  after  the 
annexation,  was  head  of  the  P.W.D. 
there :  travelled  widely,  1858-9  :  on 
special  public  works,  inquiries  and  con- 
struction of  prisons  in  the  Andamans  : 
Superintending  Engineer  in  Bengal, 
N.W.P.,  Rajputana,  1861-71  :  Secretary 
and  Chief  Engineer,  Oudh,  1872-7 : 
retired  :  wrote  largely  in  periodicals  on 
religions,  archaeology,  philology :  wrote 
the  Rivers  of  Life,  or  the  Faiths  of  Mankind 
in  all  Lands,  1883  ;  Short  Studies  in  the 
Science  of  Comparative  Religions,  embracing 
all  the  Religions  of  Asia  :  a  student  of 
exploration,  thought,  and  research  in 
Oriental  subjects  :  well  versed  in  Indian 
religions  and  folklore  of  the  East  :  died 
March  29,   1904. 


(1846-  ) 

Born  Jan.  8,  1846  :  son  of  Capt.  George 
Forrest,  V.C.  :  educated  privately  and  at 
St.  John's  College,  Cambridge  :  appointed 
to  Bombay  Educational  Department, 
1872  :  Census  Commissioner  at  Bombay, 
1882  :  on  special  duty  in  connexion  with 
Bombay  Records,  1884-8  :  Professor  of 
English  History,  Elphinstone  College, 
1887  :  Director  of  Bombay  Records,  1888  : 
Assistant  Secretary  to  the  Government  of 
India  :  Director  of  Government  of  India 
Records,  1894-1900  :  C.I.E.,  1899  :  wrote 
articles  on  "The  Deforestation  of  India" 
in  the  Bombay  Gazette  :  author  of 
various  Selections  from  State  Papers  : 
The  Administration  of  Warren  Hastings, 
The  Administration  of  Lord  Lansdowne, 
Sepoy  Generals,  Cities  of  India,  History 
of  the  Indian  Mutiny,  etc.  :    F.R.G.S. 

FORREST,   THOMAS  (1729  ?-1802  ?) 
Midshipman,  R.N.,  in  1745  :  in  the  E.I. 
Co.'s  service  after   1748  :    commanded  a 

ship  from  1762  :  made  fifteen  voyages 
from  India  to  the  East,  and  four  from 
England  to  India  :  he  formed  a  settlement 
in  1770  at  Balambangan,  and  in  1774-6 
explored  in  New  Guinea,  the  Sulu  Archi- 
pelago, the  Moluccas,  etc.,  and  wrote  an 
account  of  his  voyages  :  employed  by 
Warren  Hastings  to  obtain  news  of  the 
French  fleet  which  had  escaped  the 
English  ships;  he  found  it  atAchin,  and 
the  information  was  very  valuable. 
He  made  a  voyage  "  from  Bengal  to 
Quedah  "  in  1783,  and  a  voyage  "  from 
Calcutta  to  the  Mergui  Archipelago," 
1790,  discovering  the  Forrest  Strait  : 
besides  other  papers,  he  wrote  a  Treatise 
on  the  Monsoons  in  East  India,  1782  : 
died  about  1802. 

FORSTER,  GEORGE  (  ?  -1792) 

In  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Civil  Service,  in  1782  : 
he  travelled  from  India  through  Kashmir, 
Afghanistan,  Herat,  Persia,  by  the  Caspian 
Sea  to  Russia  :  wrote  A  Journey  from 
Bengal  to  England,  through  the  Northern 
Part  of  India,  Kashmir,  Afghanistan,  and 
Persia,  and  into  Russia  by  the  Caspian 
Sea,  1798  :  also  Sketches  of  the  Mythology 
and  Customs  of  the  Hindus  :  in  1792,  he 
died  at  Nagpur,  on  an  embassy  to  the 

FORSTER,  HENRY  (1793-1862) 

Son  of  Henry  Pitts  Forster  {q.v.),  of 
the  E.I.  Co.'s  Civil  Service  :  entered  the 
Mahratta  Army,  but  joined  "  Skinner's 
Horse"  in  1816:  was  second  in  com- 
mand in  1822  :  was  in  the  Pindari  cam- 
paign, and  at  Mahidpur  :  about  1834  he 
raised  the  Shekhawati  Brigade  and  won 
several  engagements  against  insurgents 
in  Rajputana  :  was  in  the  Satlaj  campaign 
of  1845-6  with  his  Brigade :  made  C.B.  and 
Colonel  in  the  Queen's  Army  in  1854. 
In  the  mutiny  his  Shekhawati  battalion 
was  deputed  to  reduce  the  rebel  34th 
N.I.,  in  Chota  Nagpur  :  died  in  Calcutta, 
Oct.  9,  1862. 

FORSTER,  HENRY  PITTS  ( 1766  ?-1816) 

In  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Bengal  Civil  Service, 
joined  in  1783  :  Registrar  of  the  Sadr 
DiwaniA  dalat  of  the  Twenty-four  Parganas, 
1794  :  pubUshed  the  first  English-Bengali 
vocabulary  in  1799-1802,  and,  largely 
through  his  efforts,  Bengali  became  the 
official  as  well  as  the  literary  language  of 



Bengal :  studied  Sanskrit,  and  laboriously 
translated  a  native  grammar :  became 
master  of  the  Calcutta  Mint :  died  in 
India,  Sep.  lo,  1815, 

FORSYTH,  JAMES  (1838-1871) 

Born  in  1838  :  took  his  M.A.  degree  : 
went  to  India  as  acting  Conservator  of 
Forests  :  served  in  the  Central  Provinces 
as  Deputy  Commissioner  of  Nimar : 
joined  the  Staff  Corps :  was  a  keen 
sportsman  :  wrote  The  Sporting  Rifle  and 
its  Projectiles,  1863  :  made  a  long  tour  in 
the  Central  Provinces,  1862-4,  and  wrote 
The  Highlands  of  Central  India  :  Notes 
on  their  Forests  and  Wild  Tribes,  Natural 
History  and  Sports,  which  appeared  in 
1871,  after  his  death  on  May  i,  1871. 

FORSYTH,  SIR  JOHN  (1799-1883) 
Principal  Inspr-General  in  H.M.S. 
Indian  Medical  Department,  Bengal : 
Honorary  Physician  to  Queen  Victoria  : 
died  Jan.  14,  1883  :  C.B.,  1862  :  K.C.S.I., 


Born  1769  in  Dumfriesshire  :  educated 
at  Glasgow,  and  at  the  Divinity  Hall, 
under  the  Rev.  Professor  G.  Lawson,  of 
the  New  Burgher  Associate  Synod  :  be- 
came a  tutor  at  an  academy,  Islington,  and 
a  candidate  for  missionary  work  :  arrived 
in  Bengal,  Dec.  1798,  as  the  first  missionary 
sent  out  by  the  London  Missionary 
Society  :  allowed  to  preach  in  Dr.  Dun- 
widdie's  lecture-room  in  CossitoUa,  Cal- 
cutta :  also  at  the  General  Hospital  and 
the  Fort :  held  charge  of  the  Settlement 
Church  at  Chinsura,  and  managed  a 
large  school  there,  1805  :  he  and  Dr. 
Carey  opened  the  Lai  Bazar  Chapel,  Jan. 

I,  1809 :     died   at    Chandernagore,    Feb. 

II,  1816. 



I.C.S.  :  son  of  Thomas  Forsyth,  mer- 
chant :  born  Oct.  7,  1827  :  educated  at 
Sherborne,  Rugby  and  Haileybury  :  ar- 
rived at  Calcutta,  1848  :  went  to  the 
Panjab,  after  the  annexation  of  1849  : 
at  the  outbreak  of  the  mutiny  was  Deputy 
Commissioner  of  Umballa :  reported  on 
the  disaffection,  and  controlled  the  Sikh 
States  :    was  a  Special  Commissioner  for 

punishing  the  rebels,  after  the  fall  of 
Delhi:  Secretary  to  the  Chief  Commis- 
sioner of  Oudh  :  C.B.  :  went  to  Leh  in 
1867  to  promote  trade  with  Turkistan  : 
established  the  Palampmr  fair  :  sent  to 
Russia  on  diplomatic  mission  :  obtained 
from  the  Russian  Government  an  acknow- 
ledgment that  certain  disputed  terri- 
tories belonged  to  the  Amir  of  Afghanistan : 
went  in  1870  to  Yarkand  :  in  1872,  lost 
his  appointment  as  Commissioner  of 
Umbala  for  supporting  his  subordinate's 
measures  in  putting  down  the  Kooka 
outbreak  at  Malair  Kotla  :  led  a  mission 
to  Kashgar,  1873-4  :  K.C.S.I.  in  1874  : 
Additional  Member  of  the  Governor- 
General's  Legislative  Council,  1874  :  En- 
voy to  Burma  in  1875  :  obtained  an 
agreement  to  the  independence  of  the 
Karenni  states :  retired  in  1877 :  died 
Dec.  17,   1886. 

FORTESCUE,   THOMAS  (1784-1872) 

I.C.S.  :  born  1784 :  son  of  Gerald 
Fortescue,  Secretary  to  his  cousin  Henry 
Wellesley  (1773-1847 :  Baron  Cowley, 
1828),  youngest  brother  of  the  Marquess 
Wellesley,  who  was  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  the  ceded  Province  of  Oudh  from  Nov. 
1 801  to  1803,  when  he  quitted  India  : 
Fortescue  was  Commissioner  at  Delhi, 
1803  :    died  Sep.  7,  1872. 

FORTESCUE,  ROBERT  (1813-1880) 

Born  Sep.  16,  1813  :  educated  at  the 
Edrom  Parish  School :  became  a  Super- 
intendent in  the  Royal  Horticultural 
Society's  garden  at  Chiswick :  visited 
China,  Java,  Manilla,  1842-6,  as  collector  : 
to  China  again  in  1848,  to  collect  tea 
plants  and  seeds  for  the  E.I.  Co.  :  in 
1 85 1  introduced  many  of  them  into  the 
N.W.P.  :  wrote  a  Report  on  the  Tea 
Plantations  in  the  N.W.P.,  and  Two 
Visits  to  the  Tea  Countries  of  China,  and 
the  British  Plantations  in  the  Himalayas, 
1853  :  also  visited  Formosa,  and  wrote 
other  accounts  of  his  travels  in  the  Far 
East :    died  April  13,   1880. 



Son  of  Edward  Foster :  entered  the 
Army,  1836  :  served  with  the  i6th 
Lancers  in  the  Afghan  war,  1841-2,  under 
Sir  J.  Keane  :  at  Ghazni :  at  Maharajpur, 
1843  :    and  in  the  Satlaj  campaign,  1846  : 


at  Badiwal,  Aliwal  and  Sobraon  :  Captain, 
1847 :  General,  1885  :  Member  of  the 
Council  of  India,  1878-88  :  C.B.,  1877  : 
Colonel  of  the  21st  Hussars,  1872-6,  and 
of  the  i6th  Lancers,  1886  :  K.C.B.,  1893  : 
died  Feb.  11,  1896. 

FOSTER,  WILLIAM  (1863-  ) 
Born  Nov.  19,  1863  :  son  of  William 
Foster  :  educated  at  Cooper's  Grammar 
School  and  London  University :  joined 
the  India  Office,  1882  :  edited  India 
Office  List,  1891-5  :  Assistant  to  the 
Registrar  and  Superintendent  of  Records, 
1 901  :  Hon.  Secretary  to  the  Hakluyt 
Society,  1 893-1 902  :  has  edited  several 
old  records,  including  The  Embassy  of 
Sir  Thomas  Roe  to  the  Court  of  the  Great 
Mogul,  1615-19,  and,  with  Sir  G.  Bird- 
wood,  The  First  Letter-hook  of  the  East 
India    Company,    1600-19. 

FOULIS,  SIR  EDWARD  (1768-1843) 
Arrived  in  India,  1789  :  in  the  3rd 
Cavalry  in  Mysore  under  Cornwallis, 
1791-2  :  at  sieges  of  Bangalore,  Savandrug, 
Seringapatam,  Pondicherry  :  in  the  My- 
sore war  under  General  Harris,  1788-91, 
at  Malavilli  and  Seringapatam :  under 
Col.  A.  Wellesley,  against  Dhoondia 
Waugh,  saw  much  active  service  :  Re- 
mount agent  for  Madras  cavalry,  1807  : 
commanded  Light  Cavalry,  1815  :  in 
Pindari  war,  1817  :  commanded  at  Arcot, 
1819  :  held  various  cavalry  commands  : 
Maj-General,  1837  :  K.C.B.  :  died  April 
12,  1843. 


(1830-         ) 

Born  May  16,  1830 :  educated  at 
Woodhouse  Grove  School,  and  St.  Saviour's 
Grammar  School :  Mayor  of  Wolver- 
hampton, 1863  :  M.P.  for  Wolverhampton 
since  1880 :  Under  Secretary,  Home 
Department,  1884-5  =  Financial  Secretary 
to  the  Treasury,  1886  :  President  of  the 
Local  Government  Board,  1892-4  :  Secre- 
tary of  State  for  India,  March  10,  1894, 
to  July  5,  1895  :  G.C.S.I.,  1895  :  P.C.  : 

FOX,  CHARLES  JAMES  (1749-1806) 

Third  son  of  Henry  Fox,  Lord  Holland  : 
born  Jan.  24,  1749  :  educated  at  Wands- 
worth, Eton  and  Hertford  College,  Oxford, 
1764-6 :    M.P.    for    Midhurst,   1768  :    for 

Westminster,  1780:  held  office  in  the 
Government,  1770-2:  1772-4:  attacked 
Lord  Clive  in  Parliament,  1773  ;  Foreign 
Secretary,  1782-3,  1806  :  Fox  introduced 
into  Parliament,  Nov.  18,  1783,  his  Bills, 
prepared  with  Burke's  aid,  for  the  better 
Government  of  India  :  by  the  first  Bill, 
he  proposed  to  establish  a  Board  of  7 
Commissioners  to  hold  office  for  4  years 
and  have  absolute  control  over  the 
patronage  and  Government  of  India : 
with  a  Board  of  8  Assistant  Councillors 
to  administer  the  commercial  affairs  of 
the  E.I.  Co.  :  by  the  second  Bill,  restric- 
tions were  imposed  upon  the  free  action 
of  the  Governor-General.  The  first  Bill 
passed  the  House  of  Commons,  but  was 
rejected  by  the  House  of  Lor'ds,  by  the 
King's  influence,  Dec.  17,  1783  :  the 
second  Bill  made  no  progress.  When  his 
party  attacked  Warren  Hastings,  1786, 
Fox  spoke  for  the  Rohilla  charge,  and 
June  13,  brought  forward  the  Benares 
charge,  which  he  carried :  spoke  in 
favour  of  the  charge  relating  to  the  Begams 
of  Oudh,  1787  :  took  a  leading  part  in 
settling  the  articles  of  impeachment  of 
Hastings :  was  a  manager  of  the  trial : 
again  led  the  Benares  charge  in  the  trial, 
1788  :  spoke  against  the  abatement  of  the 
impeachment  by  the  dissolution  of  Par- 
liament, 1789  :   died  Sep.  13,  1806. 

FOX,  HENRY  WATSON  (1817-1848) 
Missionary  :  son  of  George  Townshend 
Fox  :  born  1817 :  educated  at  Rugby  and 
Wadham  College,  Oxford :  ordained, 
1840  :  to  Madras  in  1841  as  a  missionary 
of  the  Church  Missionary  Society  :  worked 
at  Masulipatam :  visited  the  Nilgiris, 
Travancore,  Tinnivelly  :  became  Assistant 
Secretary  to  the  Society  :  died  at  Durham, 
Oct.  14,  1848  :  wrote  Chapters  on  Mis- 
sions  in  South  India. 

FRANCIS,  SIR  PHILIP  (1740-1818) 

Son  of  the  Rev.  PhiUp  Francis  :  born 
Oct.  22,  1740  :  educated  at  Dublin  and 
St.  Paul's  School :  became  a  junior  clerk 
in  the  Secretary  of  State's  office  :  Secre- 
tary to  General  E.  Bligh  and  at  the  capture 
of  Cherbourg  in  1758  :  Secretary  to  Lord 
KinnouU's  Embassy  at  Lisbon,  1760 : 
amanuensis  to  Pitt,  176 1-2  :  clerk  at  the 
War  Office,  1762  :  resigned  in  March, 
1772,  for  some  unexplained  reason. 
Dmring    those    years,    "  Junius'    letters " 



appeared,  which  for  many  grounds  have 
been  attributed  to  Francis.  Their  iden- 
tity, first  suggested  by  Taylor  in  1813, 
1816,  may  be  considered  to  have  been 
established.  After  the  passing  of  the 
Regulating  Act  of  1773  for  India,  Francis 
was  appointed  a  member  of  the  new 
Supreme  Council  in  India.  He  and  his 
colleagues,  Clavering  and  Monson,  arrived 
at  Calcutta  on  Oct.  19,  1774  =  these  three 
opposed  Warren  Hastings,  the  Governor- 
General,  and  Harwell  iq.v.),  the  remaining 
Member  of  the  Supreme  Council :  being 
a  majority,  they  had  great  power. 
Francis  took  the  side  of  Nuncomar  {q.v.), 
after  the  latter  had  accused  Hastings  of 
corruption.  Nuncomar  was  hanged  for 
forgery  on  Aug.  5,  1775.  The  death  of 
Monson,  on  Sep.  25,  i77f»  gave  Hastings 
the  casting  vote.  Barwell  left  India  in 
March,  1780  :  Francis  resumed  his  opposi- 
tion to  Hastings,  who  wrote  a  minute 
accusing  Francis  of  faithlessness  and 
breach  of  trust  and  honour.  Francis 
challenged  him,  and  a  duel  took  place  on 
Aug.  17,  1780,  in  which  Francis  was 
badly  wounded.  He  left  India  in  Dec. 
1780.  In  1778  Francis  was  defendant 
in  a  crim.  con.  charge  brought  against 
him  by  G.  F.  Grand  of  the  Indian  Civil 
Service.  Francis  was  sentenced  by  Impey 
to  pay  50,000  rupees  damages.  He 
retired  with  a  large  fortune,  but  was  very 
coldly  received  in  England,  except  at 
Court.  He  became  M.P.  for  Yarmouth, 
1784  :  assisted  Burke  in  preparing  the 
charges  against  Hastings,  but  was  not 
accepted  as  a  manager  of  the  impeach- 
ment. M.P.  for  Bletchingley,  1790;  for 
Appleby,  1802  :  K.C.B.  in  Oct.  1806  : 
made  an  elaborate  speech  on  India  in 
April,  1805  :  he  hoped  to  be  Governor- 
General  of  India,  but  failed  to  obtain  it 
from  Fox,  with  whom  he  quarrelled  :  he 
died  Dec.  22,  1818.  It  is  said  that  he 
made  many  anonymous  contributions  to 
the  Press  :  his  capacity,  industry,  coxurage, 
and  certain  good  principles  in  his  character 
have  to  be  set  against  his  malignity, 
vindictiveness,  and  unscrupulous  conduct  : 
his  life  and  career  have  been  minutely 

FRANCKLIN,    WILLIAM  (1763-18.39) 

Son  of  Thomas  Francklin  :  born  1763  : 
educated  at  Westminster  and  Trinity 
College,    Cambridge :     entered    the    E.I. 

Co.'s     Bengal    N.I.,     1783  :      Lt-Colonel, 

1814  :       regulating     oiBcer,      Bhagalpur, 

1815  :  retired  in  India,  1825  :  travelled 
in  Persia  in  1786 :  published  his  journal  : 
wrote  The  History  of  the  Reign  of  Shah- 
Aulam,  the  present  Emperor  of  Hindustan, 
1798  :  Inquiry  concerning  the  Site  of  the 
Ancient  Palibothra,  1815-22  :  besides 
translations,  literary  papers,  contributions 
to  Asiatic  Researches,  etc.  :  Member  of 
the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  and  Member 
of  Council  and  Librarian  of  the  Royal 
Asiatic  Society:  died  in  India,  April  12, 


(1844-  ) 

Educated  at  University  College,  London, 
and  Paris  :  entered  the  Indian  Medical 
Service,  1869  :  Civil  Surgeon,  Simla, 
1881-6 :  Inspr-General  of  Hospitals, 
N.W.P.,  1899  :  and  Panjab,  1900-1  : 
Director-General,  Indian  Medical  Service  : 
CLE.,   1898  :    K.C.I. E.,   1903. 

FRANKS,    SIR  JOHN  (1770-1852) 

Son  of  Thomas  Franks  :  born  in  1770  : 
took  his  degree  at  Trinity  College,  Dublin  : 
called  to  the  Irish  bar,  1792  :  appointed 
in  1825  a  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court, 
Calcutta,  and  knighted  :  retired  for  his 
health  in  1834  :   died  Jan.  11,  1852. 



Son  of  William  Franks  :  born  1808  : 
entered  the  loth  regt.  in  1825  :  Lt- 
Colonel,  1845  :  to  India  in  1842  :  in  the 
first  Sikh  war,  1845-6 :  was  at  Sobraon, 
wounded :  C.B,  :  in  the  Panjab  campaign 
of  1848-9,  was  at  the  siege  of  Multan, 
Surajkund,    and    at    Gujarat :      Colonel, 

1854  :  commanded  the  Jalandhar  Brigade, 

1855  :  in  the  mutiny,  as  Brig-General, 
marched  across  the  frontier  of  Oudh,  and 
joined  with  Jang  Bahadur  of  Nipal : 
defeated  the  rebels,  Banda  Husain,  at 
Chanda,  and  Mehndi  Husain  Nazim  at 
Hamirpur  in  Feb.  1858,  but  failed  to  take 
Daurara  fort  :  joined  Sir  Colin  Campbell 
at  the  capture  of  Lucknow,  March,  1858  : 
Maj-General  and  K.C.B. ,  1858  :  returned 
to  England  :    died  Feb.  5,  1862. 

FRASER,  ALEXANDER  (1824-1898) 
General :    son  of  James  Eraser  :    edu- 
cated at  Addiscombe  :   entered  the  Indian 



Engineers,  1843  :  in  the  Satlaj  cam- 
paign, 1845-6  :  and  the  Panjab  campaign, 
1848-9  :  in  the  Burmese  war,  1852-3  : 
employed  on  the  construction  of  light- 
houses on  the  coast  of  Burma :  Chief 
Engineer  in  the  N.W.P.,  1873-9  •  Member 
of  the  Supreme  Council,  March-June, 
1880:    C.B.  :    died  June  11,  1898. 

SON LEITH  (1848-         ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Nov.  14,  1848  :  son  of 
Rev.  A.  G.  Fraser,  D.D.  :  educated  at 
Edinburgh  Academy  and  University : 
entered  the  Indian  Civil  Service,  1871  : 
served  in  the  Central  Provinces  :  Officiat- 
ing Secretary  to  the  Government  of  India, 
Home  Department,  1898-9  :  Chief  Com- 
missioner of  Central  Provinces,  1899  : 
President  of  the  Indian  Police  Commis- 
sion, 1902-3  :  Lieutenant-Governor  of 
Bengal  since  Nov.  1903  :  C.S.I. ,  1897  : 
K.C.S.I.,  1903. 



Son  of  Lt -Colonel  Sir  James  John 
Fraser,  Bart.  :  joined  the  nth  Hussars  : 
served  with  the  7th  Hussars  at  the  siege 
and  capture  of  Delhi,  1857 :  Brevet- 
Major  :  gained  the  V.C.  on  Dec.  31,  1858, 
for  rescuing,  while  under  sharp  fire,  an 
officer  and  some  men  from  drowning  in 
the  river  Rapti :  in  the  Abyssinian 
expedition,  1867-8  :  at  capture  of  Mag- 
dala  :  C.B.  :  A.D.C.  to  the  C.  in  C.  1873- 
80  :  Inspr-General  of  Cavalry,  1879-84  : 
Maj-General :  K.C.B.  :  M.P.  for  N. 
Lambeth,  1885-92  :   died  June  7,  1895. 

FRASER,  HUGH  (  ?  -1858) 
Of  the  Bengal  Engineers  :  Chief  En- 
gineer at  Agra  when  the  mutiny  of  1857 
broke  out  :  C.B.  :  Colonel :  made  Chief 
Commissioner  for  Agra  and  its  dependen- 
cies, Sep.  30,  1857,  to  Feb.  9,  1858  :  acted 
with  energy  :  died  at  Mussoorie,  Aug.  12, 

FRASER,  JAMES  (1713-1754) 

Born  1713  :  son  of  Alexander  Fraser  of 
Reelick  :  went  to  India,  to  Surat  :  re- 
sided there,  1730-40  :  learnt  Sanskrit 
and  Zend  :  returning  to  England  for 
about  two  years,  he  wrote  a  history  of 
Nadir  Shah,  the  King  of  Persia,  who 
invaded  India  :    Fraser  returned  to  India 

as  a  factor  in  the  E.I.  Co.'s  service  :  rose 
to  be  a  Member  of  Council  at  Surat, 
where  he  stayed  six  years  :  he  brought  to 
England  some  200  Sanskrit  and  Zend 
MSS.,  the  first  "  collection "  brought 
to  Europe,  which  are  now  in  the  Bodleian 
Library  at  Oxford  :  he  had  formed  plans 
of  working  in  Zend  and  Sanskrit,  but 
died  early,  Jan.  21,  1754. 

FRASER,  JAMES  BAILLIE  (1783-1856) 
Born  June  11,  1783  :  son  of  Edward 
Satchell  Fraser  :  with  his  brother  William 
iq.v.),  and  an  escort,  explored  the  Hima- 
layas in  1 815,  to  the  sources  of  the  Jamna 
and  Ganges  :  in  1821,  he  accompanied 
Dr.  Jukes  to  Persia,  to  Mashad,  Kurdistan 
and  Tabriz  :  in  1833-4,  on  a  diplomatic 
mission  to  Persia,  he  rode  from  Semlin  to 
Constantinople,  and  from  Stamboul  to 
Teheran  :  attended  on  the  Persian  Princes 
on  their  visit  to  England,  1835-6  :  wrote 
narratives  of  his  travels  in  Persia  and 
connected  countries,  and  some  works  of 
fiction  :  also  the  Military  Memoir  of  Lt- 
Colonel  lames  Skinner:  C.B.,  1851  :  was 
also  an  amateur  artist  :   died  Jan.  1856. 

FRASER,  JAMES  STUART  (178.3-1869) 

Son  of  Colonel  Charles  Fraser  :  born 
July  I,  1783  :  educated  at  Ham  and 
Glasgow  University  :  joined  the  Madras 
N.I.,  1800  :  escorted  the  Mysore  Princes 
to  Bengal,  1807  :  A.D.C.  to  Sir  G.  Barlow, 
when  Governor  of  Madras :  Private 
Secretary,  1810  :  Deputy  Commissary  in 
the  Madras  expedition  to  Mamritius, 
1810  :  Military  Secretary  to  the  Governor 
of  Madras,  1813  :  Commandant  at 
Pondicherry,  1816 :  Commissioner  for 
the  restitution  of  French  and  Dutch 
possessions,  1816-7,  having  great  know- 
ledge of  the  French  language  :  Secretary 
to  Government  in  the  Military  Department, 
1834  :  in  several  actions  in  Coorg  :  Resi- 
dent in  Mysore,  and  Chief  Commissioner 
of  Coorg  :  Resident  at  Travancore  and 
Cochin,  1836 :  Resident  at  Hyderabad 
from  Sep.  1838,  to  Dec.  1852  :  resigned 
his  appointment  because  of  strained 
relations  with  Lord  Dalhousie :  Lt- 
General,  185 1  :  General,  1862  :  died 
Aug.  22,  1869. 

FRASER,  WILLIAM  (1784-1836) 
I.C.S.  :    son  of  Edward  Satchell  Fraser, 
brother    of   James   Baillie    Fraser   {q.v.)  : 



went  to  Bengal  in  1799  :  Secretary  to  Sir 
D.  Ochterlony  at  Delhi,  1805  :  Secretary 
to  Mountstuart  Elphinstone  (?.u.)  on  his 
mission  to  Kabul :  Political  Agent  to 
General  Martindell's  Army,  1815  :  travelled 
with  his  brother  to  the  Himalayas  :  settled 
Garhwal,  1819  :  Member  of  the  Board  of 
Revenue,  N.W.P.,  1826:  Resident  at 
Delhi,  1830-5  :  shot  dead,  on  March  22, 
1835,  while  riding  at  Delhi,  by  Kareem 
Khan,  at  the  instigation  of  Shams-ud-din, 
Nawab  of  Firozpur :    both  of  them  were 

LEOD    BANNATYNE     (1821-        ) 

Born  1821  :  entered  the  Bengal  Army 
1841,  and  became  General,  1877  :  served 
in  the  Afghan  campaign,  1842,  (severely 
wounded,  Khyber  Pass),  A.D.C.  to  Lord 
Gough,  Satlaj  campaign,  1845-6  :  at  the 
battles  of  Mudki,  Firozshahr,  Sobraon : 
in  the  Panjab  campaign,  1848-9,  at 
Chilian wala  and  Gujarat :  Indian  mutiny, 
1857  :  at  the  relief  of  Lucknow  :  severely 
wounded  Bhutan  campaign,  1864-5  :  C.B., 
1857  :   K.C.B.,  1867. 


(1854-  ) 

l.CS.  :  born  1854  :  educated  at  Rath- 
mines  school,  Kingstown  school  and 
Trinity  College,  Dublin  :  entered  the  Ma- 
dras Civil  Service,  1877,  but  retired,  1886; 
invalided  in  consequence  of  fever  con- 
tracted in  the  Rumpa  rebellion.  Lecturer, 
University  Extension,  on  Indian  Architec- 
ture :  Principal  Librarian  and  Secretary 
of  London  Institution  :  Lecturer  in  Tamil 
and  Telegu,  University  College.  Author 
of  British  India  ("Story  of  the  Nations" 
series),  A  Literary  History  of  India,  1898. 

VALPY  (1825-1891) 

Bishop  :  son  of  the  Rev.  Peter  French  : 
born  Jan.  i,  1825  :  educated  at  Reading 
and  Burton  Grammar  schools,  Rugby, 
and  University  College,  Oxford  :  Fellow, 
there,  1848  :  ordained,  1848  :  Principal  of 
St.  John's  College,  Agra,  1850  :  founded 
Reynell  Taylor's  Derajat  mission,  1861  : 
Vicar  of  Cheltenham,  1865-9  =  founded 
the  divinity  school  at  Lahore,  1869  :  first 
Bishop  of  Lahore,  Dec.  1877  :  D.D.  of 
Oxford :  resigned  in  1887  :  died  at  Muscat, 
as  a  missionary  there.  May  14,  1891  :   was 

a  good  linguist,  and  distinguished  'as  an 

EDWARD,  BARONET  (1815-1884) 

Governor  :  I.C.S.  :  sixth  son  of  Edward 
Frere,  and  nephew  of  John  Hookham 
Frere  :  born  March  29,  1815,  educated  at 
Bath  and  Haileybury  :  went  to  India  in 
1834,  by  the  overland  route,  making  his 
way  with  difficulty  via  Cairo,  Kosseir, 
Jeddah,  Mocha,  and  a  pilgrim  vessel  to 
Bombay :  Assistant  Revenue  Commis- 
sioner for  some  years  to  H.  E.  Goldsmid 
{q.v.)  in  investigating  land  assessments  : 
Private  Secretary  to  Sir  G.  Arthur,  Gover- 
nor of  Bombay,  1842  :  Resident  at  Satara, 
1846  :  on  the  annexation  of  Satara  in 
1848-9  (to  which  he  was  opposed),  Frere 
was  appointed  Commissioner :  Chief 
Commissioner  in  Sind,  1850-9  :  greatly 
advanced  the  Province  in  every  way, 
conciliated  the  Amirs,  improved  Karachi 
harbour,  developed  institutions,  controlled 
the  frontier  and  the  tribes  :  in  the  mutiny 
he  nearly  denuded  Sind  of  troops  to  help 
the  Panjab  and  South  Mahratta  country  : 
repressed  attempts  at  mutiny,  and  kept 
Sind  quiet  and  loyal :  his  great  services 
were  highly  valued  in  England  and  India  : 
K.C.B.  in  1859  :  Member  of  the  Governor- 
General's  Supreme  Council  from  Dec.  1859, 
to  April,  1862  :  helped  greatly  in  the 
restoration  of  financial  equilibrium  and  in 
the  establishment  of  Legislative  Councils  : 
Governor  of  Bombay  from  April,  1862,  to 
March,  1867  :  advanced  education,  built 
colleges,  pushed  on  railways,  established 
the  Bombay  municipality,  demolished  the 
old  ramparts  of  the  town,  initiated  female 
education.  Over-trading,  speculation,  and 
the  restoration  of  peace  in  America 
(causing  a  fall  in  cotton)  brought  on  a 
commercial  crisis,  in  which  the  Bank  of 
Bombay  was  involved  :  Frere' s  policy 
during  this  period  was  the  subject  of 
unfavourable  criticism.  He  was  Member 
of  the  Council  of  India,  1867-77  =  G.C.S.I. : 
D.C.L. :  President  of  the  Geographical  and 
Asiatic  Societies :  sent  to  Zanzibar,  in 
1872,  to  negotiate  a  treaty  for  the  sup- 
pression of  the  slave-trade  :  P.C  :  LL.D.  : 
accompanied  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales^- 
in  his  Indian  tour,  1875-6  :  Baronet  and 
G.C.B.  :  appointed,  in  1887,  Governor 
of  the  Cape  and  High  Commissioner  in 
S.  Africa  :  brought  a  war  with  the  Kafirs 
to  conclusion,  1878  :    became  engaged  in 



the  Zulu  war,  1879  :  and  in  troubles 
regarding  the  Transvaal  with  the  Boers  : 
the  English  Government  recalled  Frere  in 
1880  for  his  conduct  in  relation  to  the 
Zulu  war  and  alleged  disregard  of  orders  : 
he  defended  himself  on  his  retturn  to 
England  :  he  advocated  a  forward  policy 
with  regard  to  Afghanistan  :  died  May 
29,  1884  :  buried  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral : 
his  statue  erected  on  the  Thames  Embank- 
ment :  he  was  an  eminent  public  servant, 
combining  strong  character  under  a  kindly 
and  courteous  demeanour :  and  was 
earnest  in  his  religious  views.  He  wrote 
a  number  of  papers  on  the  questions  of  the 
day,  connected  with  India  :  also  a  memoir 
of  his  uncle  above-named. 



I.C.S.  :  born  June  6,  1811  :  third  son 
of  Edward  Frere :  and  brother  of  Sir 
H.  B  .E.  Frere  {q.v.)  :  educated  at  Swansea 
and  Haileybury  :  went  to  Bombay,  1830  : 
Judge  of  Dharwar,  and  of  the  Sadr  Court  : 
Member  of  Council,  Bombay,  1860-5  : 
retired :  travelled  round  the  world : 
Commissioner  to  inquire  into  the  health 
of  the  coolies  in  Demerara,  1870  ;  in 
Mauritius,  1872  :  C.M.G.,  1875  :  died 
March  23,  1880. 

FREYER,   P.    JOHNSTON  (  ?  -  ) 

Educated  at  Erasmus  Smith's  College, 
Gal  way  ;  Royal  University  of  Ireland, 
Steeven's  Hospital,  Dublin,  and  Paris : 
entered  the  Indian  medical  service,  1875  : 
held  civil  and  military  appointments : 
Medical  officer  to  the  Lieutenant-Governor, 
N.W.P  :  and  subsequently  to  H.H.  the 
Nawab  of  Rampur,  who  gave  him,  on 
recovery  from  an  illness,  a  very  large  fee 
for  his  services  :  practises  since  retire- 
ment in  London  :  Surgeon  to  St.  Peter's 
Hospital  for  Stone. 

RICHARDS  (1845-  ) 
I.C.S.  :  son  of  F.  W.  Fryer  :  entered 
the  Bengal  Civil  Service,  1864  :  called  to 
the  bar  from  the  Middle  Temple,  1880  : 
Cojumissioner,  Central  Division,  Upper 
Burma,  1886 :  Financial  Commissioner, 
Burma,  1888  :  Acting  Chief  Commissioner 
of  Burma,  1892-4  :  Officiating  Financial 
Commissioner,  Panjab  :  Additional  Mem- 
ber of  the  Governor-General's  Legislative 

Council,  1894-5  :    Lieutenant-Governor  of 
Burma,  1897-1903  :    K.C.S.I.,  1895. 

FULLARTON,  WILLIAM  (1754-1808) 
Colonel :  son  of  William  Fullerton : 
born  1754 :  educated  at  Edinbiurgh 
University :  raised  a  Scotch  regt.  and 
gazetted  Commandant  of  the  98th  in 
1780 :  went  to  India :  engaged  near 
Madras,  in  the  second  Mysore  war  with 
Hyder  Ali,  1780-2  :  at  the  suppression 
of  the  KoUars  of  Madras,  and  capture  of 
Dindigul  :  commanded  the  troops  south 
of  the  Coleroon,  1783  :  took  Dharapuram, 
Palghat  and  Coimbatore  :  showed  military 
ability :  returned  to  England  on  the 
peace  :  wrote  his  View  0/  Englii,h  Interests 
in  India,  xySy  :  F.R.S.  of  London  and 
Edinburgh  :  raised  the  23rd  Dragoons  : 
M.P.,  1787-1803  :  appointed  first  Com- 
missioner for  Trinidad :  tried  his  colleague,. 
Col.  Thomas  Picton,  for  torturing  a. 
Spanish  girl :    died  Feb.  13,  1808. 


(1854  -         ) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Rev.  J.  Fuller  :  educated" 
at  Marlborough :  entered  the  Indian 
Civil  Service,  1875  :  Commissioner  of 
Settlements  C.P.,  1885  :  Secretary  to 
Govt,  of  India,  Revenue  and  Agriculture 
Department,  igoi-2  :  Chief  Commissioner 
of  Assam,  from  April,  1902  :  CLE.,  1892  : 
C.S.I. ,  1902  :  Lieutenant-Governor  of  East- 
ern Bengal  and  Assam,  1905. 

FURDUNJI,  NAOROJI  (1817-1885) 

Born  in  March,  18 17,  at  Broach  :  edu- 
cated at  the  Native  Education  Society's 
school  at  Bombay,  where  he  afterwards 
became  a  teacher  :  Assistant  Professor  of 
the  Elphinstone  Institution  and  leader 
of  the  "  Young  Bombay  "  Party  :  was 
chiefly  instrumental  in  estabUshing  the 
first  girls'  school,  native  library,  literary 
society,  debating  club,  poHtical  associa- 
tion, body  for  improving  the  condition  of 
women,  institution  for  religious  and 
social  reforms,  law  association  and  the 
first  educational  periodicals.  In  1836, 
he  was  appointed  Native  Secretary 
and  Translator  to  Sir  Alexander  Biurnes 
{q.v.)  at  Kabul,  but  returned  to  Bombay 
before  the  Afghan  war  broke  out.  In 
1845  he  was  appointed  Interpreter  of  the 
High  Court  of  Bombay,  and  retired  in 
1864,  devoting  the  rest  of  his  hfe  to  im- 



proving  the  condition  of  the  people.  He 
laboured  to  obtain  the  passing  of  the 
Parsi  Matrimonial  and  Succession  Act. 
He  visited  England  on  three  occasions, 
lectured  before  the  East  India  Association, 
and  gained  the  high  opinion  of  many 
prominent  Englishmen :  an  influential 
member  of  the  Municipality  of  Bombay: 
CLE.  in  1884  :  died  Sep.  22,  1885. 

FURSE,  GEORGE  ARMAND  (1834-  ) 
Colonel :  born  Aug.  21,  1834  :  son  of 
William  Henry  Furse  :  educated  privately 
and  abroad :  joined  42nd  Highlanders, 
1855  :  served  in  the  Crimea  and  the  Indian 
mutiny  :  present  at  siege  of  Lucknow  ;  on 
special  service  :  to  Ashanti,  1873-4  '-  A.D.C. 
to  C.  in  C.  Bombay,  1874-8  :  A.A.G., 
Soudan  expedition,  1884-5  :  C.B.,  1887  : 
author  of  several  works  on  military  trans- 
sport  and  adtninistration. 



General :  joined  the  Army,  1834  :  at  the 
capture  of  Karachi :  Captain  in  the  40th 
regt.  in  the  Afghan  war,  1 841-2,  under 
Nott  at  Kandahar  and  Kabul,  and  in  the 
return  to  India  :  in  the  Crimea  :  in  the 
naiutiny,  commanded  a  battalion  at  Cawn- 
pur  :  at  the  capture  of  Lucknow  :  died 
Nov.   10,  1895  :    K.C.B. 

FYLER,    LAWRENCE    (1809-1873) 

Maj-General :  served  in  the  i6th  Lancers 
in  the  first  Afghan  war  :  was  at  Maharaj- 
pur,  1843  :  in  the  Satlaj  campaign  of 
1845-6 :  at  Badiwal  and  Aliwal  (severely 
wounded)  :  with  the  3rd  Lancers  in  the 
Panjab  campaign,  1848-9  :  in  the  Crimea 
with  the  12th  Lancers:  retired  i860  :  C.B., 
1869  :  died  Sep.  21,  1873. 

FYTCHE,    ALBERT    (1820-1892) 

Born  1820  :  son  of  John  Fytche  :  edu- 
cated at  Rugby  and  Addiscombe  :  joined 
the  Bengal  Army,  1839  :  served  in  Arakan 
against  the  Wallengs,  1841  :  entered  the 
Arakan  Commission,  1845  :  in  the  Panjab 
campaign,  1848-9  :  at  Chilianwala  and 
Gvurajat  :  severely  wounded :  Deputy 
Commissioner  of  Bassein,  1853  :  constantly 
engaged  against  the  Burmese  :  Commis- 
sioner of  Tenasserim,  1857  :  Chief  Com- 
missioner of  British  Burma,  March,  1867- 
March,  1871  :  negotiated  a  Treaty  with 
the  King  of  Burma  :    Maj-General,  1868  : 

C.S.I  :  died  June  17,  1892:  wrote  Burma 
Past  and  Present,  1878. 


(1837-         ) 

Born  1837  :  son  of  Rev.  John  Galbraith 
of  Tuam  :  entered  the  85th  regt.,  1855  : 
Lt-Colonel,  1879  :  Colonel,  1883  :  Maj- 
General,  1893  :  served  in  Afghan  war  as 
A.A.G.,  1878-80 :  Hazara  expedition, 
1888  :  A.A.G.  and  Q.M.G.  Ireland,  1882-6 : 
commanded  2nd  class  District  India, 
1886-90 :  Adjutant-General  in  India, 
1890-5  :  commanded  Quetta  District, 
1895-9  :   retired,  1899  :    K.C.B. ,  1897. 



Maj-General:  son  of  James  Galloway: 
joined  the  14th  Bengal  N.I.  in  iSoo : 
served  in  several  regiments  :  Colonel  of 
the  58th  N.I.  in  1836  :  was  in  the  defence 
of  Delhi  and  at  the  siege  of  Bhartpur  : 
member  of  the  Military  Board :  C.B., 
1838:  K.C.B.,  1848:  Chairman  of  the 
Court  of  Directors  of  the  E.  I.  Co.,  1849  : 
died  April  6,  1850  :  wrote  several  works  on 
India,  among  them  on  Muhammadan  Law  : 
Observations  on  the  Law  and  Constitution 
of  India,  1825  ;  Notes  on  the  Siege  of  Delhi 
in  1804,  etc. ;  on  Sieges  in  India  and  on  the 
Government  of  India,  1832. 


(1852-  ) 

Born  April  14,  1852  :  son  of  Henry 
Gallwey :  educated  at  Stonyhurst  and 
Royal  University,  Ireland  :  entered  the 
Army  Medical  Department,  1874  :  and 
became  Colonel,  1898  :  served  in  the 
Afghan  war,  1878-80 :  the  Egyptian 
expedition,  1882 ;  Kassassin  and  Tel-el- 
Kebir,  the  Soudan  expedition,  1884-5  ; 
Dongola  expedition,  1896  :  C.B.  :  Nile  ex- 
pedition, 1897-8  :  P.M.O.,  South  Africa, 
1899-1901  :  K.C.M.G.  :  P.M.O.,  India,  since 



Son  of  Samuel  Gambler,  nephew  of 
Baron  Gambler:  born  in  1794  :  educated 
at  Eton  and  Trinity  College,  Cambridge  : 
Fellow  :  called  to  the  bar  at  Lincoln's 
Inn,  1822  :  a  municipal  corporation  Com- 



raissioner,  1833  :  Recorder  of  Prince  of 
Wales^  Island,  and  knighted  1834  :  Puisne 
Judge  of  the  Madras  Supreme  Court,  1836  : 
Chief  Justice,  1842  :  retired  in  1849  :  died 
;May  31,  1879. 

GAMBLE,   JAMES   SYKES  (1847-        ) 

Born  July  2,  1847,  son  of  Harpur 
Gamble,  M.D.  :  educated  at  Royal  Naval 
School,  New  Cross ;  Magdalen  College, 
Oxford  ;  and  at  Nancy,  France  :  entered 
the  Indian  Forest  Department,  1871,  and 
rose  to  be  Conservator  of  Forests,  N.W.P., 
and  Oudh,  and  Director  of  Imperial  Forest 
School,  Dehra  Dun  :  author  of  A  Manual 
of  Indian  Timbers,  1881  ;  The  Bamboos  of 
British  India,  1885  :  C.I.E.,  1899  :  F.R.S.  : 


DORE  (1794-1878) 

French  Oriental  scholar  :  born  Jan.  25, 
1794  :  studied  Oriental  languages  under 
Baron  Silvestre  de  Sacy :  published  a  work 
on  Oriental  literature,  1822,  in  which  year 
he  was  Secretary  of  the  Societe  Asiatique, 
then  established  :  the  first  Professor  of 
Hindustani  at  the  special  school  of  Oriental 
languages,  1828  :  he  wrote  a  History  of 
Hindi  and  Hindustani  Literature,  and 
Hindustani  Authors  and  their  Works,  the 
Rudiments  of  Hindustani  and  Hindi, 
Allegories,  Poetic  Recitations  and  Popular 
Songs  of  Arabic,  Persian,  Hindustani  and 
Turkish :  edited  Sir  W.  Jones'  Persian 
Grammar  in  1845,  and  translated  El- 
Attar's  Language  of  Birds  :  wrote  a  num- 
"ber  of  annual  progress  reports  on  the  whole 
'field  of  Indian  literature  :  on  the  Muham- 
madan  religion,  on  Islam  d'apres  le  Coran, 
1874:  on  the  Rhetoric  and  Prosody  of  the 
Muslim  Nations,  and  on  the  religious 
Poetry  of  the  Persians :  in  1854-5  he 
translated  the  poet  Wall,  and  The  A  dven- 
iures  of  Kamrup  :  contributed  largely  to 
the  Journals  of  the  Societe  Asiatique  :  was 
a  member  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society 
and  of  the  French  Institute  from  1838  : 
received  the  Cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honour, 
1837  :    died  at  Paris,  Sep.  3,  1878. 


TON  (1785-1877) 

Adventurer :  Colonel :  born  1785,  in 
N.  America,  son  of  a  Doctor,  a  Scotch 
emigrant :  educated  for  9  years  at  St. 
Xavier,  Mexico  :    was  5  years  in  Ireland  : 

left  America,  1812  :  travelled  to  Lisbon, 
Madrid,  Cairo,  Trebizond,  Astrakhan, 
Astrabad,  Herat  (1819),  to  near  Khiva, 
Astrakhan,  across  the  Caspian  and  Aral 
Seas,  near  Uratube,  Kunduz,  Anderab,  to 
Afghanistan  :  took  service  under  Habi- 
bulla  Khan,  nephew  of  the  Amir  Dost 
Muhammad  (q.v.),  engaged  in  the  fights 
tween  them  :  after  HabibuUa's  flight  in 
1826,  Gardner  wandered,  through  Kafir- 
istan,  Badakshan,  Shighnan,  among 
the  Kirghiz,  to  Yarkand,  Leh,  Srinagar, 
Gilgit,  Chitral,  Kabul,  Kandahar  (1830), 
Girishk  (imprisioned  for  9  months),  to 
Kabul,  to  Dost  Muhammad,  to  Bajour, 
Peshawar,  Lahore  (1832),  where  he  joined 
Ranjit  Singh's  service,  as  Colonel  of 
Artillery :  engaged  in  campaigns,  in 
Bannu,  against  the  Afghans  (1835),  etc.  : 
commanded  the  Jammu  artillery  :  after 
Ranjit  Singh's  death  (1839),  Gardner 
shared  in  the  fighting  about  the  succession 
and  was  at  Lahore  when  the  first  Sikh  war 
against  the  British  was  declared :  but 
was  given  no  active  part  in  either  Sikh  war  : 
was  exiled  from  Lahore  :  entered  Golab 
Singh's  service  in  Jammu-Kashmir  (1846), 
and  remained  there  till  he  died  at  Jammu, 
Jan.  22,  1877  :  buried  at  Sealkot  :  in  his 
old  age  was  visited  by  high  officers. 

GARDNER,  WILLIAM  (1821-1897) 

Quartermaster-Sergeant  :  entered  the 
42nd  Royal  Highlanders,  1841,  served 
through  the  Crimea,  and  through  the 
mutiny  :  present  at  the  siege  of  Delhi, 
the  capture  of  Lucknow  and  the  action  at 
Bareli,  where  he  gained  the  V.C.  for  saving 
the  life  of  Colonel  Cameron  when  attacked 
by  three  Ghazis  at  once,  of  whom  he  killed 
two  :  retired  1862,  and  became  a  drill 
instructor  of  Volunteers  :    died  Oct.  1897, 



Son  of  Major  Valentine  Gardner,  and 
nephew  of  the  first  Lord  Gardner  :  entered 
the  British  Army  in  the  89th  foot  in  1783. 
and,  passing  through  several  regiments, 
was  Captain  in  the  30th  foot  in  1794, 
which  he  left,  to  join,  in  1798,  Maharaja 
J  aswant  Rao  Holkar  of  Indore,  raising  and 
commanding  a  Brigade  of  Infantry  for 
him.  He  married  a  Princess  of  Cambay. 
Holkar  accusing  Gardner  of  treachery,  the 
latter  would  have  killed  the  Maharaja,  but 
was    prevented.     He    then    entered    the 



service  of  Amrit  Rao  at  Poona.  Leaving 
such  adventurous  employment,  he  joined 
Lord  Lake  in  1804,  and  raised  and  com- 
manded a  regiment  of  irregular  horse 
under  him  and  Sir  David  Ochterlony  in 
Nipal  and  Rajputana  :  local  Lt-Colonel, 
1819  :  his  regiment,  "  Gardner's  Horse," 
became  the  2nd  Bengal  Cavalry.  He 
settled  at  Khasganj,  N.W.P. :  died  July  29, 



Son  of  William  Garnett  :  born  June  i, 
1829  :  educated  at  Addiscombe  :  went  to 
India  in  the  Bengal  Engineers,  1848  :  in 
the  siege  of  Multan  in  1848  :  held  the 
Chenab  fords  at  Gujarat,  1849  :j  was  in 
the  pursuit  of  the  Sikhs  :  served  in  Kohat 
in  1850  :  reconstructed  the  fort  there,  and 
made  "  Fort  Garnett  *'  and  other  defensive 
positions  and  roads  on  the  Afghan  frontier  : 
engaged  in  frontier  expeditions,  and  kept 
the  frontier  quiet  in  the  mutiny  :  in  the 
P.W.D.  Secretariat  :  died  in  1861  in 
Calcutta  :    Colonel. 

GARSTIN,  JOHN  (1756-1820) 

Maj -General :  born  1756  :  educated  for 
the  Army :  given  a  commission,  by 
George  III,  in  the  Engineers  :  the  first  of 
his  family  to  go  out  to  India  :  rose  to  be 
Maj -General  of  his  Corps :  Surveyor- 
General  of  Bengal,  and  Chief  Engineer  : 
chiefly  employed  in  the  construction  of 
civil  works,  especially  the  large  "  Golah  " 
at  Bankipur,  intended  as  a  granary  in  case 
of  famine :  was  also  the  architect  of 
Government  House,  Calcutta  :  "  Garstin's 
Place "  in  that  city  still  preserves  his 
name  :  translated  Paul  Frisi's  Rivers  and 
Torrents  from  the  Italian,  1818  :  the  work 
is  dedicated  to  Warren  Hastings,  his 
friend  and  patron  :  died  Feb.  16,  1820  : 
and  was  buried  at  Calcutta. 

GARTH,    SIR    RICHARD    (1820-1903) 

Son  of  the  Rev.  Richard  Garth  :  born 
March  11,  1820  :  educated  at  Eton  and 
Christ  Church,  Oxford  :  he  was  Captain 
of  the  Oxford  cricket  eleven  in  1840  and 
1 841:  called  to  the  bar,  at  Lincoln's  Inn,  in 
1847  :  was  Q.C.  and  a  Bencher  in  1866  : 
was  Conservative  M.P.  for  Guildford, 
1866-8  :  and  Chief  Justice  of  Bengal  from 
1875  to  1886  :  knighted  in  1875  :  made  a 
Privy  Councillor,  1889  :    after  his  retire- 

ment retained  his  interest  in  Indian 
questions  :  wrote  A  few  Plain  Truths  about 
India  :  died  March  23,  1903. 

GARVOCK,   SIR  JOHN  (  ?     1878) 

General :  entered  the  Army,  1835  : 
Brig-Major  in  Sir  Harry  Smith's  Division 
in  the  Satlaj  campaign,  1845-6  :  at  all  the 
battles  :  on  his  Staff  in  the  Boer  war,  1848, 
and  Kafir  war,  1850-2  :  Q.M.G.  in  Ceylon  : 
Brigadier  at  Dover :  commanded  the 
Peshawar  Division :  succeeded  Sir  N. 
Chamberlain  in  command  in  the  Umbeyla 
campaign,  1863  :  K.C.B.  :  commanded  the 
N.  district  in  England,  1866-71  :  the  S. 
district,  1877-8  :  G.C.B.,  1875  :  died  Nov. 
10,   1878. 

GASELEE,   SIR  ALFRED   (1843-         ) 

Born  June  3,  1843  :  entered  the  Indian 
Army,  1863,  and  became  Colonel,  1893  : 
Brig-General,  N.W.  Frontier,  1898  :  served 
in  Aybssinian  expedition,  1868  :  Bizoti 
expedition,  1869  :  Jowaki-Afridi  expedi- 
tion, 1877-8  :  Afghan  war,  1878-80  : 
Kandahar  :  Brevet-Major  :  Zhob  Valley, 
1884  :  Hazara,  1891  :  C.B.,  1891  :  Isaza, 
1892  :  Waziristan,  1894-5  :  Tirah  expedi- 
tion, commanding  2nd  Brigade,  1897-8  : 
K.C.B. ,  1898:  Officiating  Q.M.G.  India, 
1898  :  commanding  2nd  class  District, 
1 898-1901  :  commanded  British  Forces 
in  China,  1900  :  Maj-General :  G.C.I. E., 

GATACRE,  JOHN  (1841-        ) 

Son  of  Edward  Lloyd  Gatacre  :  born 
1841  :  educated  privately :  joined  the 
Bombay  Army,  1857,  and  Bombay  Staff 
Corps,  1866  :  commanded  his  regt.,  1884- 
91  :  Brig-General  at  Nagpur,  1891-6  : 
Maj-General,  1897  :  served  in  the  Indian 
mutiny  at  Khandesh,  1858  :  China  war, 
i860 :  Afghan  war,  1879-80 :  Burmese 
expedition,  1886-8  :    C.B.  1887. 


(1843-  ) 

Born  1843  :  entered  the  Army,  1862  : 
Staff  College,  1874  :  served  in  the  Hazara 
expedition  as  D.A.G.  and  D. Q.M.G.,  1888  : 
D.S.O.  :  Burma,  1889  :  Chitral,  1895  : 
C.B.  :  Soudan,  1898  :  K.C.B.  :  President 
of  the  Plague  Committee,  Bombay,  1897  : 
commanded  3rd  Division  in  S.  Africa, 
1 899-1900  :  Maj-General  commanding 
the  loth  Division,  4th  Army  Corps,  at 
Colchester  till  1904. 





Born  Aug.  21, 1805  :  entered  the  service 
of  the  Bhaunagar  State  in  1822  :  was 
employed  in  various  political  and  revenue 
duties  :  became  Assistant  Diwan  in  1839, 
and  Diwan  in  1846  :  introducing  many 
judicial,  and  revenue  reforms,  and  asserted 
the  State's  rights  against  its  neighbours  : 
developed  its  port,  commerce,  roads,  etc. : 
appointed  Joint  Administrator  of  the  State 
during  a  minority  :  C.S.I,  in  1877  :  retired 
from  the  service  of  the  State  in  1879  :  in 
1886,  became  a  Sanyasi,  i.e.  ascetic, 
renouncing  the  world :  known  as  Swami 
Satchidanund  Saras vati :  died  Dec.  i, 

GAWLER,  JOHN    COX  (  ?  -1882) 

Colonel  :  served  with  the  73rd  regt.  in 
the  Kafir  war,  1850-3  :  in  the  engage- 
ments :  district  adjutant  of  Natal  at  the 
end  of  the  war  :  in  the  Indian  mutiny, 
towards  the  end  :  in  1 860-1  commanded 
as  Brigadier  a  considerable  Field  Force 
against  the  Raja  of  Sikhim :  took  the  Raja's 
residence,  and  forced  him  to  accept  the 
treaty  dictated  to  him  :  penetrated  to  the 
Tibet  frontier  :  Keeper  of  H.M.'s  regalia 
at  the  Tower  of  London  :  died  July  31, 

GEARY,  GRATTAN  (     ?     -1900) 

Editor  of  the  Times  of  India :  and 
subsequently  acquired  the  Bombay  Gazette  : 
took  a  prominent  part  in  Bombay  muni- 
cipal affairs  and  was  at  one  time  Chairman 
of  the  Corporation :  wrote  Through 
Asiatic  Turkey  :  a  Narrative  of  a  lourney 
from  Bombay  to  the  Bosphorus,  1878  : 
an  able  writer,  and  indefatigable  worker^; 
exerted  no  little  influence  on  public  events 
in  India  :  died  Sep.  1900. 



Son  of  Rev.  PhiHp  Ge'i  :  educated  al 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge  :  Scholar  : 
Bell  University  Scholar  :  Fellow  of  Christ's 
College,  1843  :  ordained,  1843  :  lecturer 
and  tutor  :  Cambridge  Preacher  at  Chapel 
Royal,  Whitehall :  Domestic  Chaplain  to 
Bishop  of  London  (Dr.  Tait)  :  Bishop  of 
Madras,  1861-9^  when  he  retired  :  died 
at  Coonoor,  March  25,  1902  :   D.D. 



Born  at  Bagnols,  June  25,  1726:  of 
noble  family  :  in  1752  went  out  to  India 
as  officer  in  an  Infantry  regt.  :  served 
with  distinction  under  Dupleix,  Law  of 
Lauriston,  Lally,  etc.  After  the  collapse 
of  the  French  power  in  India  and  the 
surrender  of  Pondicherry  to  the  English, 
in  1761,  Gentil  served  for  a  time  under 
Mir  Kasim,  Nawab  of  Bengal,  then  under 
Shuja-ud-daula,  Nawab  of  Oudh,  who 
loaded  him  with  honours :  was  most 
generous  in  helping  less  fortunate  fellow 
countrymen,  and  enrolled  a  body  of  them 
to  serve  under  the  Nawab  :  after  the 
defeat  of  the  Nawab  at  Baxar,  Gentil 
helped  to  negotiate  peace  between  him 
and  the  English  :  after  Shuja-ud-daula's 
death  in  i775.  Gentil  was  compelled  by 
the  English  to  leave,  and  in  1778  returned 
to  France  :  appointed  Colonel  of  Infantry  : 
was  already  Chevalier  of  St.  Louis,  1771  : 
died  in  poverty,  having  lost  his  pension 
at  the  Revolution,  at  Bagnols,  Feb.  15, 
1799  •  author  of  Memoires  sur  Vlndoustan, 
Histoire  des  Radjahs  de  VHindoustan^ 
etc.  :  his  collection  of  Persian  MSS.  is  in 
the  Bibliotheque  Nationale,  Paris. 

GERARD,    ALEXANDER    (1792-1839) 

Son  of  Gilbert  Gerard,  D.D.  and 
brother  of  James  Gilbert  {q.v.)  and 
Patrick  [q.v.)  :  born  Feb.  17,  1792 : 
joined  the  Bengal  N.I.  in  1808  :  employed 
in  siurvey  work  in  1812-7  and  after,  and 
1825-7  :  ascended  great  heights  in  the 
Himalayas  and  penetrated  into  Tibet : 
in  1 82 1,  he  ascended  the  Charang  Pass, 
over  17,000  ft. ;  the  Keeobrang  Pass,  over 
18,000  ft. ,  and  Mount  Tahigung,  over 
22,000  ft.  ;  travelled  from  Sabathu  to 
Shipki  in  Chinese  Tartary,  and  from 
Shipki  to  Chinese  Tibet,  and  wrote  an 
account  of  his  attempt  to  penetrate  to 
the  lake  Mansarowar :  he  retired  early 
from  ill-health,  in  1836  :  died  Dec.  15, 

GERARD,    JAMES    GILBERT    (1796- 

Son  of  Gilbert  Gerard,  D.D.  :  bom 
1795  :  entered  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Bengal 
medical  service  in  1814 :  accompanied 
his  brother  Alexander  in  his  Himalayan 
travels:  in  1831  went  with  (Sir  Alexander) 

1 62 


Burnes  {q.v.)  to  Bokhara,  though  in  bad 
health  :  detained  by  illness  at  Mashad 
and  Herat,  and  died,  worn  out,  at  Sabathu, 
March  31,  1835.  His  scientific  accuracy 
was  valuable  in  connexion  with  the 
geographical  information  acquired  by  the 



General :  born  1843  :  son  of  Colonel 
Archibald  Gerard :  educated  at  Stony- 
hurst  :  entered  the  R.A.,  1864,  and 
Bengal  vStaff  Corps,  1870  :  Central  India 
Horse,  1870-95  :  served  in  Abyssinia, 
1868  :  Brig-Major  in  the  Afghan  war, 
1878-80  :  in  the  advance  to  Kabul:  in  the 
Kabul- Kandahar  march  and  battle  of 
Kandahar :  Brevets  Major  and  Lt- 
Colonel :  in  the  campaign  in  Egypt, 
1882,  as  D.A.A.  and  Q.M.G.  :  at  Tel-el- 
Kebir  :  C.B.  :  on  Secret  Service  in  Persia, 
1881-2,  and  1885  :  Military  Attache,  St. 
Petersburg,  1892-3  :  Commissioner  for 
Delimitation  of  Pamir  Boundary,  1895  ; 
General  commanding  Hyderabad  Con- 
tingent, 1896-9  :  commanding  Oudh 
District,  1899  :  C.S.I.,  1896 :  K.C.S.I., 
1897 :  K.C.B.,  1902  :  attached  to  the 
Russian  Forces  in  Manchuria,  1904-5 : 
died  of  pneumonia  at  Irkutsk,  July,  1905  : 
wrote  Leaves  from  the  Diaries  of  a  Soldier 
and  Sportsman  during  Twenty  Years'  Service 
in  India,  Afghanistan,  Egypt,  and  Other 
Countries,  1865-85. 

GERARD,  PATRICK  (1794-1848) 

Son  of  Gilbert  Gerard,  D.D.,  and 
brother  of  Alexander  and  James  Gilbert : 
born  June  11,  1794  :  entered  the  Bengal 
N.I.,  in  1812  :  Captain,  1828  :  invalided, 
1832  :  died  Oct.  4,  1848  :  recorded  obser- 
vations on  the  climate  of  Sabathu  and 
Kotghar,  and  wrote  on  meteorology,  and 
the  Himalayas  and  their  mineral  pro- 
ducts,  in   scientific   journals. 

HELM  (1742-1803) 

A  devoted  Danish  missionary  and 
evangelist :  native  of  Colberg  in  Pomer- 
ania :  graduate  of  Halle :  reached 
Tranquebar,  1767 :  to  Cuddalore,  1767, 
joining  the  S.P.C.K.  and  Hutteman 
there  :  assisted  at  Trichinopoly  :  during 
the  attack  by  Mysoreans  and  French  on 

Cuddalore,  he  interceded,  to  prevent 
destruction  of  British  life  and  property  : 
on  its  capture,  in  1782,  he  removed  to 
Negapatam  till  he  took  charge  of  the 
Vepery  Mission,  1788,  whence  he  visited 
other  stations  :  appointed  Dutch  trans- 
lator, 1792  :  Naval  Chaplain  of  H.M.S. 
Victorious  and  of  the  Naval  Hospital  at 
Vepery,  1 796-1 803  :  Chaplain  and  Secre- 
tary of  the  Female  Orphan  Asylum, 
Madras,  1788-1803  :  fortunate  in  his 
speculations  with  the  Mission  balances, 
and  died  rich,  leaving  a  considerable  sum 
to  the  Vepery  Mission :  in  personal 
character  stood  high  with  the  Govern- 
ment :  died  on  a  visit  to  Vellore,  1803. 


(1838-  ) 
Son  of  Rai  Bahadur  Durga  Persad 
Ghose,  Deputy  Collector  :  born  Feb.  26, 
1838  :  educated  at  the  Hindu  and  Presi- 
dency Colleges  :  passed  the  Pleadership 
examination,  1859  :  was  Government 
Pleader  at  Burdwan,  1860-2  :  practised  as 
pleader  in  the  Sadr  Court,  1862,  and  as 
Vakil  of  the  High  Court  from  1862,  attain- 
ing a  prominent  position  :  Member  of  the 
Bengal  Legislative  Council,  1883-5  :  Fel- 
low of  the  Calcutta  University,  1885  : 
President  of  the  Board  of  Examiners  for 
Pleaders,  1892  :  Puisne  Judge  of  the 
Calcutta  High  Court,  from  Jan.  12,  1885  : 
Fellow  of  the  Calcutta  University  and 
President  of  the  Faculty  of  Law  :  has 
established  charitable  institutions  in  his 
native  village  :  is  President  of  the  Bengal 
Kayastha  Sabha. 



Born  1829  :  educated  at  the  Oriental 
Seminary  :  established  a  weekly  paper. 
The  Bengal  Recorder,  in  1849  :  in  1850 
entered  the  Military  Pay  Examiners' 
office,  of  which  he  ultimately  became  the 
Registrar,  drawing  a  salary  of  Rs.  350  a 
month.  The  B  ngal  Recorder  was  con- 
verted into  the  Hindu  Patriot  in  1853, 
and  Haris  Chandra  Mukerji  became  its 
principal  editor,  but  Grish  Chandra  con- 
tinued his  crnnexion  with  the  paper  as 
a  contributjr.  In  1859,  he  and  his 
brother  were  introduced  into  the  Dalhousie 
Institute  fo ;  their  literary  attainments  : 
in  1861,  fhe  Bengalee  newspaper  was 
started,  and  Grish  Chandra    accepted  the 



editorship  in  addition  to  his  own  official 
duties  :  in  1868  he  published  a  Life  of 
Ram  Dulal  Dey  (^.u.)  the  Bengali  million- 
aire :  died  suddenly  in  Sep.  1869. 

GHOSE,  KARA  CHANDRA  (1808-1868) 

Educated  at  the  Hindu  College  under 
David  Hare  {q.v.),  and  Derozio  {q.v.):w3iS 
appointed  a  Munsif  in  1832  and  rose  high 
in  the  native  judicial  service.  In  1852  he 
was  made  junior  Magistrate  of  Calcutta, 
and  in  1854  a  Judge  of  the  Small  Cause 
Court  :  held  the  post  till  his  death  in 
1868.  His  bust,  in  marble,  was  placed  in 
the  main  entrance  of  the  Court. 

GHOSE,    KASI    PRASAD    (1809-1873) 

Born  Aug.  1809  :  admitted  as  a  free 
scholar  in  the  Hindu  College,  Oct.  1821  : 
in  Dec.  1828,  reviewed  MilVs  History  of 
British  India  at  the  request  of  Prof.  H.  H. 
Wilson  for  the  Government  Gazette  and 
the  Asiatic  lournal :  in  1829  left  the 
Hindu  College  :  in  1831,  published  his  first 
volume,  Shairand  other  Poems  :  in  1834  pub- 
lished, anonymously,  his  Memoir  of  Native 
Indian  Dynasties,  which  had  previously 
appeared  in  D.  L.  Richardson's  Literary 
Gazette ;  in  1840,  Richardson  included 
some  of  his  poetical  compositions  in  his 
Selections  from  the  British  Poets  :  in 
Nov.  1846,  he  established  the  weekly 
journal,  The  Hindu  Intelligencer,  which 
he  discontinued  in  1857  on  the  passing  of 
"  The  Gagging  Act  "  by  Lord  Canning  :  in 
1838,  the  Dharma  Sabha  was  founded  : 
he  opposed  all  social  reforms :  was  a 
Justice  of  the  Peace  of  the  City  of  Calcutta, 
and  Honorary  Presidency  Magistrate : 
died  Nov.   11,   1873. 

GHOSE,  MAN    MOHAN  (1844-1896) 

Lawyer  :  born  March,  1844  :  a  member 
of  an  old  Kayastha  family  in  Bikrampur, 
in  the  district  of  Dacca  :  son  of  Ram 
Lochan  Ghose,  a  Subordinate  Judge  and 
friend  of  Raja  Rammohan  Roy,  with 
whose  views  he  sympathized  :  educated 
at  the  Krishnagar  Collegiate  School  and 
the  Presidency  College,  Calcutta.  In 
1 861,  he  founded  the  Indian  Mirror,  then 
issued  fortnightly  :  in  1862,  he  went  to 
England  and  stood  for  the  Indian  Civil 
Service  Examination  in  1864  and  1865, 
but  without  success :  in  1866,  he  was 
called  to  the  bar,  and  in  1867  joined  the 
Calcutta  High  Court  as  the  first  Indian 
barrister  :    delivered  a  series  of  lectures 

against  the  open  competitive  examinations 
for  the  Indian  Civil  Service.  In  1885,  he 
was  sent  to  England  as  delegate  from 
Bengal,  to  speak  on  Indian  questions  : 
visited  England  again  in  1887,  1890,  1895, 
sometimes  with  his  family.  As  a  barrister, 
he  was  engaged  in  several  notable  cases, 
and  achieved  great  success.  He  became, 
in  1873,  Secretary  of  the  Bethune  College, 
and,  as  a  member  of  the  National  Con- 
gress, was  a  strong  advocate  for  the 
separation  of  judicial  and  executive 
functions  of  District  Officers  :  Fellow  of 
the  Calcutta  University :  died  Oct.  17, 

GHOSE,  RAM  GOPAL  (1815-1868) 
Son  of  a  petty  shopkeeper  :  born  Oct. 
1815  :  educated  at  the  Hindu  College  in 
Calcutta.  He  early  entered  on  a  mercan- 
tile career,  and  after  gaining  experience, 
first  as  banian  and  later  as  partner  in  a 
European  firm,  he,  with  his  acquired 
capital,  opened  a  firm  under  the  name  of 
R.  G.  Ghose  &  Co.,  with  a  branch  at 
Akyab.  He  was  a  very  active  member 
of  the  Bengal  Chamber  of  Commerce. 
In  1849  he  was  offered  the  post  of  Second 
Judge  of  the  Calcutta  Small  Cause  Court, 
but  declined  it.  He  was  one  of  the  earliest 
"  politicians  "  in  Bengal,  taking  part  in 
all  political  movements,'and  was  connected 
with  several  literary  and  self -improvement 
associations.  He  brought  out  one  or 
two  newspapers,  and  attempted  to  rouse 
the  sympathy  of  the  British  public  with 
Indian  grievances :  was  a  recognized 
leader  of  the  Native  community,  as  a 
reformer,  a  patriot,  an  eloquent  speaker, 
and  in  force  of  character,  and  did  much 
to  advance  native  society  :  through  his 
exertions  a  statue  was  erected  to  David 
Hare  :  took  a  leading  part  in  defence  of 
what  were  termed  "  The  Black  Acts  "  in 
1849  :  took  great  interest  in  education, 
and  was  one  of  the  first  to  send  his  daugh- 
ter to  the  Bethune  School :  was  a  Fellow 
of  the  University,  and  of  various  Societies  : 
Hony.  Magistrate  and  J. P.  for  Calcutta  : 
appointed  by  Government  a  member  of 
several  committees  :  on  the  Council  of 
Education,  1848-55:  Member  of  the 
Bengal  Legislative  Council,  1862-4  :  died 
Jan.  25,  1868. 


SIR  (     ?     -1881) 
An  Alizai   Pathan :   son  of  Ashik   Mu- 
hammad Khan,  ruler  of    the   Tonk    sub- 

1 64 


division  of  Dera  Ismail  Khan  under 
Ranjit  Singh  :  offered  his  services  to 
Government :  distinguished  himself  by 
capturing  Fort  Laki  when  held  by  Sikh 
rebels  in  1848,  and  frustrated  the  advance 
of  the  rebel  garrison  of  Bannu  to  Multan : 
aided  Reynell  Taylor  {q.v.)  at  Bannu, 
1 85 1-7  :  in  1857-8  as  native  commandant 
took  to  Lahore  the  Multan'  horse,  2,000 
strong,  which  he  had  raised :  under 
Colonel  Cureton,  C.B.,  led  them  in  15 
general  actions  :  for  five  years  after  the 
mutiny,  1859-64,  was  Envoy  at  Kabul 
and  accompanied  the  Afghan  army  to 
Herat :  Nawab,  1863  :  C.S.I.,  1868  : 
commanded  the  Bahawalpur  Army,  1868  : 
on  the  Staff  of  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of 
Wales,  1875-6  :  was  sent  in  advance  to 
the  Amir  of  Kabul  in  1878  :  was  a  trusted 
and  honoured  counsellor  during  the 
campaigns  of  1878-80  at  Kandahar  and 
Kabul :  was  made  hereditary  Nawab 
and  K.C.S.I.  and  given  jagirs  :  was 
officially  declared  to  be  "  a  gallant  soldier, 
an  able  counsellor  and  a  chivalrous 
gentleman  "  :  died  1881. 

TABA,  SYAD  (     ?    -    ?     ) 

Muhammadan  nobleman  :  his  maternal 
ancestors  were  Syads :  Zainul-abidin 
was  his  maternal  grandfather  :  related, 
as  a  cousin,  to  Aliverdi  of  Bihar  :  son  of 
Hidayat  Ali  Khan,  a  Deputy  Governor 
of  Bihar  :  born  at  Shahjahanabad  :  Mir 
Munshi,  or  Secretary,  of  the  Mogul  Em- 
peror :  resided  at  the  Court  of  the  Nawab 
of  Bengal,  Bihar  and  Orissa  :  representa- 
tive of  Mir  Kasim  [q.v.)  at  Calcutta,  until 
removed :  served  under  the  British  : 
befriended  by  General  Goddard,  Resident 
at  Chunarghar  :  entered,  with  permission, 
the  Nawab  of  Oudh's  service  for  a  time  : 
left  it :  wrote  the  Siyar-almuta'  akhkhirin, 
a  "  Review  of  Modern  Times,"  i.e.  "  The 
Manners  of  the  Moderns,  the  Chronicle  of 
the  Decay  of  the  Mogul  Empire  and 
Muhammadan  Domination  of  India,  during 
the  reigns  of  the  seven  last  emperors  of 
Hindustan,  written  in  Persian,  showing 
the  progress  of  the  English  in  Bengal  up 
to  1780  A.D.  "  :  translated  by  M.  Raymond 
{q.v.),  a  French  Creole,  who  assumed  the 
name  of  Haji  Mustapha  :  published  in 
1789  :  dedicated  to  Warren  Hastings  :  it 
was  lost  at  sea  on  the  way  to  England  :  a 
subsequent  edition  of  about  one-sixth  of 
the  work  was  issued  by  General  J.  Briggs 

of  the  Madras  Army  :  the  Satr,  or  Siyar- 
ul- mutakherin  (its  usual  name)  has  been 
highly  regarded  by  great  authorities. 


(1827-  ) 
Born  Jan.  9,  1827:  son  of  Colin  Gib, 
R.N.  :  educated  privately  :  joined  Madras 
Army,  1843  :  served  in  Khandesh,  1844, 
and  Indian  mutiny,  1857-9  :  commanded 
the  25th  regt.  M.I.  in  expeditionary 
force  to  Malta,  1878  :  commanded  a 
Brigade  in  Afghan  war,  1879-80,  and 
troops  in  action  of  Mazina  :  C.B.  :  held 
various  civil  and  military  appointments 
in  India,  including  the  command  of  the 
ist  class  District  of  Sikandarabad : 
General :    K.C.B.,  1897. 

GIBBS,  JAMES  (1825-1886) 

I.C.S.  :  born  1825  :  son  of  Right  Hon. 
Michael  Gibbs,  Lord  Mayor,  1845  :  edu- 
cated at  Merchant  Taylors'  and  Hailey- 
bury,  1844-6  :  called  to  the  bar  at  the 
Inner  Temple,  1864  :  went  to  Bombay 
in  the  Civil  Service,  1846 :  Judicial 
Assistant  to  the  Commissioner  in  Sind  : 
Special  Commissioner  for  Income  Tax, 
i860 :  President  of  the  Income  Tax 
Commission :  Judge  of  Poona,  1864  : 
Puisne  Judge  of  the  High  Court,  Bombay  : 
President  of  the  Asiatic  Society,  Bombay  : 
Member  of  Council,  Bombay,  April,  1874, 
to  April,  1879  :  Member  of  the  Supreme 
Council,  May,  1880,  to  May,  1885  :  Vice- 
Chancellor  of  the  Bombay  University, 
1870-9  :  died  Oct.  30,  1886  :  C.S.I.  : 

GIBBS,  SIR   SAMUEL  (  ?  -1815) 

Joined  the  102nd  foot  in  1783  :  served 
in  Canada,at  Gibraltar,  the  Mediterranean, 
at  Ostend,  in  the  W.  Indies,  1799  :  com- 
manded the  59th  at  the  Cape,  1805-6  : 
and  in  the  Travancore  war,  1808-9  : 
was  in  the  expedition  of  181 1  under  Sir  S. 
Auchmuty  to  Java  :  distinguished  him- 
self :  at  Fort  Cornells,  and  led  the  final 
attack  on  the  Dutch  General  Janssens  : 
then  left  India  :  in  Holland,  in  18 12  :  in 
the  United  States,  in  the  attack  on  New 
Orleans :  severely  wounded,  and  died 
Jan.  9,  1815  :    K.C.B.  :    Maj-General. 

GIBSON,  ALEXANDER  (1800-1867) 
Born  Oct.  24,  1800  :  M.D.  of  Edinburgh  : 
went  to  India  in  the  E.I.   Co.'s  medical 



service  in  1825  :  served  in  the  Indian 
navy :  vaccinator  for  the  Dekkan  and 
Khandesh,  1836 :  studied  botany  and 
agriculture  :  Superintendent  of  the  Dapuri 
botanic  garden  near  Poona,  1838-67  : 
aimed  at  introducing  new  trees  and  plants 
and  drugs :  Conservator  of  Forests, 
Bombay,  1847-60 :  F.L.S.,  1853  :  wrote 
on  Bombay  Forests  and  Flora  :  died  Jan. 
16,  1867. 


OF  (     ?     -1889) 

During  the  Sonthal  rebellion,  1855,  he 
rendered  valuable  service  to  the  Govern- 
ment, for  which  he  received  rewards : 
during  the  Sepoy  mutiny  he  helped  the 
Government  greatly  in  the  protection  of 
Bihar,  and  was  made  "  Maharaja  Baha- 
dur," and  K.C.S.I.  :  a  jagir  was  granted 
to  him  in  1864  :  during  the  Bengal  famine 
of  1874  he  gave  great  assistance,  and  the 
title  of  "  Maharaja  "  was  extended  to  his 
son :  in  1877,  at  the  Delhi  Imperial 
Assemblage,  this  title  was  made  hereditary 
in  his  family  :  he  died  in  1889  :  grand- 
father of  Maharaja  Sir  Ravaneshwar 
Singh  iq.v.). 

DUR, OF  (1860-      : 

Member  of  Bengal  Legislative  Council, 
1893-5,  and  1895-7  and  1901  :  title  of 
Maharaja  made  hereditary,  1877  :  K.C.I.E. 

BARONET  (1785-1853) 

Son  of  Rev.  Edmund  Gilbert :  born 
1785  :  joined  the  15th  Bengal  N.I,  in 
1 801  :  present  at  the  actions  at  Alighar, 
Delhi,  Agra,  Laswari  in  1803,  at  Deeg 
and  Lake's  unsuccessful  attacks  on 
Bhartpur  :  Commandant  of  the  Calcutta 
native  militia,  1815  :  Superintendent  of 
the  Mysore  Princes,  1816,  and  on  Lord 
Hastings'  Staff:  A.G.G.  on  the  S.W. 
frontier,  1822  :  Colonel  of  the  ist  Euro- 
pean Fusiliers,  1832  :  Maj -General,  1841  : 
Lt-General,  185 1  :  commanded  a  Division 
in  the  first  Sikh  war  at  Mudki,  Firozshahr, 
and  Sobraon  :  K.C.B.,  1846  :  and  in  the 
Panjab  campaign :  at  Chilianwala  and 
Gujarat :  after  the  last-named  battle  he 
commanded  in  the  pursuit  of  the  Sikhs, 

who  surrendered  to  him  at  Hoormuck 
and  Rawul  Pindi,  the  Afghans  flying  to 
the  Khyber  :  G.C.B.  :  Baronet  in  1851  : 
Military  Member  of  the  Supreme  Council, 
Dec.  1852,  to  Feb.  1853  :  he  was  a  famous 
sportsman,  and  paid  much  attention  to 
horse-racing  :    died  May  12,  1853. 



Born  in  1759  :  educated  at  Heriot's 
Hospital,  Edinburgh  :  to  Calcutta  in  the 
E.I.  Co.'s  medical  service,  1794 :  was 
the  first  to  reduce  to  a  system  the  lan- 
guage, then  unsettled,  called  Hindustani : 
published  a  dictionary  and  grammar  in 
it,  and  popularized  its  study  :  he  was 
also  well  versed  in  Sanskrit  and  Persian  : 
the  Marquis  Wellesley  made  him  Principal 
of  the  College  of  Fort  William  at  Calcutta 
in  1800  :  he  supervised  the  preparation 
of  works  in  Hindu  and  Urdu  by  native 
scholars,  and  himself  wTote  chiefly  on 
those  languages  :  left  India  in  1804 : 
LL.D.  of  Edinburgh  :  acted  as  Oriental 
Professor  at  Haileybury,  Feb.  to  May, 
1806  :  retired  in  1809  :  taught  privately 
in  Oriental  languages,  181 6-8  :  Professor 
of  Hindustani  at  the  Oriental  Institution, 
1818-26:  his  method  of  obtaining  re- 
muneration for  his  teaching,  by  the  sale 
of  his  works,  was  irregular,  and  he  turned 
to  abusing  his  employers.  After  giving 
up  his  Professorship,  he  still  taught  Hin- 
dustani for  a  time  :  died  in  Paris,  Jan.  9, 
1841  :  a  scholarship  in  his  name  was 
founded  in  Calcutta. 


TAV  (1812-1890) 

Born  July  20,  1812,  at  Klein  Siemen  in 
Mecklenburg:  studied  theology  and 
Oriental  languages  at  Gottingen  and 
Boon  :  Sanskrit  under  Schlegel  and  Las- 
sen :  Privat-docent  at  Bonn,  1839,  for 
Oriental  languages  and  literature  :  Extra- 
ordinary Professor  at  Bonn,  1844  :  Pro- 
fessor,  in  1845,  of  theology  and  Oriental 
literature  at  the  University  of  Marburg ; 
also  Librarian  there  for  ten  years:  Professor 
of  Oriental  languages  and  literature  at 
Bonn,  1859,  retaining  this  post  till  his 
death,  on  March  11,  1890.  A  contro- 
versialist as  well  as  a  scholar  :  of  wide  and 
varied  interests  and  learning :  thorough 
and  conscientious  in  all  his  work  :  a  great 
teacher  and  noted  librarian  :   yet  has  left 

1 66 


no  great  monument  of  his  industry  behind 
him.  Among  his  works  on  Indian  sub- 
jects are  :  Die  falsche  Sanskrit-philologie, 
1840 ;  Bihliothecac  Sanskritae  specimen, 
1847  ;  a  new  edition  of  Lassen's  Antho- 
logia  Sanskritica,  1865  ;  one  of  the  founders 
of  the  Deutsche  Morgenlandische  Gesell- 

GILL,  ROBERT     (  ?  -1876) 

Major :  antiquary,  artist  and  sports- 
man :  entered  the  Indian  Army  in  1842  : 
his  regimental  service  was  apparently 
uneventful :  he  is  remembered  for  his  work, 
as  follows.  In  1844,  the  Court  of  Direc- 
tors of  the  E.I.  Co.  ordered  that  copies 
should  be  made  of  the  frescoes  in  the 
Buddhist  excavations  at  Ajanta  :  Gill 
was  appointed  about  1844-6  to  the  work, 
and  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life,  about 
thirty  years,  at  Ajanta,  doing  it  :  living 
in  the  sarai  in  which  Colonel  (Sir)  Arthur 
Wellesley  (q.v.)  had  quarters  after  Assaye. 
With  great  labour.  Gill,  working  in  feverish 
jungle,  and  in  dark  recesses  (haunted  by 
wild  animals),  copied  in  full  size  and  oils 
the  principal  frescoes,  about  thirty  in 
number,  and  sent  them  to  England,  about 
1855.  Of  these  paintings,  twenty-five, 
exhibited  at  the  Crystal  Palace,  were  burnt 
in  1866  :  five  at  the  India  office  escaped  : 
some  of  those  burnt  had  been  copied  by 
George  Scharf  to  illustrate  the  works  of 
Mrs.  Manning.  The  Ajanta  frescoes  were 
again  copied,  under  Government  orders, 
in  1872-85  by  Mr.  John  Griffiths,  Princi- 
pal of  the  Bombay  School  of  Art  :  and  the 
results  were  published,  1896.  Other 
drawings  by  Gill,  i.e.,  of  ground  plans  of 
the  caves,  and  architectural  details,  are 
still  preserved  :  he  was  also  an  expert 
photographer,  as  shown  in  his  two  books, 
viz.  The  Rock-cut  Temples  of  India,  illus- 
trated by  his  74  photographs,  1864  :  and 
One  Hundred  Stereoscopic  Illustrations  of 
Architecture  and  Natural  History  in  W. 
India,  1864,  both  books  with  descriptions 
by  J.  Fergusson  {q.v.).  Gill,  as  a  sportsman, 
killed  above  150  tigers,  mostly  on  foot, 
his  name  being  well  known  for  his  prowess 
for  nearly  half  a  century  :  he  died  while 
being  conveyed,  very  ill,  from  Ajanta  to 
Bhosawal,  where  he  was  buried. 



Of  an  old  Scottish  family  :  born  Jan.  21, 
1766  :    educated  at  Kensington  and  near 

Newmarket :  joined  the  3rd  Irish  Horse 
in  1783  :  was  acquitted  on  a  verdict  of 
"  justifiable  homicide,"  after  shooting  a 
man  in  a  duel:  went  to  Jamaica,  1792: 
recovered  from  yellow  fever :  to  St. 
Domingo  :  fired  on  while  swimming  with 
a  flag  of  truce  :  Adjutant-General  at  St. 
Domingo,  1796  :  personally  killed  six  out 
of  eight  men  attacking  him  :  received  a 
sword  of  honoiu:  from  the  Jamaica  House 
of  Assembly  :  tried  by  court  martial  at 
Colchester,  1804  :  honourably  acquitted  : 
stationed  at  Arcot  in  Madras  :  from  there, 
14  miles  off,  rescued  the  survivors  of  the 
69th  foot  from  the  mutineers  at  Vellore, 
July  10,  1806  :  commanded  the  cavalry 
against  Ranjit  Singh  in  1809  :  command- 
ant at  Bangalore :  commanded  the 
Mysore  Division :  was  Brig-General  in 
181 1  :  commanded  the  advance  of  Sir  S. 
Auchmuty's  expedition  to  Java  :  led  the 
attack  at  Cornells  :  left  in  command  at 
Java  :  deposed  the  Sultan  of  Palimbang 
in  Sumatra :  defeated  Javanese  chiefs 
at  Yodhyakarta :  Maj-General,  1812  : 
left  Java  :  commanded  at  Meerut  :  and  a 
Division  in  the  Nipal  war  :  killed,  leading 
an  attack  on  Fort  Kalanga,  near  Deyra 
Doon,  Oct.  31,  1814 :  but  named  as 
K.C.B.  on  Jan.  i,  1815  :  a  monument  to 
him  by  Chantrey  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral. 
His  military  actions  were  all  distinguished 
by  his  reckless  courage  :  he  was  also  a 
keen  sportsman. 

GIRAUD,  HERBERT  JOHN  (1817-1888) 
Son  of  John  Thomas  Giraud :  born 
April  14,  1817  :  took  his  M.D.  degree  at 
Edinburgh  University,  1840  :  entered  the 
E.I.  Co.'s  Bombay  Medical  Service,  1842  : 
Professor  of  Chemistry  and  Botany,  and 
afterwards  Principal  of  the  Grant  Medical 
College,  Bombay :  Principal  of  Sir 
Jamsetji  Jijibhai's  Hospital :  Chemical 
Analyst  to  the  Bombay  Government  : 
Deputy  Inspr-General  of  the  Army  Medi- 
cal Service :  Fellow  of  the  Bombay 
University :  Surgeon  on  the  Staff  of 
several  Governors  of  Bombay  :  stated  to 
have  been  the  first  to  introduce  the  study 
of  chemistry  and  botany  into  W.  India  : 
wrote  papers  on  chemical  and  botanical 
subjects,  including  toxicology,  for  scienti- 
fic journals  :  retired,  1867  :  died  Jan.  12, 
GLADWIN,  FRANCIS  (  ?  -1813?) 
Was  in  the  Bengal  Army  :  encouraged 
by    Warren    Hastings    in   his    studies   in 



Oriental  literature  :  translated  a  portion 
of  Abul  Fazl's  Ain-i-Akbari,  1783-6 : 
member  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Ben- 
gal :  published  a  History  of  Hindustan, 
1788  :  a  number  of  translations  of 
Persian  writers,  including  the  Gulistan  : 
a  Persian-Hindustani-English  dictionary, 
1809  :  was  first  Professor  of  Persian  at 
the  College  of  Fort  William,  1801  :  Col- 
lector of  Customs  at  Patna,  1802  :  Com- 
missary resident  at  Patna,  1808  :  he  died 
about  1813. 



Born  April  20,  1796:  son  of  Bishop 
George  Gleig  :  educated  at  Glasgow  and 
Balliol  College,  Oxford  :  entered  the 
Army,  1812  :  served  in  the  Peninsula  and 
America :  took  his  degree,  1819  :  or- 
dained, 1820 :  Chaplain  of  Chelsea 
Hospital,  1834  :  Chaplain-General  of  the 
Forces,  1844-75  :  died  July  9,  1888  : 
wrote  largely  for  Reviews  and  Magazines  : 
also,  among  other  works.  The  Life  of  Sir 
Thomas  Munro,  The  History  of  India, 
Sale's  Brigade  in  Afghanistan,  Lives  of 
"  Lord  Clive,"  and  "  Warren  Hastings.'^ 



Son  of  Charles  Grant  (q.v.)  :  born  Oct. 
26,  1778,  at  Kidderpur,  Bengal :  came  to 
England,  1790 :  educated  at  Magdalen 
College,  Cambridge  :  Fellow  :  won  Claud- 
ius Buchanan's  {q.v.)  University  Prize 
poem  on  "The  Restoration  of  Learning  in 
the  East  "  :  called  to  the  bar  at  Lincoln's 
Inn,  Jan.  30,  1807  :  M.P.  from  18 11-35 
for  Inverness  and  the  county  :  Lord  of 
the  Treasury,  1813  :  Chief  Secretary  for 
Ireland,  1819-23  :  and  Privy  Councillor  : 
Vice-President  of  the  Board  of  Trade, 
1823-7  :  President  of  the  Board,  and 
Treasurer  of  the  Navy,  1827-8  :  President 
of  the  Board  of  Control  from  Nov.  22, 
1830,  to  Dec.  15,  1834.  It  devolved  on 
him  to  carry  the  Bill,  in  1833,  for  the 
renewal  of  the  E.I.  Co.'s  charter :  the 
Company  retained  its  political  status,  but 
its  property  was  vested  in  the  Crown  : 
the  Bishopric  in  India  was  increased.  He 
was  Secretary  for  the  Colonies,  1835-9  : 
.made  a  peer  in  1835  :  abolished  West 
Indian  Slavery :  his  policy  in  Canada 
was  attacked  on  all  sides,  and  he  resigned 
in  1839,  receiving  a  pension  and  the  office 

of  Commissioner  of  the  Land-Tax  :  died 
April  23,  1866,  and  the  title  became 
extinct.  ; 

EUGENE  (1846-        ) 

Born  Aug.  10,  1846,  at  Brussels  :  son 
of  Count  Louis  Goblet  d'Alviella,  member 
of  the  Belgian  House  of  Representatives  : 
educated  at  Brussels  and  Paris :  took 
the  degrees  of  D.Polit.Science,  D.LL.  and 
D.Phil.,  at  Brussels  :  called  to  the  bar  : 
became  a  member  of  the  Provincial 
Council  of  Brabant,  1872  :  managed, 
1874-92,  the  Revue  de  Belgique  :  in  1875, 
accompanied  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales 
to  India,  as  special  correspondent  of  the 
Independence  Beige :  afterwards  visited 
Sikhim  and  the  Buddhist  monasteries  on 
the  Tibet  frontier  :  sat  in  the  Belgian 
House  of  Representatives,  1878-84 : 
member  of  the  Senate,  1892  :  Secretary 
of  the  Senate  since  1900 :  appointed 
Professor  of  the  History  of  Religions  in 
1884,  and  still  occupies  this  post :  Hibbert 
Lecturer  at  Oxford  and  London,  1891  : 
1896-8,  Rector  of  the  University  of 
Brussels  :  1897,  elected  President  of  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Belgium  :  Senator  of 
Belgium,  1894  :  Secretary  of  the  Senate 
since  1900 :  author  of  works  dealing 
with  both  the  ancient  civilization  and  the 
modern  development  of  India  under 
British  rule  :  Inde  et  Himalaya  ;  Souvenirs 
de  Voyage,  \^77,  1880 ;  UHistoire  re- 
ligieuse  chez  les  Anglais,  les  Americains,  et 
les  Hindous,  1884 ;  La  Migration  des 
Symboles,  1891  ;  Ce  que  VInde  doit  a  la 
Grece,  1897  :  and  numerous  articles  on 
the  people  and  religions  of  India  in  the 
Revue  de  Belgique,  Revue  des  Deux  Mondes, 
etc.  :  M.R.A.S.  :  LL.D.  of  the  University 
of  Glasgow,  1901. 

GODDARD,  THOMAS  (1740P-1783) 
Grandson  of  Thomas  Goddard,  Canon 
of  Windsor  :  at  Madras  with  his  regiment 
under  Coote,  1 75  9-61  :  at  the  capture  of 
Pondicherry,  Jan.  16,  1761  :  in  the  84th 
regt.  in  the  Bengal  campaign,  1763  - 
joined  the  Bengal  Army  :  raised  "  God- 
dard's  battalion  "  of  sepoys  at  Murshida- 
bad  in  1764 :  served  in  quelling  the 
mutiny  at  Patna,  1766  :  at  capture  of 
Burrareah,  near  Chapra,  1770 :  and 
against  the  Mahrattas  in  Rohilkund,  1772  : 
in  command  at  Berhampur,  1774  '•  and 
of  the  contingent  at  Lucknow,  1776 :  com- 



manded,  in  succession  to  Colonel  Leslie, 
the  Bengal  contingent  which  marched 
across  India  to  aid  the  Bombay  Army 
against  the  Mahrattas,  1778-81  :  took 
Mhow :  Ahmadabad  on  Feb.  15,  1780  : 
defeated  Sindia :  captured  Bassein,  Dec. 
II,  1780:  threatened  Poona :  Goddard 
was  compelled  to  retreat :  treaty  with 
Sindia,  Oct.  1781  :  Brig-General :  ap- 
pointed C.  in  C.  of  the  Bombay  Army  : 
retired  for  ill-health  :  died  at  sea,  off  the 
Land's  End,  July  7,  1783. 

GODEHEU,  M.  (  ?  -  ?  ) 

Member  of  Council  at  Chandernagore 
and  befriended  by  Dupleix  while  the 
latter  was  the  Intendant  there,  before 
1741  :  Director  of  the  Company  of  the 
Indies  in  France  :  sent  out  by  the  French 
Ministry  as  Commissary  of  the  French 
King,  and  Governor-General  of  the  French 
Settlements,  to  supersede  Dupleix,  con- 
clude peace  with  the  English,  and  examine 
Dupleix's  accounts  :  reached  Pondicherry, 
Aug.  I,  1754  :  ruined  Dupleix  by  rejecting 
his  claims  for  sums  advanced  from  his 
private  means,  and  by  his  reports  :  in 
negotiating  with  Saunders,  the  English 
Governor  at  Madras,  Godeheu  reversed 
Dupleix's  policy,  and  gave  up  nearly  all 
the  points  at  issue,  thus  diminishing  the 
French  position  in  India :  left  Pondi- 
cherry for  France  in  Feb.  1755. 


(1847-    ) 

Born  June  11,  1847,  son  of  J.  R.  God- 
ley  :  educated  at  Rugby  and  Balliol 
College,  Oxford :  Hertford,  Ireland  and 
Eldon  Law  Scholar  :  Fellow  of  Hertford 
College,  1874  :  Private  Secretary  to  Mr. 
Gladstone  when  Prime  Minister,  1872- 
4  and  1880-2  :  Commissioner  of  Inland 
Revenue,  1882-3  :  Under  Secretary  of 
State  for  India  since  1883  :    K.C.B.,  1893. 



Joined  the  9th  foot  in  1799  '  served  in 
Hanover  in  1805  :  in  the  Peninsula, 
1808  :  Brevet-Major  and  C.B.  :  went  to 
India  as  Lt-Colonel  of  the  41st,  1822  : 
throughout  the  first  Burmese  war,  1824-6, 
including  capture  of  Rangoon  and  occupa- 
tion of  Martaban  :  Ma j -General,  1846  : 
commanded  a  Division  in  Bengal,  1850  : 
and   held   the   Command-in-Chief   of   the 

Force  in  the  second  Burmese  war,  1852-3  : 
captured  Rangoon,  April,  1852,  Bassein 
in  May,  Pegu  in  June  :  commanded  the 
Sirhind  Division  :  died  at  Simla,  Oct.  26, 
1853,  from  the  effects  of  the  Burmese 
campaigns :  made  K.C.B.,  but  died 
before  the  notification  reached  him. 

SHAM  (1834-  ) 
Born  July  6,  1834  :  son  of  Robert  A.  C. 
Godwin-Austen,  a  distinguished  geolo- 
gist :  educated  at  Sandhurst :  entered 
the  Army,  1851  :  went  to  India,  1852  : 
served  in  the  second  Burmese  war  and 
Panjab :  entered  the  Trigonometrical 
Survey  of  India,  1857  :  surveyed  large 
tracts  in  the  Himalayas :  on  special 
duty  with  Bhutan  Field  Force,  1864 : 
President  of  Section  E  (Geography)  of 
British  Association,  1883  :  author  of  On 
the  Land  and  Freshwater  Mollusca  of 
British  India,  1882-99  '•  contributed  to 
several  scientific  Journals  on  geology, 
ethnology  and  natural  history :  Lt- 
Colonel  :    retired,   1877. 

BISHOP (1833-1901) 

Born  1833,  in  Belgium  :  of  a  family  of 
wealth  and  influence  :  had  a  distinguished 
career  in  Europe :  was  Count  of  the 
Roman  Empire,  and  a  Domestic  Chaplain 
to  the  Pope,  before  he  went  to  Calcutta  in 
1878,  to  be,  at  first,  Bishop  :  like  the 
other  Vicariates  and  Prefects  Apostolic  in 
India,  he  was  subject  to  the  Archbishop 
at  Goa  :  from  1886,  under  the  concordat 
between  the  Portuguese  authorities  at 
Goa  and  the  Vatican,  he  became  Arch- 
bishop under  the  constitution  issued  by 
the  Pope, which  converted  the  16  Vicariates 
into  regular  dioceses  and  appointed  him 
Archbishop  by  special  proclamation. 
He  was  thus,  for  15  years,  head  of  the 
Roman  Catholic  Church  in  India,  under 
the  direction  of  the  Congregation  of  the 
Propaganda  at  Rome :  he  devoted  his 
energies  and  his  wealth  to  the  interests 
of  the  See,  especially  in  the  development 
of  churches,  convents  and  schools  :  died 
at  Calcutta,  July  4,  1901  :  described  as 
a  most  distinguished  prelate  and  true, 
devoted  friend  to  India. 

GOLDNEY,  PHILIP  (1802-1857) 

Son  of  Thomas  Goldney  :  born  Nov. 
21,    1802  :    educated  privately :    entered 



the  E.I.  Co.'s  Bengal  Army,  1821  :  served 
in  Sind,  from  1844 :  became  Collector- 
Magistrate  there  :  in  the  expedition  to 
the  Trucki  hills :  had  great  influence 
over  the  Beluchis  :  increased  the  area  of 
canal  cultivation  :  commanded  a  Brigade 
sent  to  annex  Oudh  :  in  charge  of  the 
Faizabad  Division,  when  the  mutiny  of 
1857  broke  out  :  fortified  the  town  : 
compelled  to  leave  in  boats  :  killed  at 
Begamji,  on  the  Gogra,  30  miles  from 
Faizabad,  about  Jime  9,  1857. 


(1847-  ) 

Born  Oct.  10,  1847 :  son  of  Colonel 
Philip  Goldney,  Bengal  Array  :  educated 
privately  :  joined  the  English  Army,  and 
subsequently  the  Bengal  StaEE  Corps : 
served  in  Sikhim  expedition,  1888  :  ex- 
pedition to  Dongola,  1896  :  N.W.  Frontier 
of  India,  1897,  relief  of  Chakdara  :  Moh- 
mand  expedition,  1897-8  :  C.B. :  Colonel. 


(1818-         ) 

Maj-General :  son  of  Lionel  P.  Gold- 
smid :  educated  at  Paris  and  King's 
College,  London :  entered  the  Madras 
Army,  1839  :  served  in  China  war,  1840-1  : 
in  Eastern  Crimea  with  Turkish  troops, 
1855-6  :  on  special  missions  and  political 
employment  under  Bombay  Government, 
1862-4  :  Director  of  Government  Indo- 
European  Telegraph,  1865-70  :  Colonel, 
1870  :  Boundary  Commissioner  to  settle 
Perso-Kelat  frontier,  and  arbitrator  in 
the  Perso-Afghan  Boundary  settlement, 
Seistan,  1870-2  :  Maj-General,  1875  : 
British  Commissioner  on  International 
Commission  for  Indian  immigrants  in 
Reunion,  1877-80  :  British  Controller  of 
Daira  vSanieh,  Egypt,  1880-3  '-  author  of 
Telegraph  and  Travel,  1874  ;  James 
Oittram,  a  Biography,  1880,  and  contri- 
butor to  Encyclopaedia  Britannica  :  C.B., 
1866  :    K.C.S.I.,  1871  :    F.R.G.S. 



Of  the  Bombay  Civil  Service :  born 
May  9,  1812  :  son  of  Edward  Goldsmid  : 
educated  privately  and  at  Haileybury : 
went  to  the  Bombay  Presidency,  1832  : 
became  assistant  to  the  Revenue  Com- 
missioner, Mr.  Williamson,  in  1835  : 
devised  the  Revenue  Survey  and  assess- 

ment system  of  Western  India,  and 
applied  it,  1835-45  :  Private  Secretary  to 
Sir  G.  R.  Clerk,  Governor  of  Bombay, 
1847-8  :  Secretary  in  the  Revenue  Depart- 
ment in  1848,  and  Chief  Secretary,  1854. 
He  was  the  founder  of  a  school  of  revenue 
officers  who  gave  effect  to  the  ryotwari 
system  of  direct  tenure  of  the  cultivators 
from  the  Government  as  landlord  :  the 
system  generally  adopted  in  W.  India  : 
Goldsmid  died  at  Cairo,  Jan.  3,  1855. 



Born  Jan.  18,  1821,  at  Konigsberg : 
educated  at  the  University,  Konigsberg, 
1836,  and  at  Bonn,  studying  Sanskrit 
under  Schlegel  and  Lassen,  devoting  him- 
self chiefly  to  philosophy  and  Oriental 
languages  :  stayed  in  Paris  and  Berlin,  but 
finally  lived  in  England,  1850,  when  he  was 
appointed  Professor  of  Sanskrit,  Univer- 
sity College,  London  :  held  this  post  till 
his  death  :  an  authority  on  Sanskrit 
philology  :  he  wrote  on  Panini,  his  Place 
in  Sanskrit  Literature,  1861  ;  an  unfinished 
Dictionary,  Sanskrit  and  English ;  an 
edition  de  luxe  of  the  Mahabhashya,  an 
Indian  Commentary  on  Panini's  Grammar, 
published  in  1874  by  the  Indian  Govern- 
ment after  Goldstiicker's  death.  He  also 
wrote  for  the  English  public,  in  various 
Encyclopaedias,  popular  articles  on  Indian 
philosophy  and  mythology,  published 
after  his  death  as  Literary  Remains,  1879  '• 
founded  the  Society  for  the  Publication  of 
Sanskrit  Texts  in  London,  1866  :  Member 
of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society  and  of  its 
Council :  President  of  the  Philological 
Society,  before  which  he  read  papers,  but 
would  not  publish  them  :  respected  as  an 
authority  on  ancient  Hindu  literature 
and  law,  and  consulted  on  the  Hindu  Law 
of  Inheritance  by  the  Government  of 
India  :  referred  to  also  by  scholars  and 
statesmen,  in  Europe  and  India.  His  last 
work  was  On  the  Deficiencies  in  the  Present 
Administration  of  Hindu  Law  :  he  died 
March  6,   1872. 


(1856-  ) 
Born  Sep.  15,  1856  :  son  of  Rev.  Canon 
Golightly  :  educated  at  Eton  and  Sand- 
hurst :  joined  the  Army,  1875  :  became 
Captain,  1886  :  served  at  Kandahar  and 
Ghazni,  1878,  and  in  march  from  Kandahar 



to  Kabul  and  battle  of  Ahmad  Kheyl : 
marched  with  Sir  F.  Roberts  from  Kabul 
to  Kandahar  :  with  King's  Royal  Rifles 
in  Boer  campaign,  1880 :  Adjutant, 
1 88 1-5  :  commanded  Mounted  Infantry 
in  Burma  Field  Force,  1886-7  :  D.S.O  : 
A.A.G.,  Meerut,  1889 :  commanded  ist 
Battalion  Imperial  Yeomanry  in  S. 
Africa,  1 900-1  :  promoted  Colonel  in 
Reserve    of    Officers. 



Field-Marshal :  born  Nov.  10,  1784 : 
son  of  Lt-Colonel  William  Gomm  :  Ensign 
and  Lieutenant  in  the  9th  regt.  in  1794  : 
studied  at  Woolwich  until  1799  :  served 
in  Holland,  1799  :  at  Ferrol,  1800 : 
Hanover,  1805  :  in  the  Copenhagen 
expedition,  1807  :  at  Corunna  :  on  the 
Walcheren  expedition,  1809  :  in  the 
Peninsula,  i8ro  :  in  many  of  the  engage- 
ments :  Lt-Colonel :  K.C.B.  :  in  the 
Coldstream  Guards  :  at  Waterloo,  Q.M.G. 
to  Picton's  Division  :  Maj-General,  1837  : 
commanded  the  troops  in,  and  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of,  Jamaica,  1839-42  :  Governor 
and  C.  in  C.  of  the  Mauritius,  1842-9  : 
Lt-General,  1846  :  disappointed  of  the 
Commandership  in  Chief  in  India  in  1849, 
after  being  told  of  his  appointment,  but, 
on  the  resignation  of  Sir  Charles  Napier 
(who  had  been  separately  appointed), 
became  C.  in  C.  in  India  from  Dec.  6,  1850 
to  1855  :  General  in  1854  :  G.C.B.  in  1859  : 
Field-Marshal,  1868  :  Constable  of  the 
Tower  of  London,  1872  :  D.C.L.  and  LL.D.  : 
died  March  15,  1875. 


(1865-  ) 

Born  Oct.  24,  1865  :  educated  at  the 
Rajkumar  College,  Rajkot,  and  Edin- 
burgh University  :  Hon.  LL.D.  Edin., 
1887  :  M.B.  and  G.M.  Edin.  1895  :  D.C.L., 
Oxford,  1892  :  M.D.  Edin.,  1895  :  F.R.C.P. 
Edin.,  1895  :  Fellow  of  the  Bombay 
University :  F.R.S.E.,  1900 :  K.C.I.E., 
1887  :  G.C.I.E.,  1897  :  author  of  A 
Short  History  of  Aryan  Medical  Science, 
Journal  of  a  Visit  to  England. 

TUS (  ?  -  ) 
Entered  Royal  Bombay  Engineers, 
1855  :  became  Lt-General,  1892  :  served 
in  the  Indian  mutiny,  1857-8  :  V.C : 
Kattiawar  Field  Force,  1859  :   Abyssinian 

expedition  :    Brevet-Major  :   un-employed 
supernumerary,  1896. 


(     ?     -1901) 

Began  his  career  as  a  pleader  at  Delhi  : 
called  to  the  bar  in  1887  :  practised  at  the 
Lahore  Chief  Court,  obtained  a  leading 
position  at  the  bar  :  Fellow  of  the  Pan  jab 
University  in  1888  :  leading  member  of  the 
Senate  :  Rai  Bahadur  in  1896  :  member 
of  the  Pan  jab  Legislative  Council,  in 
1898,  1900,  1902  :  died  at  Delhi,  Aug.  11, 


(1833-    ) 

Born  July  8,  1833  :    educated   at  Edin- 
burgh Academy  and  Addiscombe  :   joined 
the  Madras  Artillery,  1852  :   served  in  the 
Horse   Artillery   in   the   Indian   mutiny  : 
present  at  the  relief  of  Lucknow,  battle  of 
Cawnpur,   etc. :    Lt-Colonel,    1875  :    com- 
manded R.A.  in  Sir  F.  Roberts'  advance 
on  Kabul  :  at  Charasia  and  Kabul :   C.B. 
commanded  a  Brigade  in  Madras,  1884-6 
Maj-General  in  command  in  Lower  Bmrma 
commanded     Burma     District,     1889-91, 
when  he  retired  :    K.C.B.  1899. 



Maj-General,  R.E.  :  son  of  General 
H.W.  Gordon  of  the  Royal  Artillery  :  born 
Jan.  18,  1833  :  educated  at  Taunton  and 
the  R.M.A.,  Woolwich  :  entered  the  Army 
in  1852  :  served  in  the  Crimea,  China, 
Egypt.  His  connexion  with  India  was 
curious  and  brief  :  in  May,  1880,  he,  being 
then  a  Colonel,  went  to  India  as  Private 
Secretary  to  Lord  Ripon,  who  was  going 
out  as  Viceroy  of  India.  They  arrived  in 
Bombay  on  June  i  :  on  the  3rd  Gordon 
resigned  his  appointment,  explaining  that 
the  duties  were  distasteful,  that  he  saw 
he  could  not  hope  to  do  anything  really 
to  the  purpose  in  the  face  of  vested  interests, 
and  that  his  views  were  diametrically 
opposed  to  those  of  the  official  classes. 
Some  years  later,  he  recommended  the 
strengthening  of  the  British  naval  force  on 
the  Indian  station,  and  that  our  main 
communication  with  India  should  be  by 
the  Cape  route.  His  services  in  Africa 
and  elsewhere,  and  his  death  at  Khartoum, 
on  Jan.  26,  1885,  are  matters  of  national 



I.C.S.  :  son  of  Evelyn  Meadows  Gordon  : 
born  1835  :  educated  at  Haileybury, 
1852-4  :  joined  the  Civil  Service  in  Lower 
Bengal,  1854  :  Private  Secretary,  Jan.  23, 
1866,  to  Lord  Lawrence,  when  Viceroy  and 
Governor-General :  Judicial  Commissioner 
of  Mysore,  1873  :  Chief  Commissioner  of 
Mysore,  1878,  Resident,  1881  :  retired, 
1883  :  C.S.L,  1866  :  K.C.S.L,  188I  :  died 
June  27,   1889. 

BARONET  (1779-1835) 
Born  in  India,  April  6,  1779  ••  son  of  Sir 
John  James  Gordon  :  entered  the  22nd 
Light  Dragoons,  1813  :  Captain  13th 
Light  Dragoons,  1821  :  entered  the 
Nizam's  service,  1822  :  commanded  the 
force  at  capture  of  Fort  Mohun  :  and  the 
Elichpur  Horse  (5th  Nizam's  Cavalry), 
1822  :  the  4th  Nizam's  Cavalry,  1826  : 
raised  Gordon's  Horse  (since  30th  Lancers): 
died  at  Madras,  July  23,  1835,  when  the 
Baronetcy  became  extinct. 

FREDERICK  (  ?  -  ) 
Entered  the  Army,  1869  :  became 
Lt-Colonel,  1899  :  served  in  the  Mahsud- 
Waziri  expedition  and  Egyptian  war, 
1882  :  N.W.  Frontier  in  command  of  6th 
Bengal  Cavalry  :  with  the  Kuran  movable 
column  :  Tirah  expedition,  1897-8  :  CLE., 


(1832-  ) 

Born  Jan.  12,  1832  :  son  of  Captain 
William  Gordon :  entered  the  Army, 
1849,  and  became  General,  1894  :  joined 
the  Indian  Staff  Corps,  1861  :  served  in 
the  Indian  mutiny,  1857-8  :  Jowaki- 
Afridi  expedition,  1877-8  :  Afghan  war, 
1878-9  :  in  command  of  the  29th  Pan  jab 
N.I.,  at  Peiwac  Kotal,  etc. :  in  the  Mahsud- 
Waziri  expedition,  1881  :  Burmese  ex- 
pedition, 1886-7 :  Assistant  Military 
Secretary  at  the  War  Office,  1890-7 : 
C.B.,  1879  :  K.C.B.,  1898  :  Member  of  the 
Council  of  India  since  1897. 

GORDON,  PETER  (  ?  -  ?  ) 

Merchant,  missionary,  traveller :  his 
father  was  domiciled  in  Calcutta  as  an 
owner  and  commander  of  the   Wellesley 


merchantman,  and  Commodore  of  the 
expedition  to  Egypt  :  Peter  was  captured 
by  the  French  in  1809,  but  escaped : 
entered,  18 10,  into  the  country  service  in 
India  :  served  the  E.I.  Co.  occasionally 
to  1824 :  obtained  valuable  contracts 
from  the  E.I.  Co.  :  published,  18 16,  a  book 
about  his  adventures  :  made  two  voyages 
from  Calcutta  to  Okhotsk  in  a  schooner 
of  65  tons,  18 17-8  :  travelled  across 
Russia  to  Persia,  1820  :  arrested  in  1827  by 
orders  of  the  Assistant  Collector  of  Madura  : 
imprisoned  two  months  :  wrote  various 
works  about  his  career,  e.g.  on  his  imprison- 
ment and  escape,  1816  :  on  his  tour  through 
Persia,  1820  :  on  India,  on  the  E.I.  Co.  : 
Christian  Researches  in  Southern  India, 
1834  :    and  about  China. 


(1832-    ) 

Born  Jan.  12,  1832  :  son  of  Captain 
William  Gordon  :  educated  at  Edinburgh 
Military  Academy  :  entered  the  4th  regt., 
1849  :  the  Indian  Stalf  Corps,  1861  :  and 
became  General,  1894  :  served  in  India, 
N.W.  Frontier  campaign,  1851  :  Indian 
mutiny,  1857-9  :  to  Kashgar,  as  second 
in  command  of  the  Mission,  with  Sir  T. 
Douglas  Forsyth,  1873  :  C.S.L,  1874  : 
in  the  Afghan  war,  1879-80 :  D.A.G. 
Bengal,  1879-83  :  Military  Attache  in 
Persia,  1889-93':  K.C.I.E.,  1893:  K.C.B., 


Born  Feb.  10,  1824 :  son  of  Adam 
Gordon  of  Cairnfiield  :  educated  at  Addis- 
combe  :  joined  the  Bengal  Army,  1842  : 
served  at  siege  of  Multan  as  Field  Engineer, 
1848-9  :  at  battle  of  Gujarat,  in  command 
of  a  Company  of  Pioneers  :  in  the  Indian 
mutiny  as  Brig-Major  and  D.A.Q.M.G.  : 
District  Inspector  of  Musketry,  1860-2  : 
Chief  Inspector  of  Musketry,  1862-8  : 
Brig-General,  1878  :  commanded  three 
Districts :  Maj -General,  1882  :  retired, 
1883  :    CLE.,  1878. 


(1866-         ) 

Born  May  4, 1866  :  son  of  W.  E.  Gordon, 
M.D.  :  educated  at  Edinburgh  University  : 
joined  the  Gordon  Highlanders,  1888  : 
served  in  Chitral  Relief  expedition,  1895  : 
Tirah  expedition,  1897-8  :  adjutant  of  ist 
Battalion  Gordon  Highlanders  throughout 



the    S.    African    campaign :      dangerously 
wounded  at  Magersfontein  :    V.C. 


(1849-  ). 

Colonel :  born  at  Paramatta,  N.S.W.» 
Feb.  24,  1849  :  son  of  Rev.  W.  F.  Gore: 
educated  at  Lancing  and  Woolwich : 
joined  the  Royal  Engineers,  1870  :  served 
in  India,  since  1872  :  joined  the 
Survey  Department :  in  the  Afghan  war, 
1879-80 :  present  at  Ahmad  Kheyl : 
Afghan  Boundary  Commission,  1884-6 : 
Brevet-Major  :  Smrveyor-General  of  India, 
1899-1904  :     C.S.I.  :    retired. 


His  original  name  was  Nilkanta  Sastri : 
born  near  Jhansi,  Feb.  8,  1825  :  of  a 
Mahratta  Brahman  family  of  hereditary 
Prime  Ministers  of  the  Peshwas  :  educated 
at  Benares  in  Sanskrit  lore :  baptized 
March  14,  1848,  at  Jaunpur:  accompanied 
Dulip  Singh  {q.v.)  to  England  as  his 
Sanskrit  tutor :  attended  theological 
lectures  at  the  Islington  College  of  the 
Church  Missionary  Society  :  returned  to 
India,  1855  :  entered  Bishop's  College, 
Calcutta :  ordained,  1870  :  wrote  on 
religious  subjects  :  wrote  also  the  Rational 
Refutation  of  the  Hindu  Philosophical 
Systems :  joined  the  mission  of  the 
Scottish  Episcopal  Church  to  Chanda,  in 
the  Central  Provinces  :  and  the  Cowley 
Fathers  at  Bombay,  Poona  and  Indore  : 
died  Oct.  29,  1895  :  helped  to  revise  the 
Hindi  and  Mahratti  Prayer  Book  :  had 
influence  with  the  Brahmans,  Muham- 
madans  and  Parsis,  and  with  Pandita 

GASPARO  (1808-1891) 

Born  1808  :  Professor  of  Sanskrit  at 
Turin  :  made  the  first  translation,  into  a 
European  language,  of  the  Ramayatia, 
published  at  Paris,  1843-56  :  Librarian  of 
the  University  of  Turin  :  the  "  father  of 
Sanskrit  philology  "  of  his  time  :  "  Sena- 
tore  di  Regno  "  for  his  literary  merits  : 
appointed  member  of  the  French  Academy : 
died  May,  1891. 

ELDON  (1835-         ) 

Born  1835  :  son  of  Edward  Chaddock 
Gorst  (who  took  the  name  of    Lowndes 

in  1853)  :  educated  at  Preston  Grammar 
School  and  St.  J  ohn's  College,  Cambridge  : 
Fellow  :  3rd  Wrangler,  1857  :  called  to 
the  bar  from  the  Inner  Temple,  1865  : 
Solicitor  General,  1885-6  :  Undersecretary 
of  State  for  India,  1886-91  :  Financial 
Secretary  to  the  Treasury,  189 1-2  :  Vice- 
President  of  the  Council  of  Education, 
1895-1902  :  M.P.  for  Cambridge  and  Chat- 
ham between  1866  and  1892  :  since  then 
M.P.  for  Cambridge  University  :  LL.D.  : 
F.R.S.  :  K.C.  :  author  of  The  Maori 

STANLEY  (1832-         ) 

Born  Jan.  28,  1832  :  entered  the  5th 
Bengal  European  Cavalry,  1848 :  General, 
1894 :  served  in  the  Panjab  campaign, 
1848-9  :  Indian  mutiny,  1857-8  :  Bhutan 
war,  1864-5  '•  Afghan  war,  1878-80,  in  com- 
mand of  a  Brigade,  through  the  Khyber, 
to  Kabul :  K.C.B.  1881  :  commanded 
Hyderabad  Contingent,  1881  :  and  a 
Division  of  the  Bengal  Army,  1886-90  : 
author  of  The  Sikhs  and  the  Sikhs  War  : 
gained  the  V.C.  for  gallantry  on  four  occa- 
sions in  the  mutiny  :  in  the  first  of  them,  at 
Kharkowda,  near  Rohtak,  on  Aug.  15, 
1857,  saved  his  brother,  who  was  wounded  : 
killed  two  of  the  enemy  :  G.C.B.,  1895. 



Field-Marshal :  born  Nov.  3,  1779  : 
fourth  son  of  George  Gough  :  entered  the 
Militia,  1793,  the  Army  in  1794  :  Adjutant 
of  the  119th  at  fifteen  :  with  the  78th  in 
1895  at  the  capture  of  the  Cape :  served  in 
the  W.  Indies  until  1803  :  in  the  Peninsula 
force,  1809,  at  Talavera,  Barossa,  Tarifa, 
Vittoria,  Nivelle,  twice  severely  wounded  : 
knighted,  1815  :  Maj-General,  1830  : 
K.C.B. ,  1831  :  commanded  the  Mysore 
Division  of  the  Madras  Army,  1857  :  sent 
to  command  at  Canton,  1841  :  captured 
the  forts,  penetrated  170  miles  up  the 
Yang-tze-kiang,  won  several  actions,  con- 
cluded the  treaty  of  Nankin,  1842  :  G.C.B. 
and  Baronet  :  returned  to  Madras  as 
C.  in  C.  and  became  C.  in  C.  in  India, 
1843  :  defeated  Sindia's  troops  at  Maharaj- 
pur,  Dec.  28,  1843  :  took  the  command  in 
person  in  the  first  Sikh  war,  1845-6,  and 
won  the  battles  of  Mudki,  Dec.  18,  1845  ; 
Firozshahr,  Dec.  21,  and  Sobraon,  Feb.  10, 
1846,      Lord     Hardinge,    the    Governor- 



General,  serving  under  his  command : 
made  Baron  Gough,  of  Ching-keangfoo 
in  China,  Maharajpur  and  the  Satlaj  in  the 
East  Indies :  commanded  again  in  the 
second  Sikh  war,  1848-9,  and  won  the 
battles  of  Ramnagar,  Nov,  22,  1846 ; 
Chilianwala,  Jan.  13,  1849.  The  result  of 
Chilianwala  was  regarded  as  being  so 
indecisive  that  Sir  Charles  Napier  was  sent 
out  to  supersede  Gough,  but,  before  his 
arrival.  Gough  had  won  Gujarat,  Feb.  21, 
1849,  the  Sikhs  being  thoroughly  defeated. 
He  retired  in  May,  1849 ;  was  made  Viscount 
Gough  of  Gujarat  and  Limerick  :  received 
thanks  of  Parliament  and  a  pension,  and 
freedom  of  the  City  of  London  :  General  in 
1854  :  sent  in  1856  to  Sebastopol  to  invest 
Pelissier  and  others  with  the  Order  of  the 
Bath  :  K.P.  in  1857  :  P.C.  in  1859  : 
K.C.S.T.  in  1861  :  Field  Marshal  in  1862  : 
he  died  March  2,  1869.  He  is  said  to  have 
commanded  in  more  general  actions  than 
any  British  officer  in  the  century,  the  Duke 
of  Wellington  excepted.  He  was  very 
popular  with  the  soldiers. 

GOUGH,  SIR  HUGH  HENRY  (1833-    ) 

Born  Nov.  14,  1833  :  son  of  George 
Gough  :  educated  privately  :  entered  the 
Bengal  Army,  1853  :  in  Hodson's  Horse, 
served  throughout  the  Indian  mutiny : 
at  siege  of  Delhi,  relief  and  capture  of 
Lucknow  :  V.C.  on  Nov.  12,  1857,  on  the 
advance  to  the  relief  of  Lucknow  :  was 
in  Abyssinia  :  C.B.  :  Afghan  campaign, 
several  times  wounded  :  in  command  of 
the  Cavalry  Brigade  on  the  Kabul- Kanda- 
har march  :  General :  Keeper  of  Crown 
Jewels,  1898-1904  :  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  the  Channel  Islands,  1904  :  G.C.B.,  1896 : 
author  of  Old  Memories,  1897. 

GOUGH,   HUGH   SUTLEJ   (1848- 

Born  Feb.  4,  1848  :  son  of  General  Sir 
J.  B.  Gough  :  educated  at  Royal  Naval 
School,  Gosport,  and  Emmanuel  College, 
Cambridge  :  served  in  R.N.  1862-5:  entered 
loth  Hussars,  1868  :  became  Colonel, 
1888,  and  Maj-General,  1900  :  A.D.C.  to 
C.  in  C,  India,  1876-81  :  served  in  Afghan 
war,  1878-9  :  Egyptian  campaign,  1884  : 
Bechuanaland  expedition,  1884-5  :  com- 
manded 1 8th  Hussars,  1889-93  :  Assistant 
A.G.  for  Cavalry,  1893-8  :  C.M.G.,  1886  : 
C.B.,  1899  :  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Jersey, 


General :  son  of  Very  Rev.  Thomas 
Bunbury  Gough,  and  nephew  of  Lord 
Gough  :  born  1804  :  entered  the  Army 
through  the  R.M.  College,  1820  :  Captain 
in  the  3rd  Light  Dragoons  :  went  to  India 
with  his  uncle  :  on  his  Staff  through  all  his 
battles  in  China,  Gwalior,  the  Satlaj  and 
Panjab  compaigns :  commanded  the 
cavalry  Brigade  at  Mudki  and  Firozshahr: 
severely  wounded  at  Sobraon  :  Colonel : 
A.D.C.  to  Queen  Victoria :  C.B. :  Q.M.G.  of 
the  Queen's  Troops  in  India:  Colonel  of 
the  Royal  Scots  Greys,  1864  :  K.C.B.  1867  : 
G.C.B.,  1876  :  died  Sep.  22,  1891. 

GOUR,  HARI  SINGH  (1868-  ) 
A  Rajput :  born  Nov.  26,  1868,  at 
Sagar,  C.P.  •  educated  at  the  High  School 
there,  at  the  Jabalpur  College,  at  Hislop 
College,  Nagpur :  to  England,  1889  : 
graduated  at  Cambridge  in  Moral  Sciences 
and  Law,  1892  :  called  to  the  bar  at  the 
Inner  Temple,  1892  ;  returning  to  India, 
he  first  entered  the  Central  Provinces 
Commission :  resigned  it  for  the  bar  : 
Secretary  of  the  District  Council  at  Raipur,. 
1 897-1905  :  wrote  on  the  Law  of  Transfer  : 
M.A.  :  LL.D.  Dublin  :  D.C.L :  a  social 
reformer  and  political  speaker. 

GOVER,  CHARLES    E.  (  ?  -1872) 

Son  of  Thomas  Gover :  appointed 
Principal  and  Secretary  of  the  Madras 
Military  Orphan  Male  Asylum  at  Egmore 
in  1864  :  member  of  the  Royal  Asiatic 
Society,  1868-72  :  also  of  the  Society  of 
Arts  :  and  Fellow  of  the  Anthropological 
Society  :  wrote  on  Indian  Weights  and 
Measures,  on  Indian  folk-lore,  and  a 
collection  of  Essays,  The  Folk-songs  of 
Southern  India,  1872  :  died  at  Madras,. 
Sept.   20,    1872. 

GOWER,    SIR    ERASMUS    (1742-1814) 

Son  of  Abel  Gower :  entered  the  Navy  in 
1755 :  served  on  various  stations  in  N.. 
America,  Jamaica,  etc.  :  in  1781  com- 
manded the  Medea  frigate  in  the  E.  Indies  : 
captured  the  Vryheid,  a  Dutch  ship,  at 
Cuddalore  in  1783  :  and  retook  the  Chaser 
with  despatches  :  present  in  engagement 
between  Suffrein  and  Sir  E.Hughes  [q.v.) 
off  Cuddalore :  in  i792-4»  with  Lord. 
Macartney   and   his   embassy   to   China: 



commanded  the  Triumph  and  the  Neptune  : 
Admiral  in  1809  :  died  June  21,  18 14. 

GRAHAM,    JOHN    (1805-1839) 

Botanist :  went  to  India  in  1826 ; 
appointed  by  Sir  John  Malcolm,  then 
Governor  of  Bombay,  to  be  Deputy  Post- 
master-General of  the  Bombay  Presidency  : 
also  Superintendent  of  the  Bombay 
Botanic  Garden  :  to  which  he  added  many 
plants,  both  exotic  and  indigenous  :  was 
printing  a  catalogue  of  Bombay  plants 
when  he  died,  May  28,  1839. 

GRAHAM,  THOMAS  (  ?  -        ) 

Entered  the  Bengal  Artillery,  1858  : 
became  Maj -General,  1891  :  served  in  the 
Hazara  expedition  :  Afghan  war,  1878-80  : 
Brevet-Lt-Colonel :  Burma  expedition  : 
in  Command  of  the  Sikhim  expedition, 
1888-9  :    C.B.  :  Manipur,   1891. 



Born  at  Tranquebar,  Nov.  21,  1762  : 
daughter  of  a  Dane,  M.  Peter  John  Worlee, 
Chevalier  de  Saint  Louis,  Capitaine  du 
Port,  of  Chandernagore  :  married  July  10, 
i777»  George  Francois  Grand,  of  the  Indian 
Civil  Service  (formerly  in  the  E.I.  Co.'s 
military  service),  then  Secretary  to  the 
Salt  Committee  and  Head  Assistant  and 
Examiner  in  the  Secretary's  office.  In 
Feb.  1779,  Grand  brought  an  action  against 
(Sir)  Philip  Francis,  then  Member  of  the 
Supreme  Council,  for  criminal  conversation 
on  Dec.  8,  1778,  with  the  wife  of  the 
plaintiff,  and  after  trial  before  Impey,  C.J., 
and  Chambers  and  Hyde,  J  J.,  obtained, 
on  March  6,  i779»  a  judgment  in  his 
favour,  and  50,000  sicca  rupees  as  damages: 
and  later  a  divorce  from  Mrs.  Grand : 
she  lived  at  Hughli  under  Francis' 
protection  in  1779,  and  went  to  Europe 
in  1780-1.  She  resided  partly  in  France, 
where  she  also  obtained  a  divorce,  and 
partly  in  England,  and  about  1797  came 
under  the  notice  of  Talleyrand,  the 
liaison  leading  to  their  marriage  on  Sep. 
10,  1802,  which  was  forced  on  by  the 
influence  of  Napoleon  to  allow  the  Foreign 
Ambassadresses  to  visit  her.  They  lived 
at  Neuilly,  but  were  separated  about  1815. 
After  a  sojourn  in  England,  she  returned 
to  France,  and  lived  at  Auteuil :  she  died 
Dec.  10,  1835,  and  was  buried  at  Mont 



Native  of  Lausanne  :  educated  there  : 
in  early  life  sent  to  England  :  obtained, 
in  1766,  a  cadetship  in  Bengal :  Lieutenant, 
1768  :  Captain  in  1773  :  after  furlough  in 
Europe,  he  was  nominated  to  a  writership 
in  1776  :  soon  became  Secretary  to  the 
Salt  Committee  at  Calcutta.  On  July  10, 
1777,  he  married  C.  N.  J.  Worlee  {q.v.),  and, 
1779*  obtained  50,000  sicca  rupees  damages 
in  an  action  at  Calcutta  against  (Sir) 
Philip  Francis,  for  crim.  con.  with  his  wife  : 
divorced  her  later  :  she  went  to  Europe, 
eventually  marrying  Talleyrand  and 
figuring  as  Princesse  de  Benevento : 
Grand,  in  1782,  was  Collector  of  Tirhut 
and  Hajipur,  and  promoted  the  indigo 
manufacture  in  Bihar  to  his  own  advantage. 
In  1788  he  was  appointed  Judge  and 
Magistrate  at  Patna,  warned  to  give  up 
his  indigo  concerns,  and  finally  removed 
from  the  service.  He  returned  to  Europe, 
and  in  France,  by  the  influence  of  his 
former  wife  with  Talleyrand,  obtained  the 
post  of  Privy  Councillor  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  from  the 
Batavian  Republic  in  1802  :  later,  became 
Inspector  of  H.M.'s  woods  and  lands  there 
under  the  British  :  married  again,  and 
died  at  the  Cape  in  1821. 



Son  of  Sir  Robert  Innes  Grant,  seventh 
Baronet :  born  Sep.  13,  1826  :  educated 
at  Harrow  and  Balliol  College,  Oxford  : 
Scholar :  played  twice  in  the  Harrow 
Cricket  Eleven  against  Eton  and  Win- 
chester :  Fellow  of  Oriel,  1849  :  became  pri- 
vate tutor  :  succeeded  as  Baronet  in  1856  : 
published  the  Ethics  of  Aristotle  in  1857  : 
went  to  Madras  in  1859,  as  Inspector  of 
Schools :  became  Professor  of  History, 
at  the  Elphinstone  Institution,  Madras, 
in  i860,  and  Principal  in  1862  :  in  1863 
he  became  Vice-Chancellor  of  the  Bombay 
University,  till  1868  :  in  1865,  Director 
of  Public  Instruction  in  the  Bombay 
Presidency  :  Member  of  the  Legislative 
Council,  Bombay,  in  1868  :  made  his  mark 
on  education  in  India  :  became  Principal 
of  the  Edinburgh  University  in  1868  : 
D.C.L.  and  LL.D.  of  Cambridge,  Edin- 
burgh and  Glasgow  :  F.R.S.  of  Edinburgh  : 
wrote    on   Aristotle    and    Xenophon    and 



The  Story  of  the  University  of  Edinburgh  : 
on  female  education,  endowed  schools,  and 
articles  in  Reviews,  etc.  :  died  suddenly 
Nov.  30,  1884. 

GRANT,  CHARLES  (1746-1823) 

Born  April  16,  174C,  the  date  of  the 
battle  of  Culloden,  at  which  his  father, 
Alexander,  was  severely  wounded  :  edu- 
cated at  Elgin  :  apprenticed  at  Cromarty, 
1758,  and  a  clerk  in  London,  1763-67  : 
went  to  India  in  1767 :  attended  to  the 
private  trade  of  Richard  Becher,  the 
Resident  at  Murshidabad  :  worked  hard 
in  the  terrible  Bengal  famine  of  1770  : 
suffered  from  fever  :  returned  to  Scotland, 
1 771-2  :  and  went  out  again  as  a  "  writer  " 
to  Bengal,  in  1772-3  :  became  a  "  factor," 
and  then  Secretary  to  the  Board  of  Trade 
at  Calcutta  :  in  178 1  commercial  resident 
at  Malda,  in  charge  of  the  silk  filature  : 
the  post  was  very  lucrative  :  Grant  had 
his  accounts  examined  by  Cornwallis,  who 
expressed  a  wish  that  all  the  Company's 
servants  were  equally  scrupulous :  in 
1787  he  was  made  Fourth  Member  of  the 
Board  of  Trade,  with  the  superintendence 
of  all  the  Company's  trade  in  Bengal. 
He  supported  mission  work  in  Bengal. 
When  the  mission  church  (J.  Z.  Kier- 
nander's)  in  Calcutta  was  attached  by 
the  Sheriff,  Grant  paid  down  10,000 
rupees  to  save  it,  and  assigned  it  to  the 
Church  Missionary  Society.  He  retired 
in  1790.  He  wrote,  in  1792,  his  Observa- 
tions on  the  State  of  Society  among  the 
Asiatic  Subjects  of  Great  Britain,  advocating 
the  cause  of  missions  and  education  :  it 
was  printed  for  Parliament  in  181 3  :  he 
wrote  the  despatch  from  England  on  the 
Permanent  Settlement  of  1793  :  he 
became  M.P.  for  Inverness  in  1802,  and 
for  the  county  from  1804-18  :  he  was 
Chairman  of  the  Court  of  Directors  in 
1805,  1809,  and  1815,  and  in  Parliament 
took  a  leading  part  in  all  discussions  on 
the  E.I.  Co.'s  affairs,  such  as  the  renewal 
of  the  Charter  in  1813,  the  China  trade, 
missions,  the  Press,  etc.  :  he  opposed  the 
Marquess  Wellesley's  warlike  policy,  and 
supported  in  1808  the  motion  for  his 
impeachment.  In  the  new  Charter  he 
obtained  an  annual  grant  for  education  in 
India,  the  appointment  of  Bishops  in 
India,  and  greater  freedom  for  missionary 
work.  He  promoted  the  establishment 
of  the  E.I.  Co.'s  College  at  Hertford 
•Castle  in  1806,  moved  to  Haileybury  in 

1809.  He  was  a  prominent  member  of 
the  Clapham  sect  and  of  the  reUgious 
Societies,  and  had  much  influence  in  the 
selection  of  missionary  chaplains  for 
India.  He  was  Chairman  of  the  Com- 
missioners for  the  issue  of  Exchequer 
Bills,  and  served  on  the  Commission  for 
the  building  of  churches.  He  retired 
from  Parliament  in  1818,  and  died  on 
Oct.  31,  1823  :  the  E.I.  Co.  placed  a 
memorial  of  him  in  St.  George's  Church, 
Bloomsbury.  No  one,  at  the  time  of 
Charles  Grant,  laboured  harder  to  raise 
the  moral  condition  of  India,  its  inhabi- 
tants and  officials,  or  had  greater  influence 
in  the  settlement  of  Indian  affairs  than 
he  had,  as  Director  of  the  E.I.  Co.  and  as 
M.P.  :  he  had  remarkable  moral  courage, 
a  masterful  hand,  a  determined  will,  and 
a  hot  temper  under  control. 

GRANT,  SIR   CHARLES  (1836-1903) 

Son  of  Sir  Robert  Grant  (q.v.)  :  born  in 
1836  :  educated  at  Harrow,  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  Haileybury :  went 
to  India,  1858  :  served  in  the  N.W.P. 
and  Central  Provinces  :  Secretary  to  the 
Chief  Commissioner,  1861  :  Commissioner, 
1870 :  compiled  the  Central  Provinces 
Gazetteer:  acted  as  Judicial  Commissioner 
and  ■  as  Chief  Commissioner  in  1879  : 
Member  of  the  Governor-General's  Legis- 
lative Council,  1879-80 :  Acting  Home 
Secretary,  1880  :  Foreign  Secretary  to  the 
Government  of  India,  1881-85  :  when 
he  retired  :  K.C.S.I.,  1885  :  died  April 
12,  1903. 


(  ?  -  ) 
Son  of  Lt-General  D.  G.  S.  Grant  : 
educated  privately  and  at  Sandhurst  : 
joined  the  Army,  1882,  and  the  Madras 
Staff  Corps,  1884  :  A.D.C.  to  Lt-General 
Dormer,  C.  in  C.  in  Madras,  1891  :  Offi- 
ciating A.A.G.,  Madras  District,  1897  : 
served  in  the  Burma  expedition,  1886-7  : 
in  Manipiu:,  where  he  proceeded  to  assist- 
ance of  Chief  Commissioner's  defeated 
escort':  stormed  and  held  Thobal,  till  re- 
lieved, March  31-April  9,  1891  :  severely 
wounded :  Captain  and  Brevet-Major 
and  V.C. :  second  in  command  32nd 
Burma  Infantry  Frontier  Force. 

GRANT,  HUGH  GOUGH  (1846- 

Born    July    23,    1845  :     son    of    Field 
Marshal  Sir  Patrick  Grant :    educated  at 



Eton  and  Sandhurst :  served  with  the 
Seaforth  Highlanders,  1863-95  ■  in  the 
Madras  famine,  1877-8  :  Brig-Major 
during  Afghan  war,  1879-80,  and  in 
Mahsud-Waziri  expedition,  1881  :  served 
in  Black  Mountain  expedition,  1891  : 
A.A.G.,  Panjab  command,  1895-7  :  com- 
manded Regimental  Districts  in  Scot- 
land :    retired :    C.B.,   1900. 

GRANT,  JAMES  (  ? 

In  the  service  of  the  E.I.  Co.  :  was 
stationed  in  Bengal,  1784-9  :  selected  by 
the  Government  to  superintend  the  native 
management  of  the  revenues  :  found  him- 
self obliged  to  expose  the  abuses  con- 
nected with  the  whole  system  of  native 
agency  :  appointed  Chief  Sarishtadar,  or 
general  superintendent  of  native  revenue 
accounts  under  the  Board  of  Revenue, 
1786 :  his  tract, — An  Inquiry  into  the 
Nature  of  Zemindary  Tenures  in  the 
Landed  Property  of  Bengal,  1791 — gives 
the  best  account  of  the  native  revenue 

GRANT,    JAMES    AUGUSTUS    (1827- 

The  African  traveller  :  born  April  11, 
1827  :  son  of  James  Grant :  educated  at 
Nairn  and  Aberdeen  schools  and  at  the 
Marischal  College,  Aberdeen :  joined  the 
8th  Bengal  N.I.  in  1846  :  was  present  at 
Multan  and  Gujarat :  Adjutant :  was 
with  the  78th  Highlanders  at  the  relief  of 
Lucknow  :  accompanied  J.  H.  Speke  on 
his  African  expedition,  1 861-4,  including 
the  discovery  of  the  source  of  the  Nile  : 
received  the  Gold  Medal  of  the  Geographi- 
cal Society,  1864  :  C.B.,  1866  :  in  the 
Intelligence  Department  in  the  Abyssinian 
expedition  :  C.S.I.  :  retired  as  Lt-Colonel, 
1868  :  died  Feb.  11,  1892  :  wrote  A  Walk 
across  Africa,  1864 :  and  in  scientific 
Journals  about  his  travels. 

GRANT,  SIR  JAMES  HOPE  (1808-1875) 

Son  of  Francis  Grant :  born  July  22, 
1808  :  educated  at  Edinburgh  and 
Hofwyl,  Switzerland :  remained  in  the 
9th  Lancers  from  Colonel  in  1826  to  Maj- 
General  in  1858  :  Brig-Major  to  Lord 
Saltoim  in  the  first  Chinese  war,  1840-2  : 
C.B.  :  in  the  first  Sikh  war,  1845-6,  includ- 
ing Sobraon  :  in  the  Panjab  campaign  of 
1848-9,  at  Ramnagar,  Chilianwala  and 
Gujarat  :  Brevet-Lt-Colonel  :  was  at 
Umbala  when    the    mutiny  broke    out  : 

Brigadier  of  the  cavalry  :  at  Badli-ka- 
sarai :  at  the  siege  of  Delhi :  the  relief  of 
Lucknow  :  Cawnpur  :  commanded  mov- 
able columns  and  the  trans-Gogra  force  : 
K.C.B.,  1858  :  commanded  in  the  second 
Chinese  war,  1 860-1  :  captured  the  Taku 
forts  and  Pekin  :  G.C.B.  :  C.  in  C.  at 
Madras,  Dec.  i86i-May,  1865  :  Q.M.G. 
of  the  Army,  1865-70  :  in  command  at 
Aldershot,  1870,  where  he  initiated  the 
autumn  manoeuvres,  and  introduced 
many  improvements  :  he  was  strong  in 
his  religious  views  :  died  March  7,  1875. 

GRANT,  JAMES  WILLIAM  (1788-1865) 

Born  Aug.  12,  1788  :  son  of  Robert 
Grant  :  was  in  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Civil  Service, 
1805-49  :  devoted  himself  to  astronomy, 
the  microscope  and  other  scientific  pur- 
suits :  he  made  a  granite  observatory  on 
the  Elchies  estates,  and  there  had  the 
"  Trophy  Telescope  "  :  he  was  F.R.A.S., 
1864  :    died  Sep.  17,  1865. 

GRANT,  SIR  JOHN  PETER  (1774-1848) 

Son  of  William  Grant,  M.D.  of  London 
and  Rothiemurchus  :  born  Sep.  21,  1774  : 
succeeded  his  uncle  in  the  Rothiemurchus 
estate  in  1790  :  educated  at  Cambridge  : 
read  law  at  Edinburgh  :  called  to  the  bar 
from  Lincoln's  Inn,  1802  :  M.P.  for 
Great  Grimsby  and  Tavistock  :  went  to 
Bombay  in  1827  as  a  Puisne  Judge  of  the 
Supreme  Court  there :  knighted :  when 
the  Bombay  Government  interfered  to 
prevent  the  execution  of  decrees  of  the 
Court,  a  rupture  took  place,  and  Grant 
closed  the  Court  in  April,  1829  :  Lord 
Ellenborough,  at  the  Board  of  Control, 
appointed  a  new  Chief  Justice,  Sir  J. 
Dewar,  and  a  new  Judge,  writing  that 
Grant  "  will  be  like  a  wild  elephant  led 
between  two  tame  ones."  Grant  re- 
signed his  appointment,  left  Bombay  in 
Sep.  1830,  and  went  over  to  Calcutta  : 
practised  there  at  the  bar,  and  became  a 
Puisne  Judge,  1833-48,  of  the  Calcutta 
Supreme  Court.  He  died  May  17,  1848, 
on  his  voyage  homewards  :  he  wrote  on 
legal  subjects. 

GRANT,  SIR  JOHN  PETER  (1807-1893) 

I.C.S.  :  son  of  Sir  John  Peter  Grant 
{q.v.)  :  born  Nov.  23,  1807  :  educated  at 
Eton,  Edinburgh  University,  Haileybury  : 
went  to  India  in  1828  :  served  for  four 
years  in  the  N.W.P.  :  Secretary  in  1832 
to    the    Board    of    Revenue,    Calcutta : 


served  in  the  Government  of  India  Secre- 
tariat :  was  Superintendent  of  the  Botanic 
Garden  :     Secretary   to   Lord   Macaulay's 
Indian  Law  Commission,  Private    Secre- 
tary to  the  Governor-General :    Commis- 
sioner for  payment   of  the  Maharaja  of 
Mysore's  debts  :    inquired  into  the  pro- 
ceedings for  the  suppression  of  meriah,  or 
human  sacrifices,  in  Ganjam  :    from  1848 
to  1852  he  was  Secretary  to  the  Govern- 
ment   of    Bengal    under    the    Governor- 
General  and,  in  his  absence,  under    the 
Deputy  Governor :  was  Secretary  to  the 
Government   of  India  in  the  Home  and 
Foreign  Departments,  1852-4 :  Member  of 
the  Governor- General's  Supreme  Council, 
1854-9  :  and,  for  a  portion  of  that  time, 
Lieutenant-Governor    of    the  "  Central  " 
Provinces     during     the     mutiny :     Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of  Bengal,  1859-62.    As 
Member  of  Council  he  advocated  annex- 
ation of  Oudh,  which  was  carried,  instead 
of  Lord  Daihousie's  less  thorough  scheme  : 
he  passed  an  Act  to  legalize  the  marriage 
of     Hindu     widows.      As      Lieutenant- 
Governor,    he    had    to     deal    with     the 
indigo    disturbances — incurring    unpopu- 
larity with  the  planters  in  his  determina- 
tion to  do  justice  to  the  cultivators — and 
with  troubles  from  tribes  on  the  frontier. 
In  both  these  capacities  he  showed  great 
ability,    in    writing,    in    speech,    and    in 
action  :  greatly  trusted  by  Lords  Dalhousie 
and  Canning  :    K.C.B.  in  1862.     After  the 
rebellion   in    Jamaica,    in    1865,    he   was 
Governor   of   that   island,    1866-73  '•    the 
whole    administration    was    reformed    by 
him,  the  finances  re-organized,  and  sound 
political  and  fiscal  principles    applied  by 
the  light  of  his  previous  experience  :   died 
Jan.  6,  1893. 

GRANT,  MALCOLM  (1762-1831) 

Joined  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Bombay  Army  in 
T777 :  served  against  the  Mahrattas,  i779» 
and  with  Goddard's  {q.v.)  force  at  Bassein, 
in  1 780-1  :  in  Malabar,  until  1788,  and 
again  from  1792  to  1798  :  commanded 
against  the  Mahrattas,  was  in  the  capture 
of  Mysore,  under  General  James  Stuart 
at  Mangalore,  in  Canara,  and  Jamalghar  : 
in  the  chief  command  in  Malabar  and 
Canara,  1804  :  captured  Savandrug : 
returned  to  England,  1807  :  Maj -General, 
1813 :  Lt-General,  1815  :  died  Sep.  28, 


GRANT,  SIR  PATRICK  (1804-1895) 
Field  Marshal :  son  of  Major  John 
Grant,  97th  foot :  born  Sep.  11,  1804  : 
Ensign,  1820:  joined  the  nth  Bengal 
N.I.  in  Jan.  1821  :  rose  to  be  General, 
1870  :  Field  Marshal,  June,  1883  :  Goldstick 
in  Waiting  to  Queen  Victoria,  1885  :  raised 
the Hariana Light  Infantry,i836:  organized 
the  N.W.  Frontier  Force  in  1841 :  Deputy- 
Adjutant-General,  1843  :  in  the  Gwalior 
campaign  at  Maharajpur  :  in  the  first  Sikh 
war  was  at  Mudki,acting  there  as  Adjutant- 
General  ;  at  Firozshahr,  and  Sobraon  :  C.B.: 
Adjutant-General  of  the  Bengal  Army, 
1846  :  at  Chilianwala  and  Gujarat :  Brevet- 
Colonel  and  A.D.C.  to  Queen  Victoria: 
served  against  the  N.W.  frontier  tribes  : 
C.  in  C.  of  the  Madras  Army,  1856 :  K.C.B. : 
C.  in  C.  in  India,  temporarily,  in  the 
mutiny,  between  General  Anson  {q.v.) 
and  Lord  Clyde  {q.v.)  :  retired  in  1861  : 
G.C.B.  :  C.  in  C.  at  Malta,  1867-72 : 
G.C.M.G.,  1868  :  Governor  of  the  Chelsea 
Hospital,  1874-95  :    died  March  28,  1895. 

GRANT,  SIR  ROBERT  (1779-1838) 

Governor  :  second  son  of  Charles  Grant 
{q.v.)  :  born  in  Bengal  in  1779  :  went  to 
England,  1790  :  educated  at  Magdalen 
College,  Cambridge,  Craven  Scholar,  1799  » 
third  wrangler.  Chancellor's  Medallist 
and  Fellow  :  called  to  the  bar  at  Lincoln's 
Inn,  1807  :  M.P.  for  various  constituencies 
from  18 18  to  1834  :  advocated  Jewish 
emancipation  from  civil  disabiUties :  Judge 
Advocate  General,  1832  :  Governor  of 
Bombay  from  March  17,  1835  :  knighted 
in  1834  :  and  G.C.H.  :  died  of  apoplexy 
at  Dapuri,  July  9, 1838  :  wrote  Sketch  of  the 
History  of  the  E.I.  Co.,  from  its  First  Foun- 
dation to  1773 :  a  View  of  the  System 
and  Merits  of  the  East  India  College, 
Haileyhury,  and  a  volume  of  sacred  poems, 
which  was  edited  by  his  brother.  Lord 
Glenelg.  The  Grant  Medical  College  at 
Bombay  was  erected  as  a  memorial  to 



Son  of  Archibald  Keir,  I.C.S.  :  bom 
in  1772 :  joined  the  15  th  King's  Light 
Dragoons,  1792  :  served  in  Flanders, 
1794  :  saved  the  German  Emperor, 
Francis  II,  at  Villiers-en-Couche  :  served 
in  Germany  :  and  in  Italy  with  the  Rus- 
sian   and    Austrian    armies,    in    several 




battles  :  Adjutant-General  of  the  King's 
troops  in  Bengal,  1806  :  commanded  the 
advance  on  the  Satlaj,  1810 :  against 
Amir  Khan,  the  Pathan  freebooter,  in 
1814 :  C.  in  C.  in  Java,  1815  :  com- 
manded part  of  the  Army  of  the  Dekkan 
against  the  Pindaris,  1817  :  also  against 
Sawantwari  and  Cutch,  1819  :  defeated 
the  piratical  Arabs  in  the  Persian  Gulf  in 
1819-20,  and  arranged  for  the  complete 
suppression  of  piracy :  assumed  the 
name  of  Keir  Grant,  instead  of  Grant 
Keir  :  K.C.B.,  1822  :  Lt-General,  1825  : 
G.C.H.,  1835  :  General,  1841  :  died  May  7, 



Son  of  John  Grant  and  Margaret  Duff : 
born  July  8,  1789  :  educated  at  Marischal 
College,  Aberdeen  :  joined  the  E.I.  Co.'s 
military  service  at  Bombay  in  1805  :  was 
at  the  storming  of  Maliah,  1808  :  became 
Adjutant  and  Interpreter  of  his  regiment : 
was  Assistant  to  Mountstuart  Elphinstone, 
then  Resident  of  Poona,  who  had  a  high 
opinion  of  him  :  as  Captain,  he  served 
against  the  Peshwa,  Baji  Rao,  when  the 
latter  was  dethroned  in  1818,  and  was 
then  made  Resident  of  Satara,  administer- 
ing the  State  in  the  Raja's  name  till 
1822,  and  making  treaties  with  the  Satara 
jagirdars.  After  five  years  he  retired  to 
Scotland  and  brought  out  the  History  of 
the  Mahrattas  in  1826.  He  took  the 
additional  names  of  Duff  and  Cunningham 
on  succeeding  to  landed  estates  :  died 
Sep.  23,  1858.  Sur  M.  E.  Grant-Duff 
{q.v.),  formerly  Governor  of  Madras,  is  his 

ELPHINSTONE     (1829-         ^ 

Born  Feb.  21,  1829  :  son  of  James 
Cunningham  Grant-Duff  (q.v.)  :  educated 
at  Edinburgh  University,  The  Grange, 
Bishop  Wearmouth,  and  Balliol  College, 
Oxford  :  barrister  of  the  Inner  Temple  : 
M.P.  forthe  Elgin  Burghs,  1857-81  :  Under 
Secretary  of  State  for  India,  1868-74  : 
and  for  the  Colonies,  18 80-1  :  Privy 
Councillor,  1880 :  Governor  of  Madras, 
1 88 1-6  :  advanced  education  and  science  : 
constructed  the  Marina  at  Madras  :  Presi- 
dent of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society, 
1889-93  :  President  of  the  Royal  Historical 
Society,  1892-9  :  Author  of  Studies 
in   European     Politics,      "Elgin    Speeches, 

Notes  of  an  Indian  Journey,  Memoir  of 
Sir  H.  S.  Maine,  Note<;  from  a  Diary,  etc., 
etc. :  C.I.E.,  1881  :  G.C.S.I.,  1886  :  F.R.S. : 


(1845-         ) 

Born  Feb.  2,  1845  :  son  of  Henry 
Graves :  educated  at  Kingstown  school 
and  Woolwich  :  joined  R.A.,  1866,  and 
Indian  Staff  Corps,  1871  :  Brevet-Colonel, 
1897  :  served  in  Afghan  war,  1879-80  : 
commanded  Garhwal  Rifles,  1893-8 : 
served  with  Malakand  Field  Force,  1897, 
and  in  the  N.W.  Frontier  campaign,  1897- 
8  :    C.B. 



Son  of  Edward  Greathed  :  born  1812  : 
educated  at  Westminster :  entered  the 
Army,  1832  :  in  the  mutiny  was  with  the 
8th  regt.  at  the  siege  of  Delhi  and  led  the 
regt.  to  the  assault :  after  its  fall,  was 
placed  in  command  of  the  column  to 
open  up  the  country  between  the  Jamna 
and  the  Ganges :  in  the  fighting  at 
Bulandshahr,  Alighar  and  Agra :  com- 
manded a  Brigade  at  Sir  Colin  Campbell's 
relief  of  Lucknow  :  at  the  engagement 
before  Cawnpur  on  Dec.  6,  1857 :  at 
Khudaganj  and  the  occupation  of  Fateh- 
ghar  :  Colonel  and  C.B.  :  D.C.L.,  1859  : 
K.C.B.,  1865  :  commanded  E.  district  in 
England,  1872-7  :  Brevet-General,  1880  : 
died  Nov.  19,  1881. 

FORCE    HARRIS    (1826-1878) 

Son  of  Edward  Greathed  :  born  Dec.  21, 
1826  :  educated  at  Addiscombe  :  joined 
the  Bengal  Sappers  and  Miners  at  Meerut 
in  1846  :  was  in  the  siege  and  capture, 
Jan.  2,  1849,  of  Multan :  present  at 
Gujarat :  Consulting  Engineer  for  Rail- 
ways at'Allahabad,  1855-7  :  in  the  mutiny, 
he  twice  conveyed  despatches  from  Agra 
to  Meerut  through  the  mutineers  :  was  at 
the  siege  of  Delhi,  directing  the  left 
attack :  severely  wounded :  was  at 
several  engagements  as  Engineer  of  the 
Doab  Field  Force  :  directed  as  Engineer 
at  the  attack  on  Lucknow  and  its  capture  : 
C.B.  :  and  Brevet-Major  :  was  A.D.C.  to 
Sir  R.  Napier  in  China  :  at  the  capture  of 
Pekin  :  Brevet-Lt-Colonel :  Assistant  Mih- 
tary  Secretary  to  the  Horse  Guards,  1861- 
5:    Head  of  the  Irrigation  Department, 



N.W.P.,  1867-75  :  made  the  Agra  and 
Lower  Ganges  canals  :  retired  from  India, 
1876  :  died  Dec.  29,  1878  :  Maj-General. 


(1831-         ) 

Bom  Nov.  9,  1 83 1  :  son  of  Capt.  George 
Greaves,  6oth  Rifles  :  educated  at  Sand- 
hurst :  joined  the  70th  regt.  :  served  in 
the  Indian  mutiny  :  New  Zealand  war, 
1860-6  :  Ashanti  campaign,  1874  :  Sou- 
dan, 1885 :  Chief  Secretary  and  Com- 
missioner, Cyprus,  1878  :  Adjutant-General 
in  India,  1879  :  commanded  a  Division  in 
India,  1886  :  C.  in  C,  Bombay,  1890  : 
resigned.  1893  :  became  General,  1896, 
and  retired :  K.C.M.G.,  1881  :  K.C.B., 
1885  :   G.C.B. 

GREEN,   SIR   EDWARD  (1810-1891) 

Son  of  James  Green :  educated  at 
Addiscombe  :  entered  the  Indian  Army, 
1827  :  in  the  Afghan  war,  1841-2  :  saw 
active  service  at  Hyderabad,  Sind,  with 
the  22nd  regt.,  in  defence  of  the  Residency 
and  at  the  battle  of  Hyderabad  :  also  as 
A.A.G.  against  the  Cutchi  Hill  Tribes, 
1844-5  :  at  the  capture  of  Multan,  at 
Gujarat,  and  pursuit  and  surrender  of  the 
Sikhs  :  Adjutant-General,  Bombay,  1856- 
60 :  commanded  a  Division,  1862-5  : 
died  May  9,  1891  :    General  :    K.C.B. 




General :  son  of  the  Rev.  G.  W.  G. 
Green  :  educated  at  Bridgnorth  :  entered 
the  Indian  Army  in  1841  :  served  in  Sind 
and  in  the  Panjab  campaign  of  1848-9  : 
at  Gujarat :  commanded  the  2nd  Panjab 
N.I.,  through  the  mutiny  :  wounded  at 
the  siege  of  Delhi :  at  Sir  Colin  Campbell's 
relief  of  Lucknow,  Nov.  1857 :  C.B., 
1858  :  Lt-General,  1877  :  died  Nov.  27, 
1891  :  K.C.B.,   1877. 

RHODES  (1823-        ) 

Born  May  31,  1823  :  son  of  Vice- 
Admiral  Sir  Andrew  P.  Green,  K.C.B.  : 
educated  at  King's  College,  and  Brussels  : 
entered  the  Indian  Army,  1841,  and 
joined  the  Sind  Irregular  Horse,  1846 : 
served  throughout  the  second  Panjab 
\  war,  1848-9  :  present  at  siege  of  Multan 
and  battle  of  Gujarat :  employed  on 
special  diity  during  the  Crimean  war,    as 

Colonel  in  the  Turkish  Army :  present  at 
Balaclava  and  Inkerman  and  siege  of 
Sebastopol :  severely  wounded :  Adjt- 
General  of  Turkish  Bashi-Bazouks  in  Asia 
Minor  and  Bulgaria :  A.A.G.,  Persian 
war,  1856-7 :  Indian  mutiny,  1857-8  : 
Political  Agent  in  Beluchistan,  1859 : 
Officiating  Chief  Commissioner  of  Sind : 
Political  Superintendent  of  N.W.  Frontier 
of  Sind,  1866-8  :  retired,  1874  :  K.C.S.I., 
1866  :  C.B.  :  author  of  Papers  on  Defence 
of  N.W.  Frontier  of  India. 


(1854-         ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Oct.  14,  1854  :  son  of  Rev. 
George  Samuel  Greer,  Rector  of  BuUhal- 
bert,  CO.  Down,  Ireland :  educated  at 
Kingstown  school,  co.  Dublin  :  Member 
of  the  Irish  International  Football  Team  : 
went  to  Bengal,  1877 :  employed  in 
Assam  :  Deputy  Commissioner  of  Sibsa- 
gar,  and  Sylhet :  Assistant  Secretary  to 
the  Chief  Commissioner,  1884 :  Magte- 
CoUector  of  Tippera  :  Deputy  Commis- 
sioner, Darjeeling,  1893-9  :  Inspr-General 
of  Police,  Bengal,  1 899-1 900  :  Chairman 
of  the  Calcutta  Corporation  since  igoo  : 
C.S.I. ,  1904. 



Son  of  R.  W.  Grey  :  born  1785  :  edu- 
cated at  University  College,  Oxford  : 
Fellow  of  Oriel  College  :  called  to  the  bar, 
1811  :  Commissioner  in  Bankruptcy, 
1817  :  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court, 
Madras,  1820  :  knighted  :  Chief  Justice, 
Bengal, 1 825-32  :  Commissioner  to  Canada, 
1835-6  :  G.C.H.  :  M.P.  for  Tynemouth, 
1838-41  :  Governor  of  Barbados,  1841-6  : 
Governor  of  Jamaica,  1847-53  :  died 
June  I,  1865. 

GREY,  SIR  JOHN  (1780P-1856) 
Son  of  Charles  Grey,  and  great-nephew 
of  the  first  Earl  Grey  :  joined  the  75th 
foot  in  1798  :  served  in  the  war  against 
Tippoo  :  at  Malavilli  and  Seringapatam  : 
was  in  the  Peninsula,  at  Ciudad  Rodrigo  : 
commanded  a  Division  in  Bengal,  1840- 
5  :  commanded  against  12,000  Mahrattas 
at  Punniar  and  defeated  them,  Dec.  29, 
1843  :  K.C.B.  :  commanded  a  Division 
in  the  Satlaj  campaign,  1845-6 :  C.  in  C.  and 
Member  of  Council,  Bombay,  1850-2 : 
Lt-General,  1851  :   died  Feb.  19,  1856. 




(1840-       .  ) 

Born  July  i,  1840:  son  of  L.  J.  H. 
Grey  :  educated  at  Cheltenham  :  joined 
the  Bengal  Army,  1857 :  served  with 
Pan  jab  Frontier  Force  on  the  N.W. 
Frontier,  1857-62  :  Bhutan  campaign, 
1865-6,  as  Political  Officer  :  Commissioner 
of  Hissar  Division,  1882  :  retired,  1894  : 
re-employed  as  Superintendent  of  the 
Bahawalpur  State,  1899-1902  :  C.S.I., 

GREY,   SIR  WILLIAM  (1818-1878) 

Born  1818  :  son  of  Edward  Grey,  Bishop 
of  Hereford,  and  grandson  of  first  Earl 
Grey  :  was  at  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  but 
left  it  to  enter  the  War  Office  :  educated 
at  Haileybury  :  went  to  India  in  1840  : 
Private  Secretary  to  Sir  Herbert  Maddock, 
Deputy  Governor  of  Bengal,  1845-7 : 
served  in  the  Bengal  Secretariat,  and  in 
the  Secretariat  of  the  Government  of 
India,  in  the  Home  and  Foreign  Depart- 
ments :  Secretary  to  the  Bank  of  Bengal, 
1 85 1-4  :  Secretary  to  the  Government  of 
Bengal, 1854-7:  Director  General  of  the  Post 
Office  :  Secretary  to  the  Home  Depart- 
ment, 1859  :  Member  of  the  Governor- 
General's  Supreme  Council,  from  April, 
1862,  to  April,  1867 :  had  considerable 
difference  of  opinion  with  Sir  John 
Lawrence,  the  Governor-General.  When 
discussions  arose  after  the  Orissa  famine, 
he  opposed  the  proposed  abolition  of  the 
Bengal  Legislative  Council,  and,  instead 
of  any  reduction  in  the  status  of  the 
Bengal  Government,  advocated  its  assimil- 
ation to  the  Governments  of  Madras  and 
Bombay.  He  held  strong  opinions  about 
taxation,  and  his  views  did  not  agree 
with  those  of  Lord  Mayo  :  K. C.S.I,  in 
1871  :  retired  on  March  i,  1871  :  Governor 
of  Jamaica,  1874-7  :    died  May  15,  1878. 


(1851-         ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  Jan.  7,  1851  :  son  of 
George  Abraham  Grierson,  LL.D.,  Queen's 
Printer  for  Ireland :  educated  at  St. 
Bee's  School,  Shrewsbury ;  Trinity  College, 
Dublin  (Exhibitioner) :  went  out  to  Ben- 
gal, 1873  :  Inspector  of  Schools,  Bihar, 
1880  :  Additional  Commissioner  of  Patna, 
and  Opium  Agent,  Bihar,  1896  :  in  charge 
of  the  Linguistic  Survey  with  the  Govern- 
ment of  India,  1898-1902  :   retired,  1902  : 

CLE.,  1894  :  Ph.D.  (Halle)  1894 :  D. 
Litt.  of  Trin.  Coll.,  Dublin,  1902  :  Member 
of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal  and  of  the 
Royal  Asiatic  Society,  the  Folklore,  and 
other  Societies.  His  principal  writings 
are  Introduction  to  the  Maithili  Lan- 
guage, A  Handbook  to  the  Kaithi  Character, 
Seven  Grammars  of  the  Bihar i  Dialects, 
Bihar  Peasant  Life,  The  Modern  Vernacular 
Literature  of  Hindustan,  Notes  on  Tulsi 
Das,  The  Satsaiya  of  Bihar i.  Essays  on 
Kashmiri  Grammar,  The  Linguistic  Survey 
of  India,  The  Languages  of  India  :  the 
Chapters  on  Vernacular  Languages  and 
Vernacular  Literatures  in  the  forthcoming 
edition  of  the  Imperial  Gazetteer. 


(1847-  ) 

Born  Dec.  11,  1847  :  son  of  G.  L. 
Griesbach  of  Zobelsberg :  educated  at 
Vienna  University :  Member  of  ten 
Scientific  Societies :  joined  the  Royal 
Fusiliers,  1874  :  and  Geological  Survey 
of  India,  1878  :  on  special  service  during 
the  Afghan  war  :  present  at  Maiwand, 
July  27,  1880  :  siege  and  battle  of  Kanda- 
har, 1880  :  Afghan  Boundary  Commission, 
1884-6  :  CLE.  :  on  special  duty  with 
H.H.  the  Amir,  in  Afghanistan,  1888-9  : 
Miranzai  expedition,  1890-1  :  Burma, 
1892  :  S.  Africa,  1896-7  :  Director  of  the 
Geological  Survey  of  India  :    retired. 

BARONET  (1800-1877) 
Son  of  Sir  George  Griffies- Williams, 
Bart.  :  born  in  1800  :  entered  the  Indian 
Army,  1819  :  served  in  the  first  Burmese 
war,  1824-6  :  at  the  siege  and  storming 
of  Punnullah  and  capture  of  Munnohur, 
1844-5  :  in  the  second  Burmese  war, 
1852  :  became  Baronet  in  1870  :  died 
May  23,  1877. 


(1840-  ) 

I.C.S.  :  born  1840  :  joined  the  Civil 
Service  in  the  Panjab,  i860  :  Chief  Secre- 
tary to  the  Panjab  Government,  1870  : 
Chief  Political  Officer  in  Afghanistan,  1880  : 
negotiated  with  Abdur  Rahman  {q.v.), 
who  became  Amir  of  Afghanistan  :  Resi- 
dent at  Indore  :  Agent  to  the  Governor- 
General  for  Central  India,  1881-8  :  retired, 
1889  :  Chairman  of  East  India  Associa- 
tion :  author  of  The  Panjab  Chiefs,  1865  ; 
The    Law    of    Inheritance    in    Chiefships, 



1869;  The  Rajas  of  thePanjab,  1870;  The 
Great  Republic,  1884 ;  Famous  Monu- 
ments of  Central  India,  1888 ;  Ranjit 
Singh,  1894  :  founded  the  Asiatic  Quarterly 
Review  in  conjunction  with  D.  Boulger  : 
K.C.S.I.,  1881. 

HOTCHKIN  (1826-  ) 
Born  May  25,  1826  :  son  of  Rev.  R.  C. 
Griffith :  educated  at  Warminster,  Up- 
pingham and  Queen's  College,  Oxford : 
University  Boden  Sanskrit  Scholar  :  As- 
sistant Master,  Marlborough,  1849-53  '• 
Professor  of  Enghsh  Literature,  Benares 
College,  1854-62  :  Principal  of  Benares 
College,  1863-78  :  Director  of  Public 
Instruction,  N.W.P.,  and  Oudh,  1878-85  : 
retired,  1885  :  author  of  Specimens  of 
Old  Indian  Poetry,  1852  ;  The  Birth  of  the 
War -God,  1853  ;  Idylls  from  the  Sanskrit, 
1866 ;  Scenes  from  the  Ramayan,  1868 ; 
The  Ramayan  of  Valmiki,  1870-5 ;  The 
Hymns  of  the  Rig-veda,  1889-92 ;  The 
Hymns  of  the  Atharva-veda,  1895-6;  The 
Texts  of  the  White  Yajur-veda,  1899  : 
founder  and  editor  of  the  Pandit,  a  San- 
skrit journal,  for  eight  years :  CLE., 

GRIFFITH,  WILLIAM  (1810-1845) 
Son  of  Thomas  Griffith  :  born  March  4, 
1810 :  studied  medicine :  educated  at 
the  University  of  London :  went  to 
Madras  in  1832,  in  the  E.I.  Co.'s  medical 
service  :  botanical  member  of  an  expedi- 
tion to  Assam,  1835,  in  connexion  with 
the  search  for,  and  discovery  of,  the  tea 
plant :  explored  between  Sadiya  and 
Ava  :  and  from  Assam  to  Ava  and  Ran- 
goon :  attached  in  1837  to  Pemberton's 
embassy  to  Bhutan :  in  1839,  accom- 
panied the  Army  of  the  Indus  to  Kabul, 
and  went  beyond  the  Hindu  Kush  to 
Khorasan  :  on  medical  duties  to  Malacca 
in  1 841-2  :  made  enormous  and  valuable 
collections  of  dried  plants  on  his  journeys  : 
they  were  distributed  from  Kew  after 
his  death  :  he  also  made  researches  in 
Natural  History  and  valuable  collections  : 
acting  Superintendent  of  the  Botanic 
Garden,  near  Calcutta,  and  Professor  of 
Botany  at  the  Medical  College,  Calcutta  : 
again  to  Malacca  in  1844,  and  died  there, 
Feb.  9,  1845  :  his  valuable  notes  and 
collected  papers  were  published  in  nine 
volumes  after  his  death,  at  the  expense 

of  the  E.I.  Co. :  the  editorial  work  is  said 
to  have  been  badly  done:  he  had  the 
greatest  reputation  for  his  "  achievements 
as  '  one  of  the  most  brilliant  of  Indian 
botanists '  "  :  he  published  papers  in 
scientific  Journals. 

GROSE,  JOHN  HENRY  (before 
1760— after  1783) 

A  writer  in  the  E.I.  Co's  service,  son  of 
Francis  Grose :  went  out  to  Bombay  in  1750: 
in  1757  he  published  A  Voyage  to  the  East 
Indies,  of  which  there  were  subsequent 
editions  and  a  French  translation.  He 
was  a  Member  of  the  Society  of  Arts. 

GROTE,  ARTHUR  (1814-1886) 
I.C.S. :  son  of  George  Grote,and  brother  of 
the  historian,  George  Grote  :  born  Nov. 
29,  1814  :  educated  at  Haileybury  :  went 
to  Bengal  in  1833  :  rose  to  be  Commis- 
sioner and  Member  of  the  Board  of  Revenue, 
Calcutta,  1 861-8  :  was  President  of  the 
Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  1859-62  and 
in  1865  :  left  India,  1868  :  a  prominent 
member  and  a  Vice-President  of  the  Royal 
Asiatic  Society  :  wrote  papers  on  Botany 
and  Natural  History  :  F.L.S.  and  F.Z.S  : 
died  Dec.  4,  1886. 



Born  1795  :  educated  at  Lymington 
and  Fulham  :  learnt  chemistry,  dentistry 
and  surgery  :  resided  at  Plymouth  and 
became  a  founder  of  the  sect  of  Plymouth 
brethren  :  devoted  himself  to  missionary 
work  from  1829  :  went  overland  to 
Bagdad  and  taught  Christianity  there : 
from  Bagdad  to  Bombay  in  1833  :  stayed 
in  India  till  1852,  visiting  England  twice 
during  that  time.  In  India  he  visited  the 
missionary  stations,  chiefly  on  the  west 
coast  and  in  the  Madras  Presidency : 
practised  dentistry  for  a  year  in  Madras  : 
laboured  steadily  for  years  in  his  work  of 
evangelization :  his  preaching  was  very 
successful :  died  at  Bristol,  May  20,  1853. 
He  wrote  journals  of  his  journey  to  Bagdad 
and  of  his  residence  there. 



I.C.S.  :  son  of  Robert  Growse  :  born 
1837 :  educated  at  Oriel  College,  and 
Queen's  College,  Oxford  (Scholar) :  went 
to  India  to  the  N.W.P.  in  i860  :    served 

I  82 


in  Mathura  and  Bulandshahr :  built  a 
Catholic  Church  at  Mathura :  wrote 
Mathura,  a  District  Memoir,  1880  :  and  an 
English  translation  of  the  Ramayana 
of  Tulsi  Das,  1883  (said  to  occupy  the 
place  almost  of  a  Bible  among  the  people 
of  the  N.W.  Provinces) :  also  Bulandshahr, 
1884  :  he  ardently  defended  the  purity 
of  the  vernacular  Hindi,  as  opposed  to  the 
official  Hindustani :  Member  of  the 
Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal :  a  learned 
Oriental  scholar  and  archaeologist:  C.I.E., 
1879  :    retired  1890  :    died  May  19,  1893. 

GRUNWEDEL,  ALBERT  (1856-  ) 
Born  at  Munich,  July  31,  1856  :  son  of 
Karl  Grlinwedel,  an  artist :  educated  at 
the  Max-Gymnasium  at  Munich,  and  later 
(1876-82)  studied  Archaeology,  classical 
Philology,  Sanskrit,  Pali,  Tibetan,  at  the 
Munich  University  :  Dr.  :  chiefly  known  as 
a  Tibetan  scholar,  and  leading  authority  in 
the  history  of  Indian  (especially  Buddhist) 
art :  has  been,  since  1882,  Assistant 
Director  of  the  Royal  Museums  at  Berlin, 
and  is  Director  of  the  Asiatic  Section  of 
the  Berlin  Ethnographical  Museum 
(1904)  :  Corresponding  Member  of  the 
Royal  Bavarian  Academy  of  Sciences  at 
Munich  (1900),  and  ;  of  the  Oriental 
Division  of  the  Archaeological  Society  at 
St.  Petersburg  (1901)  :  his  chief  works 
are :  Buddhistische  Kunst  in  Indien, 
1893,  etc.,  translated  into  English  in  1901 : 
his  Lepcha-English  Dictionary,  compiled 
from  General  Mainwaring's  MSS.,  1898  : 
Mythologie  des  Buddhismus  in  Tibet 
und  der  Mongolei,  1900.  His  Report  on 
his  archaeological  laboiurs  in  Idikutsari 
(Turfan),  1905,  is  the  result  of  his  travels 
(1902-3)  in  Chinese  Turkistan  (Turfan)  in 
the  company  of  Dr.  Huth. 


I.C.S.  :  educated  at  Haileybury,  1829- 
30  :  went  out  to  India  in  1830  :  served  in 
the  N.W.  P.  and  in  Oudh  on  its  annexation 
in  1856,  when  he  was  made  its  Financial 
Commissioner.  In  the  mutiny,  he  took 
a  leading  part  in  the  operations  at  Luck- 
now  :  had  charge  of  the  Intelligence  De- 
partment :  advocated  various  measures, 
some  of  which  were  adopted,  and  some, 
such  as  the  disarmament  of  the  native 
troops,  were  not  accepted  by  Sir  H. 
Lawrence  :  served  throughout  the  siege 
of  Lucknow  :   "  retrenched  and  completed 

the  post  which  bore  his  name,  and  was 
eminent  among  those  who  fought  hard  and 
laboured  unceasingly."  After  the  relief, 
he  was  with  Sir  Colin  Campbell  at  Cawnpur: 
ill-health  then  compelled  him  to  go  to 
England.  He  was  Judge  of  the  Agra 
Chief  Court,  1858-63  :  died  May  6,;;i863  : 
wrote  The  Mutinies  in  Oudh. 


Born  April  7»  1840,  at  Turin  :  descended 
from  ancient  family  of  Provence  :  studied 
first  at  Turin :  in  1862,  sent  by  the 
Italian  Government  to  continue  his 
philological  studies  in  Berlin  under  Weber 
and  Bopp :  appointed,  1863,  Professor 
of  Sanskrit  and  Comparative  Literature 
at  the  Institut  des  Etudes  Superieures  in 
Florence  :  in  1881,  King  Himibert  con- 
firmed to  him  the  title  of  Count,  borne 
formerly  by  his  ancestors  :  visited  India 
in  1885  and  1886,  and  on  his  return 
founded  an  Indian  Museum,  and  an 
Italian  Asiatic  Society  at  Florence : 
appointed,  1890,  to  his  present  position. 
Professor  of  Sanskrit  and  Italian  Litera- 
ture at  the  University  of  Rome :  has 
travelled  much,  and  is  a  prolific  and 
many-sided  writer,  poet,  dramatist,  author 
of  many  works  on  Italian  literature,  and  a 
Sanskritist  :  has  written  on  the  mythology 
of  the  Vedas  :  Le  fonti  vediche  delV  epopea, 
1867,  etc.  :  other  works  are  :  — Piccola 
enciclopedia  Indiana,  1867  ;  Letter attir a 
Indiana,  1883  :  Storia  dei  viaggiatori 
italiani  nelle  Indie,  1875  ;  II  Dio  Indra 
nel  Rigveda  :  Primi  Venti  Inni  del  Rigveda 
(translated  with  notes)  :  Drammi  indiani, 
in  verse  :  Zoological  Mythology,  etc.  : 
elected  an  honorary  member  of  the  Royal 
Asiatic  Society,  and  of  its  branch  in  Bom- 
bay, besides  belonging  to  other  learned 
Societies  :  delegate  of  the  Italian  Govern- 
ment at  International  Congresses  of 



Lt-  General :  son  of  Sir  J.  Guise,  Bart. : 
born  1826 :  entered  the  Army,  1845  : 
served  in  the  Crimea  with  the  90th  Light 
Infantry  :  in  the  mutiny  at  siege  and 
capture  of  Lucknow  :  led  the  attack  on  the 
Sikandrabagh :  V.C.  for  gallantry  in 
action  on  Nov.  16  and  17,  1857,  at  Luck- 
now :  C.B.  :  died  Feb.  5,  1895. 



GUNDERT,  REV.  HERMAN  (1814-1893) 

Born  at  Stuttgart,  1814  :  worked  in  the 
Basel  Evangelical  Mission  in  Malabar  and 
Canara,  1839-63  :  at  Tellicherry :  In- 
spector of  Government  Schools  in  Malabar 
and  Canara,  i860 :  a  learned  scholar : 
wrote  Malayalam  grammar  and  other 
books,  including  a  dictionary  and  Bible 
translations :  retured,  1865  :  Editorial 
Secretary  and  Principal  of  the  Calver 
Verlagsverein  :    died  1893. 

GUY,   SIR  PHILIP  M.  N.   (1804-1878) 

Son  of  Melmoth  Guy  :  educated  pri- 
vately and  at  the  Military  College, Brussels : 
entered  the  Army,  1824  :  was  in  the  5th 
regt.  for  37  years,  commanding  it  for  10  : 
in  the  mutiny,  commanded  the  Dinapur 
district  in  1857  :  in  several  engagements  : 
commanded  an  Infantry  Brigade  under 
Sir  Hope  Grant :  and  at  the  Alambagh 
during  and  after  the  second  relief  of 
Lucknow,  and  at  its  capture  :  C.B.  :  held 
commands  at  Colchester,  China  and  Jersey : 
K.C.B.,  1873  :  General,  1877  :  died  March 
10,  1878. 

MAHARAJA    OF   (1780-1827) 

Succeeded  his  great  uncle  and  adoptive 
father  Madhava  (Madhoji)  Sindia  {q.v.),  in 
1794:  he  organized  a  formidable  army  under 
French  officers,  plundered  Poona,seized  Ah- 
madnagar  :  declined  an  alliance  with  the 
British  against  an  Afghan  invasion  :  was 
defeated  at  Poona  in  1802  by  Jaswant  Rao 
Holkar.  In  1803  he  was  allied  with  the 
Raja  of  Berar  to  defeat  the  objects  of  the 
Treaty  of  Bassein  :  they  were  routed  by 
General  Arthur  Wellesley  at  Assaye  on 
Sep.  23,  1803,  and  at  Argaum  on  Nov. 
28,  1803  :  he  was  forced  to  sign  the  Treaty 
of  Sirji  Anjenguam,  Dec.  30, 1803,  and  cede 
territory  :  Lord  Lake  also  defeated  his 
forces  at  Alighar  on  Aug.  29, 1803,  at  Delhi 
and  Agra,  and  at  Laswari  on  Nov.  i  : 
he  submitted  in  1805  :  Lord  Comwallis  in 
1805  restored  Gohadand  Gwalior  to  him. 
Daulat  Rao  continued  to  give  trouble  by 
the  support  he  gave  to  the  Pindaris  and 
their  depredations,  and  was  compelled  by 
Lord  Hastings  to  make  another  treaty  in 
1817  :  as  he  failed  in  his  engagements, 
the  fort  of  Asirghar  was  taken  from  him  : 
he  died  March  21,  1827. 

MAHARAJA  OF  (1835-1886) 
His  real  name  was  Bagirat  Rao  :  was 
adopted  by  his  predecessor's  (Jankoji) 
widow,  Tara  Bai :  grave  distiirbances 
broke  out  regarding  the  regency :  the 
Regent,  Mama  Sahib,  the  Maharaja's 
father-in-law,  was  driven  out.  Lord 
Ellenborough  sent  an  army  to  Gwalior, 
to  whom  the  usvurper,  Dada  Khasgeewala, 
surrendered.  The  State  Army  was 
defeated  at  Maharajpur  and  Punniar  on 
Dec.  29,  1843,  and  a  treaty  made  at 
Gwalior  in  Jan.  1844,  when  Jiaji  was 
placed  on  the  throne.  He  paid  great 
attention  to  military  affairs  and  the  im- 
provement of  his  army.  During  the 
mutiny,  the  Maharaja  remained  loyal  to 
the  British,  though  the  contingent  force 
at  Gwalior  rebelled :  from  Tantia  Topi 
and  the  Rani  of  Jhansi,  he  fled  to  Agra, 
but  was  re-established  by  Sir  Hugh  Rose 
at  Gwalior  :  he  was  handsomely  rewarded 
for  his  loyalty  in  the  mutiny.  Another 
treaty  was  made  with  him  in  1864.  The 
Fort  at  Gwalior  was  restored  to  him  in 
1885  and  the  British  cantonment  at  Morar 
abandoned.  He  sat  in  1875  as  a  member 
of  the  Court  to  try  the  then  Gaekwar  of 
Baroda  for  attempting  to  poison  Colonel 
R.  Phayre.  He  entertained  H.R.H.  the 
Prince  of  Wales  in  1876.  He  was  a 
G.C.S.I :  and  a  General :  died  June  20, 1886. 



Son  of  Ranoji  Sindia,  who,  originally  a 
sUpper  bearer  of  the  Peshwa,  rose  to  be  an 
of&cer  of  rank  :  Madhava  was  illegitimate, 
the  fourth  of  his  five  sons.  He  and  his 
brother  Dattaji  were  present  in  the  war 
of  1 75 1  against  the  French  and  at  the 
battle  of  Panipat,  where  the  Peshwa  was 
completely  defeated  by  the  Afghans  under 
Shuja,  1760-1  :  after  this  battle,  which 
vktually  overthrew  the  Mahratta  design 
to  conquer  the  whole  of  India,  Madhava 
became  ruler  of  Ujain,  in  succession  to  his 
father.  In  the  following  years,  he  was 
an  ally  of  the  Poona  Regent  Raghunath, 
or  Raghoba,  fighting  against  the  Jats  of 
Bhartpur  and  against  the  Rohillas,  annex- 
ing the  fort  of  Gwalior  and  generally  con- 
soHdating  his  power.  Intrigues  at  the  Courts 
of  the  Peshwa  and  of  the  Emperor  of  Delhi 

1 84 


against  the  British  ended  in  the  treaty  of 
Salbai  between  the  Peshwa  and  the  British 
in  1782,  and  led  Warren  Hastings  to 
appreciate  his  talents  so  greatly  that  he  left 
him  virtually  a  free  hand  in  the  administra- 
tion of  Central  India  and  Hindustan.  He 
now  came  tobe  recognized  as  anindependent 
Prince,  though  nominally  the  vassal  of  the 
Peshwa  and  the  Delhi  Emperor  :  with  the 
aid  of  De  Boigne,  who  entered  his  service 
about  this  time,  he  soon  made  himself 
feared  by  his  neighbours,  but  in  his 
attempt  to  attack  the  Raja  of  Jaipur  was 
repulsed  by  a  conspiracy  of  Rajput  chiefs 
and  Ismail  Beg,  who  defeated  him.  In 
the  revolt  of  Ghulam  Kadir  against  the 
Emperor  of  Delhi,  in  1788,  Sindia  took  no 
part,  but,  after  Delhi  was  retaken,  he 
espoused  the  cause  of  the  blind  Emperor. 
One  of  his  first  acts  was  to  re-engage  De 
Boigne  as  Commander  of  his  forces.  He 
defeated  Ismail  Beg  and  the  Rajputs  in 
i790»  and  entered  the  town  of  Ajmir.  In 
1 79 1  he  formed  the  famous  alliance  with 
Lord  Cornwallis  against  Tippoo,  which 
ended  in  the  latter's  defeatat  Seringapatam. 
In  1794  he  proceeded  to  Poona  to  invest 
the  young  Peshwa  with  the  Vice-regency 
of  the  Empire,  and  received  from  him  the 
title  of  Deputy  Vice-Regent.  In  his 
absence,  his  territories  were  attacked  by 
Ismail  Beg  and  Holkar,  who  were  both 
defeated  by  De  Boigne.  Madhava  Rao 
died  suddenly  at  Poona  on  Feb.  12,  1794, 
and  it  is  not  improbable  that  he  was  the 
victim  of  foul  play  on  the  part  of  Nana 
Farnavis,  who  was  jealous  of  his  influence. 
He  early  recognized  the  military  power 
of  the  British,  and  did  not  oppose  them 
for  long.  In  his  schemes  of  self-aggrandize- 
ment, he  worked  as  the  subordinate  of 
the  Peshwa  and  the  Delhi  Emperor. 


(1876-         ) 

Born  Oct.  20,  1876  :  succeded  to  the 
Raj,  July  3,  1886  :  Hon.  Colonel  British 
Army,  1898  :  went  to  China  as  Orderly 
Officer  to  General  Sir  A.  Gaselee,  1901,  and 
provided  the  expedition  with  a  hospital 
ship  at  his  own  expense  :  G.C.S.I.,  1895  : 
went  to  England  for  the  Coronation  of 
H.M.  King  Edward  VII  in  1902  :  Hon. 
LL.D.,  Cambridge :  Hon.  and  Extra 
A.D.C.   to   the   King. 


(1849-  ) 

Born  Jan.  30,  1849  :  son  of  F.  Gwatkin  : 
educated  at  Rugby  and  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge :  M.A.  :  entered  the  Array, 
1872,  and  Indian  Staff  Corps,  1875  :  served 
in  Afghanistan,  Egypt,  Soudan,  Lushai 
Hills,  Chin-Lushai  Hills,  Manipur,  Chitral 
and  Tirah  :  Brevet -Major  and  Brevet- 
Lt-Colonel:  D.A.A.G.,  Assam:  Military 
Secretary  to  C.  in  C.  in  India  :  A.A.G., 
Peshawar  District :  Colonel  on  the  Staff, 
commanding  Sialkot  :    C.B.,  1902. 

HADLEY,  GEORGE  (  ?  -1798) 

Joined  the  E.I.  Co.'s  Bengal  Army, 
1763  :  retired,  1771  :  wrote  and  published 
grammatical  treatises  on  Hindustani  in 
1772  and  1796,  and  Persian,  1776,  with 
vocabularies  :    died  Sep.  10,   1798. 


(1851-  ) 

Son  of  Patrick  Douglas  Hadow  : 
educated  at  Cheltenham  :  entered  the 
Army,  1870,  and  the  Bengal  Staff  Corps, 
1876 :  became  Brevet-Colonel,  1892  : 
served  during  the  Afghan  war,  1878-80  : 
present  at  Ahmad  Kheyl  and  Urzoo  :  in  the 
march  from  Kabul  to  Kandahar,  and 
battle  of  Kandahar  :  Soudan  expedition, 
1885,  present  at  Tofrek  andTamai :  second 
Miranzai  expedition,  1891  :  Chitral  relief, 
1895:  D.S.O.  :  Tirah  expedition,  1897: 
present  at  Dargai :  severely  wounded  at 
Khangarbur :  commanded  15th  Sikhs  : 

WOLFF    (1860-         ) 

Born  March  15,  i860 :  son  of  Aaron 
Haffkine,  Odessa  :  educated  at  Berdiansk 
College  (S.  Russia)  and  Odessa  University  : 
engaged  in  research  work  at  Zoological 
Museum,  Odessa,  1883-8  :  Assistant  Pro- 
fessor of  Physiology,  Geneva,  1888-9  : 
assistant  to  Pasteur  in  Paris,  1889-93  '• 
on  bacteriological  duty  in  India  since 
1893  :  Director-in-Chief,  Government 
Plague  Research  Laboratory,  Bombay : 
CLE.  :  author  of  works  of  general  Micro- 
biology, Cholera,  Plague,  etc. 

HAFIZ  RAHMAT  KHAN  (1710F-1774) 

A  famous  Rohilla  chief :  born  about 
1710  in  Afghanistan  :  uncle  of  Ali  Muham- 



mad,  chief  of  the  Rohillas,  who  had  settled 
on  the  N.W.  frontier  of  Oudh  :  joined  his 
people  in  1739  and  received  large  grants 
of  land  from  his  nephew  :  on  the  death  of 
Ali  Muhammad,  he  was  made  "  Hafiz  "  or 
"  guardian  "  of  his  sons  :  but  betrayed 
the  trust  and  made  himself  virtual  ruler 
of  the  country  :  entered  into  alliance  with 
the  Nawab  of  Oudh,  Shuja-ud-daula, 
against  the  Mahrattas,  engaging  to  pay  him 
40  lakhs  in  return  for  his  aid.  Sir  Robert 
Barker,  the  English  general,  attested  the 
treaty.  The  Mahrattas  were  driven  out, 
but  Rahmat  Khan  failed  to  fulfil  his  part 
of  the  engagement.  The  destruction 
of  the  Rohillas  was  the  result :  they  were 
defeated  at  Miranpiir  Katra  by  the  united 
forces  of  the  Nawab  and  the  English  : 
Hafiz  Rahmat  Khan  was  killed  in  the 
battle  (1774)  :  a  man  of  education,  and  of 
literary  attainments  :  a  strong  ruler,  and 
on  the  whole  a  beneficent  one,  both  to- 
wards the  Rohillas  and  as  regards  his 
Hindu  subjects. 


(1819-  ) 

Field  Marshal :  son  of  Gregory  Haines, 
C.B.  :  entered  the  Army,  1839  :  Military 
Secretary  to  Sir  Hugh  Gough,  C.  in  C, 
India,  1845-9  :  served  in  the  Satlaj 
campaign,  1845-6 :  present  at  Mudki 
and  Firozshahr  :  in  the  Panjab  campaign 
of  1848-9,  at  Ramnagar,  the  Chenab, 
Chilianwala,  Gujarat  :  Crimea,  1854-5  : 
C.  in  C.  Madras,  1 871-5  :  C.  in  C.  India, 
1876-81,  during  the  Afghan  war,  1879- 
80 :  thanked  by  Parliament  :  K.C.B., 
1871  :  General  and  G.C.B.,  1877  :  G.C.S.I. 

THORPE  (1862-  ) 
Born  Nov.  17,  1862  :  son  of  D.  Rutherford 
Haldane,  M.D.  :  educated  at  Wimbledon 
school,  Edinburgh  Academy,  and  at  the 
Staff  College  :  joined  the  Gordon  High- 
landers, 1882  :  served  in  Waziristan 
expedition,  1894-5  :  Chitral,  1895  :  Tirah 
expedition,  1897-8  :  A.D.C.  to  Sir  W. 
Lockhart :  present  at  Dargai :  D.S.O.  : 
South  Africa,  1899-1900  :  taken  prisoner 
and  escaped  from  Pretoria :  author  of 
How  we  Escaped  from  Pretoria. 


I.C.S.  :     born    May    25,    1751 '  son    of 
.William  Halhed,  Director  of  the  Bank  of 

England  :  educated  at  Harrow,  and  Christ 
Church,  Oxford :  went  to  Bengal  in 
the  E.I.  Co.'s  service  :  published  A 
Code  of  Gentoo  Laws  on  Ordinations  of 
the  Pandits,  from  a  Persian  Translation, 
1776  :  and  in  1778  a  Bengali  grammar, 
printed  at  Hughli,  at  the  first  printing- 
press  in  India  :  in  its  preface,  he  drew 
attention  to  the  similarity  between  San- 
skrit and  European  languages  :  returned 
to  England,  1785  :  M.P.  for  Lymington, 
1790-5  :  took  the  part  of  the  lunatic 
prophet  Richard  Brothers,  an  act  which 
was  fatal  to  his  career  :  in  1809  he  was 
appointed  to  a  post  in  the  East  India 
House  :  he  imitated  Martial's  epigrams 
and  translated  Aristaenetus :  he  wrote 
A  Narrative  of  the  Events  in  Bombay  and 
Bengal  relative  to  the  Mahratta  Empire, 
1779  ■  his  Oriental  MSS.  were  purchased 
by  the  British  Museum :  died  Feb.  18, 

VISCOUNT  (1800-1885) 

Born  Dec.  20,  1800  :  son  of  Sir  Francis 
Lindley  Wood,  second  Baronet  :  educated 
at  Eton  and  Oriel  College,  Oxford  :  double 
first,  1821  :  was  M.P.  for  Grimsby  and 
Wareham,  and  for  Halifax,  1832-65 
joint  Secretary  to  the  Treasury,  1832 
Secretary  to  the  Admiralty,  1835-9 
Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  1846-52 
P.C.  :  and  succeeded  to  the  Baronetcy 
in  1846  :  was  President  of  the  Board  of 
Control,  Dec.  1852,  to  Feb.  1855,  and 
passed  the  India  Charter  Act  of  1853  : 
First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1855-8  : 
G.C.B.,  1856  :  Secretary  of  State  for  India, 
1859-66 :  dturing  this  time  he  passed 
several  important  measures  for  the 
reorganization  of  the  Indian